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Rhinitis nasal congestion [keywords]
- Nonallergic rhinitis: therapeutic options. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 Jun 10.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss methods for classifying Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), the current understanding of its immunopathogenesis, scientific evidence-based treatment options along with anecdotal clinical experience for selecting different treatment regimens for these challenging patients.
RECENT FINDINGS:NAR also known as idiopathic rhinitis, irritant-induced rhinitis and vasomotor rhinitis is a heterogeneous condition that has been classified many different ways, but currently there is no consensus on definition for this condition due to its poorly elucidated mechanism(s) of action. A typical patient presents with nasal congestion, postnasal drainage with or without a cough associated with, to a lesser extent, some degree of sneezing, itching, and rhinorrhea. Recent studies have proposed more specific approaches for characterizing rhinitis subtypes. It is speculated that this condition is due to an autonomic imbalance resulting in an overactive parasympathetic and perhaps an underactive sympathetic nervous system. Our poor understanding of NAR mechanism(s) of action has significantly hindered progress in developing novel therapies for this condition.
SUMMARY:Further investigation is required to understand the neurogenic signaling pathways that lead to this aberrant response. Until we have selective therapies for NAR, treatment requires selecting the medication or combination of medications best suited to the symptomatic needs of the patient.
- Optical rhinometry in nonallergic irritant rhinitis: a capsaicin challenge study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013 Jun 3.
BACKGROUND:Patients with nonallergic irritant rhinitis (NAIR) have symptoms of nasal congestion, nasal irritation, rhinorrhea, and sneezing in response to nasal irritants. We currently have no reliable objective means to quantify these patients' subjective symptoms. In this study, we used the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) receptor agonist, capsaicin, as an intranasal challenge while comparing the changes in blood flow with optical rhinometry between subjects with NAIR and healthy controls (HCs).
METHODS:Six HCs and 6 NAIR subjects were challenged intranasally with saline solution followed by increasing concentrations of capsaicin (0.005 mM, 0.05 mM, and 0.5 mM) at 15-minute intervals. We recorded maximum optical density (OD) and numeric analog scores (NAS) for nasal congestion, nasal irritation, rhinorrhea, and sneezing for each subject after each challenge. Correlations between NAS and maximum OD were calculated.
RESULTS:Maximum OD increased with increasing concentrations of intranasal capsaicin in NAIR subjects. There were significant differences in maximum OD obtained for 0.05 mM and 0.5 mM capsaicin between NAIR subjects and HCs. Significant differences were found in the NAS for nasal irritation at 0.005 mM, 0.05 mM, and 0.5 mM, and nasal congestion at 0.5 mM. Correlation between maximum OD and mean NAS was most significant for 0.05 mM capsaicin.
CONCLUSION:Optical rhinometry with intranasal capsaicin challenge could prove a viable option in the diagnosis of NAIR. Further studies will investigate its use to monitor a patient's response to pharmacologic therapy and provide further information about the underlying mechanisms of NAIR.
- Desloratadine-montelukast combination improves quality of life and decreases nasal obstruction in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2013 Jun 3.
BACKGROUND:The effects of desloratadine-montelukast combination on quality of life (QoL) and nasal airflow of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) has not been reported. The objective of this work was investigate the efficacy of desloratadine-montelukast combination on nasal obstruction and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with PAR.
METHODS:The patients with PAR (n = 40) were assessed using acoustic rhinometry (AcR) and Rhinoconjunctivitis QoL Questionnaire (RQLQ) before therapy. Desloratadine-montelukast fixed-dose combination treatment was applied to every patient once daily. The AcR and RQLQ score were reevaluated at the first and third months; and statistical comparison of pretreatment and posttreatment results was performed.
RESULTS:Nasal symptoms and signs such as itching, sneezing, discharge, congestion, and edema, and color change of turbinates have been decreased after treatment. In AcR, minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) measurements and volume results were increased after the treatment. Correlation was found between the volume results and nasal discharge and/or congestion in right nasal passages. In left nasal passages, statistical relation was observed between the MCA and itching and/or change of turbinate color (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in the overall RQLQ score was determined at the first and third months of therapy. The difference between scores at baseline and end of the first and third months for all domains was statically significant (p < 0.001). The treatment difference in change from the first month to the end of the third month was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:Desloratadine-montelukast combination therapy causes subjective and objective decrease in nasal obstruction, reduces the other symptoms of PAR and improves the disease-specific QoL.
- Chapter 14: Nonallergic rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013 May.:48-51.
