Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Riolan's muscle [keywords]
- Botulinum toxin injection into Riolan's muscle: somatosensory 'trick'. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Eur Neurol 2007; 58(3):138-41.
We studied the effect of injecting botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) into the pars ciliaris--also known as Riolan's muscle--of patients with eyelid apraxia (ELA). Six patients with ELA were treated with injections of BTX-A into the region of Riolan's muscle at the medial and lateral portions of the upper and lower pretarsal orbicularis oculi. Clinical benefit was seen in all 6 patients, 2 of whom had previously been treated with conventional pretarsal injections of BTX-A and had not improved. BTX-A injections into Riolan's muscle are effective as treatment for ELA. The proposed mechanism is not that of muscle relaxation but rather modulation of the somatosensory cortex, similar to that of a 'sensory trick' in patients with dystonia.
- Riolan's muscle: action and indications for botulinum toxin injection. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Eye (Lond) 2000 Jun.:347-52.
To study the effect of injecting botulinum toxin into the region of Riolan's muscle in three conditions, namely the typical form of essential blepharospasm, the palpebral form of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.Six patients with the typical form of essential blepharospasm and 4 patients with the palpebral form of essential blepharospasm, all of whom had previously been treated with conventional bilateral periorbital injections, were treated with injections of the toxin into the region of Riolan's muscle at the medial and lateral extremities of the upper lids. Thirty patients with hemifacial spasm, all of whom had previously been treated with conventional periorbital injections, were treated with injections of the toxin into the region of Riolan's muscle at the medial and lateral extremities of the upper lid on the affected side.Five of 6 patients with typical essential blepharospasm preferred the Riolan's injections and one had no preference. All of the four patients with the palpebral form of essential blepharospasm preferred the Riolan's injections. They, previously, had hardly been able to open their eyes. Twenty-six of the patients with hemifacial spasm preferred the Riolan's injections; the other 4 decided to continue with periorbital injections. The amount of toxin used in this new method of treatment is considerably less than that used in conventional methods for these diseases.Riolan's injections of botulinum toxin are the preferred modality of treatment for all types of blepharospasm and cost considerably less.
- Senile ectropion and entropion: a comparative histopathological study. [Clinical Trial, Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Ann Ophthalmol 1976 Mar; 8(3):319-22.
A microscopic histopathological study was done on 500 full-eyelid-thickness surgical specimens: 25 with the diagnosis of senile ectropion and 25 with that of senile entropion. Five different staining techniques were used. There appears to be significantly more orbicularis and Riolan's muscle ischemia, atrophy, and collagen fragmentation with ectropion than with entropion. Entropion shows more septal and tarsal atrophy. In both conditions, the skin and conjunctiva show chronic inflammation and scarring as a constant feature. Statistical significance at the 1% level was present for all six characteristics studied. These histopathological changes, if not etiological, are at least concomitant features differentiating senile ectropion from entropion at the microscopic tissue level.