Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Rubeola measles [keywords]
- Rural School Employees' Status, Awareness, and Perceptions of Adult Vaccinations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sch Nurs 2013 May 23.
As key members of the school environment, it is important for school employees to be vaccinated. Employees are in direct contact with children in close quarters for long periods of time and such an environment can easily serve as an outbreak center for vaccine-preventable communicable diseases such as measles. Despite the fact that most school employees believe vaccines are safe and effective and many school employees report they are up-to-date with their vaccines, a closer examination reveals discrepancy between belief and behavior. This research study evaluates the vaccination status, awareness, and perceptions of school employees located in a large rural school district in Utah. As a vaccine advocate, the school nurse can be influential in providing adult vaccination education for school employees, thus increasing awareness of the importance of adult vaccines and knowing one's vaccination status. Additionally, school nurses might need to meet with school district policy makers to promote vaccine mandates for school employees and to assist in the creation of containment plans in the event of a measles outbreak at school.
- Measles outbreak in the Lazio region of Italy: surveillance and impact on Emergency Departments and hospitalizations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Ig 2013 Jul-Aug; 25(4):299-309.
Background:The World Health Organization's (WHO) Regional Office for Europe had committed to 2015 as the year to eliminate measles from the region but several outbreaks have been reported recently from several areas of the continent. Here we describe an outbreak that occurred in 2010-2011 in Lazio region, Central Italy, and its impact on some health care services (i.e., Emergency Departments (EDs) and hospital clinics).
Methods:We analyzed cases of measles reported to the infectious diseases surveillance system and accesses to EDs and hospitalizations for measles in the Lazio Region (central Italy, population of about 5,730,000 people).
Results:In 2010-2011, 2,956 cases were reported to the surveillance system (incidence rate: 18.4 and 33.3 per 100,000 in 2010 and 2011, respectively). The incidence rates varied greatly with the territory. The outbreak occurred mainly among children <1 year old and among adolescents, most unvaccinated and did not seem to be related to cases imported from Eastern Europe. Complications were reported in 37.4% of the cases. The epidemic was mainly related to an accumulation of adolescents susceptible to measles due to unsatisfactory vaccination coverage in the early nineties. The outbreak had a strong impact on the health system with 2,881 ED visits and 1,168 hospitalizations. Outbreak-associated costs were considerable.
Conclusions:An additional intervention should be considered aimed at improving routine immunization coverage in children and at planning catch-up vaccination of 6-18 year olds not previously vaccinated. Further, timely surveillance is needed and specific protocols should be implemented to limit secondary cases.
- Peptide Vaccines and Peptidomimetics of EGFR (HER-1) Ligand Binding Domain Inhibit Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Immunol 2013 May 22.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target for several cancers including lung, colorectal, and certain subtypes of breast cancer. Cetuximab targets ligand binding of EGFR, but major problems like high cost, short t1/2, toxicity, and emergence of resistance are associated with the drug. Immunization with EGFR B cell epitopes will train the immune system to produce specific Abs that can kill cancer cells. Also, therapy with stable, less-expensive, and nontoxic EGFR peptide mimics will block EGFR signaling and inhibit cancer growth. We designed three peptides based on the contact sites between EGF and EGFR. The B cell epitopes were synthesized alone and also linked with the measles virus T cell epitope to produce a chimeric peptide vaccine. The peptide vaccines were immunogenic in both mice and rabbits and Abs raised against the vaccine specifically bound EGFR-expressing cells and recombinant human EGFR protein. The peptide mimics and the anti-peptide Abs were able to inhibit EGFR signaling pathways. Immunization with the peptide vaccine or treatment with the B cell epitopes significantly reduced tumor growth in both transplantable breast and lung cancer models. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed significant reductions in microvascular density and actively dividing cells in the tumor sections after treatment in the FVB/n breast cancer model. The 418-435 B cell epitope was the best candidate both as a vaccine or peptide mimic because it caused significant inhibition in the two mouse models. Our results show that this novel EGFR B cell epitope has great potential to be used as a vaccine or treatment option for EGFR-expressing cancers.
- Measles in Democratic Republic of Congo: an outbreak description from Katanga, 2010--2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Infect Dis 2013 May 22; 13(1):232.
BACKGROUND:The Democratic Republic of Congo experiences regular measles outbreaks. From September 2010, the number of suspected measles cases increased, especially in Katanga province, where Medecins sans Frontieres supported the Ministry of Health in responding to the outbreak by providing free treatment, reinforcing surveillance and implementing non-selective mass vaccination campaigns. Here, we describe the measles outbreak in Katanga province in 2010--2011 and the results of vaccine coverage surveys conducted after the mass campaigns.