Rhinitis is characterized by one or more of the following nasal symptoms: congestion, rhinorrhea (anterior and posterior), sneezing, and itching. It is classified as allergic or nonallergic, the latter being a diverse syndrome that is characterized by symptoms of rhinitis that are not the result of IgE-mediated events. Excluding infectious rhinitis and underlying systemic diseases, clinical entities that can be classified among the disorders that make up the nonallergic rhinitis syndromes include gustatory rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES), atrophic, drug-induced (rhinitis medicamentosa), hormone induced, senile rhinitis (of the elderly), rhinitis associated with chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps, and the idiopathic variant formerly known as vasomotor rhinitis but more accurately denoted as nonallergic rhinopathy (NAR). The prevalence of nonallergic rhinitis has been observed to be one-third that of allergic rhinitis, affecting ∼7% of the U.S. population or ∼22 million people. NAR is the most common of the nonallergic rhinitis subtypes, comprising at least two-thirds of all nonallergic rhinitis sufferers. Although certain precipitants such as perfume, strong odors, changes in temperature or humidity, and exposure to tobacco smoke are frequently identified as symptom triggers, NAR may occur in the absence of defined triggers. The diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis is purely clinical and relies on a detailed history and physical exam. Skin testing or in vitro testing to seasonal and perennial aeroallergens is required to make the diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis. Because of the heterogeneous nature of this group of disorders, treatment should be individualized to the patient's underlying pathophysiology and/or symptoms and is often empiric.
- An integrated analysis of the efficacy of fluticasone furoate nasal spray versus placebo on the nasal symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2013 May; 34(3):283-91.
Intranasal corticosteroids are widely prescribed for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the beneficial effects of once-daily (q.d.) fluticasone furoate nasal spray (FFNS) effectively improved individual nasal symptoms of PAR. An integrated analysis was performed on data from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FFNS at 110 micrograms, q.d. in subjects with PAR. The analysis included 460 subjects who received FFNS and 459 who received placebo for 4 weeks. All subjects evaluated the severity of individual nasal symptoms of nasal congestion, nasal itching, rhinorrhea, and sneezing on a four-point categorical scale. The main efficacy measures included change from baseline in daily reflective total nasal symptom score (rTNSS), reflective daily scores for each individual symptom, and predose instantaneous TNSS (iTNSS). Over 4 weeks of treatment, FFNS significantly improved rTNSS, iTNSS, and the reflective scores for each individual symptom compared with placebo. The least squares (LS) mean treatment difference over weeks 1-4 between FFNS and placebo for rTNSS was -0.93, ranging from -0.20 to -0.28 for the individual nasal symptoms (p < 0.001 for all versus placebo). For the iTNSS, the LS mean treatment difference between FFNS and placebo over weeks 1-4 was -0.95 (95% CI,-1.24, -0.66; p < 0.001). FFNS at 110 micrograms q.d. effectively relieved all nasal symptoms of PAR including nasal congestion over a 24-hour period.
- Randomized controlled trial of desloratadine for persistent allergic rhinitis: Correlations between symptom improvement and quality of life. [Journal Article]
- Allergy Asthma Proc 2013 May; 34(3):274-82.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms can impart emotional, quality of life (QOL), and work productivity burdens, especially in persistent AR (PER). Desloratadine, an H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to be effective against nasal and nonnasal AR symptoms and to improve QOL. Exploratory analyses were conducted to evaluate whether desloratadine-mediated symptom improvement correlated with improvements in QOL and productivity. The Aerius Control: Clinical and Evaluative Profile of Treatment 2 (NCT00405964) study was a 12-week, multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective study of once-daily desloratadine at 5 mg in subjects with moderate-to-severe PER. Assessments included twice-daily symptom severity ratings (0 = none to 3 = severe; total and individual symptoms), sleep interference (morning [A.M.]), interference with activities of daily living (ADL; evening [P.M.]), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire-Standardized version (baseline and days 29 and 85), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Allergy-Specific questionnaire (baseline and weekly). Pearson product-moment correlation statistics (r) were determined to assess correlations between symptom score improvements and QOL factors. All desloratadine-treated patients (n = 360) were included in this exploratory analysis. In the desloratadine-treated patients, all correlations tested were positive (all p < 0.0001). The highest coefficients were seen for the correlations between A.M./P.M. PRIOR total five-symptom score and interference with ADL (r = 0.72) and between A.M. NOW congestion and ADL interference (r = 0.69). Continuous daily treatment of moderate-to-severe PER with desloratadine at 5 mg/day significantly improved symptoms, which correlated positively, albeit moderately, with QOL benefits and reversal of functional impairments caused by PER.
- Therapeutic potential of curcumin in experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in guinea pigs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Immunopharmacol 2013 May 9; 17(1):18-25.
In the present experiments, the possible role of curcumin in ovalbumin induced allergic rhinitis in guinea pig model was investigated. Various allergic rhinitis symptoms viz sneezing, rubbing frequencies, lacrimation and nasal congestion at various humidity conditions as well as on repeated sensitization were studied. The biochemical changes like serum IgE, IL-4 and nitric oxide (NO) in nasal lavage and eosinophil peroxidase activity in nasal homogenates were determined in allergic rhinitis. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced the symptoms (sneezing, rubbing frequencies, lacrimation and nasal congestion) and improved the histopathological alterations (reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration) of nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment prevented significantly elevation of serum IgE, IL-4, NO in nasal lavage and eosinophil peroxidase in nasal homogenate. In the present experimental findings, we suggest that curcumin is a promising anti-allergic agent that may be useful in the clinical management of allergic rhinitis.
- Relieving nasal congestion in children with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis: efficacy and safety studies of mometasone furoate nasal spray. [Journal Article]
- World Allergy Organ J 2013; 6(1):5.