METHODS:The surveillance system was strengthened in 28 of the 67 health zones of the province and we conducted seven vaccination coverage surveys in 2011.
RESULTS:The overall cumulative attack rate was 0.71% and the case fatality ratio was 1.40%.The attack rate was higher in children under 4 and decreased with age. This pattern was consistent across districts and time. The number of cases aged 10 years and older barely increased during the outbreak.
CONCLUSIONS:Early investigation of the age distribution of cases is a key to understanding the epidemic, and should guide the vaccination of priority age groups.
- Long-term epidemiologic longitudinal study on the effect of vaccines on public inoculation. [Journal Article]
- Turk J Pediatr 2012 Jul-Aug; 54(4):376-81.
Public vaccination policies in Japan for several viruses have achieved favorable results. To accurately evaluate their overall effectiveness, we conducted a 45- year epidemiological survey of measles, varicella and mumps cases at our clinic. The number of patients with measles was found to be significantly decreased with the single-dose vaccination provided at public expense. However, we also witnessed an increasing trend of infection at a later age. The vaccination rates for varicella and mumps were relatively low because of their optional availability in Japan, and thus they cannot be considered to confer public protection. Although localized to a particular region, our results show that it is important to increase the immunization rate of vaccines for large-scale protection against viral infections through public programs.
- Intrahepatic application of suicide gene-armed measles virotherapeutics: a safety study in transgenic mice and rhesus macaques. [Journal Article]
- Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev 2013 Mar; 24(1):11-22.
Abstract Oncolytic viruses such as measles virus (MV) represent a new class of therapeutic agents that might help to overcome current limitations in cancer therapy. Although MV-based virotherapeutics already have entered clinical testing for various tumor entities, the preclinical safety of MV virotherapeutics so far has not been elucidated for particular regimens with high medical need, such as (1) direct injection into hepatic tumor sites, (2) employing high doses ibidem, and (3) concurrent usage of arming with cytotoxic genes required to further enhance oncolytic efficiency. Here, we assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of suicide gene-armed vector MV-SCD when administered intrahepatically in two animal models, IFNAR(tm)-CD46(Ge) (interferon-α receptor deficient and CD46 MV receptor knock-in) transgenic mice and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Clinically, singular direct intrahepatic applications of MV-SCD were found to be well tolerated. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the transient presence of viral RNA in various organs, whereas no shedding of infectious virus particles was observed at any time point. Histological analyses of organs did not exhibit adverse effects attributable to the test article. Blood parameters including liver enzymes revealed no deviations from normal. In both species an antiviral humoral immune response was mounted shortly after virus administration. Surprisingly, daily repeated systemic applications of MV-SCD under concomitant prodrug administration resulted in side effects in IFNAR(tm)-CD46(Ge) mice, but were less pronounced than in a 5-fluorouracil standard therapy control cohort. Taken together, these data indicate that "single shot" direct intrahepatic injections of MV-SCD in conjunction with systemic prodrug administration are safe and could be used in future virotherapeutic treatments of liver cancers.
- Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 quebec measles outbreak? [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64072.
Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination.We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i) concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii) generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge.We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person), 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person), 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person), and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person). Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios.The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through personal stories, rather than scientific data only, may also serve to strengthen messaging.
- Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Infect Dis 2013 May 21; 13(1):228.
BACKGROUND:Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger.
METHODS:Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test.
RESULTS:Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness.
CONCLUSIONS:This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines.
- Vaccination Perceptions and Barriers of School Employees: A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sch Nurs 2013 May 16.
Schools are where vaccine-preventable diseases can spread. Vaccination of school children has been studied; however, data are lacking on the vaccination status, perceptions, and barriers to vaccination for school employees. We surveyed school employees' vaccination perceptions, awareness of current vaccination status, and potential barriers to vaccinations. Adult vaccination knowledge is lacking in the school employee population. School employees were unaware of their vaccination status for diseases such as measles and pertussis. Most subjects believed vaccinations were safe and effective, although they believed vaccinations were more important for children than adults. Many believed vaccine mandates should exist for school employees. Knowledge gaps regarding adult vaccines can be positively influenced by school nurses. Gaps may be especially important to bridge regarding adults working in the school setting, an environment ideal for the spreading of communicable diseases.
- High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age: Sex-differential adverse reactions and morbidity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vaccine 2013 May 13.