In surveys of children with allergic rhinitis (AR), nasal congestion has been identified as the most frequently experienced and bothersome symptom. This analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) on congestion in children with AR.Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies randomly assigned children to MFNS 100 μg or placebo, 1 spray/nostril QD for 4 weeks (Study 1: ages 6-11 years with seasonal AR [SAR] ≥1 year; Study 2: ages 3-11 years with perennial AR [PAR] ≥1 year). Least square (LS) means were obtained from an ANCOVA model with treatment and study center effects, with baseline score as a covariate. We conducted post hoc evaluation of changes from baseline in AM/PM PRIOR (average of reflective AM and PM scores) nasal congestion (0=none to 3=severe).Study 1: MFNS (n=134) reduced congestion significantly more than placebo (n=135) on day 2 (P=.004) and on 23/29 days (P≤.037). Change from baseline was -0.53 and -0.28 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1-15 and -0.64 and -0.38 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1-29. Study 2: MFNS (n=185) reduced congestion significantly more than placebo (n=189) on day 3 (P=.015) and on 22/29 days (P≤.047). Change from baseline was -0.56 and -0.36 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1-15 and -0.64 and -0.45 for MFNS and placebo (P<.001) over days 1-29. MFNS was well tolerated, with no unusual or unexpected adverse events.MFNS effectively relieved nasal congestion and was well tolerated in children with SAR or PAR.
- Mometasone furoate nasal spray plus oxymetazoline nasal spray: short-term efficacy and safety in seasonal allergic rhinitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013 Mar-Apr; 27(2):102-8.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and associated congestion adversely affect patients' lives. The intranasal corticosteroid mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS) is effective for AR symptoms including nasal congestion, and the intranasal decongestant oxymetazoline (OXY) is effective against nasal congestion, but the combination has not been fully studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of the combination of MFNS and OXY for the relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms.This phase 2 controlled clinical trial randomized adolescent and adult subjects (≥12 years; 2-year SAR) to MFNS q.d. (200 μg) + 3 sprays/nostril of OXY 0.05% (MFNS + OXY3); MFNS q.d. + 1 spray/nostril of OXY (MFNS + OXY1); MFNS q.d.; OXY b.i.d.; or placebo for 15 days, with 1-week follow-up. Coprimary end points were change from baseline in morning/evening (A.M./P.M.) instantaneous (NOW) total nasal symptom score (TNSS) over days 1-15 and AUC (AUC[0-4 hr]) change from baseline in day 1 congestion.In 705 subjects, both combinations reduced A.M./P.M. NOW TNSS over days 1-15 significantly more than OXY b.i.d. or placebo (p ≤ 0.002). Mean standardized AUC(0-4 hr) day 1 congestion change from baseline was significantly greater in combination and OXY b.i.d. groups (MFNS + OXY3, -0.92; MFNS + OXY1, -0.80; OXY b.i.d., -1.06) versus placebo (-0.57) and MFNS q.d. (-0.63). Combinations and MFNS q.d. were significantly effective for A.M./P.M. NOW TNSS over each weekly period; OXY b.i.d. was superior to placebo in week 1. Adverse events (AEs) were few and similar across treatments; one MFNS q.d. and one placebo subject experienced a serious AE, with neither considered treatment related.Combining MFNS with OXY relieves SAR symptoms, including congestion, with faster onset of action than MFNS q.d. and better sustained efficacy than OXY b.i.d.
- Platelet-activating factor nasal challenge induces nasal congestion and reduces nasal volume in both healthy volunteers and allergic rhinitis patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013 Mar-Apr; 27(2):e48-52.
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator produced by most inflammatory cells. Clinical and experimental findings suggest that PAF participates in allergic rhinitis (AR) pathogenesis. The aim was to assess the PAF ability to induce clinical response in nasal airway after local stimulation.Ten nonatopic healthy volunteers (HVs) and 10 AR patients out of pollen season were enrolled. PAF increasing concentrations (100, 200, and 400 nM) were instilled into both nasal cavities (0, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively). Nasal symptoms (congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching, and total 4 symptom score and nasal volume between the 2nd and 5th cm (Vol(2-5)) using acoustic rhinometry (AcR), were assessed at -30, 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minutes.PAF increased individual and total nasal symptom score in both HVs and seasonal AR (SAR) patients from 30 to 120 minutes (maximum score at 120', p < 0.05). Nasal obstruction was the most relevant and lasting nasal symptom. PAF also induced a significant reduction of Vol(2-5) at 90' (27%), 120' (38.7%), and 240' (36.4%). No differences in the response to PAF nasal challenge were observed between HVs and SAR subjects in either clinical symptoms or AcR.This is the first description of PAF effects on human nasal mucosa using a cumulative dose schedule and evaluated by both nasal symptoms and AcR. Nasal provocation with PAF showed long-lasting effects on nasal symptoms and nasal obstruction in HVs and in patients with SAR. Nasal challenge may be a useful tool to investigate the role of PAF in AR and the potential role of anti-PAF drugs.