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- Long-term seizure suppression and optogenetic analyses of synaptic connectivity in epileptic mice with hippocampal grafts of GABAergic interneurons. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Oct 1; 34(40):13492-504.
Studies in rodent epilepsy models suggest that GABAergic interneuron progenitor grafts can reduce hyperexcitability and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although integration of the transplanted cells has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for these disease-modifying effects, prior studies have not explicitly examined cell types and synaptic mechanisms for long-term seizure suppression. To address this gap, we transplanted medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells from embryonic day 13.5 VGAT-Venus or VGAT-ChR2-EYFP transgenic embryos into the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult mice 2 weeks after induction of TLE with pilocarpine. Beginning 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus, we conducted continuous video-electroencephalographic recording until 90-100 d. TLE mice with bilateral MGE cell grafts in the DG had significantly fewer and milder electrographic seizures, compared with TLE controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the transplants contained multiple neuropeptide or calcium-binding protein-expressing interneuron types and these cells established dense terminal arborizations onto the somas, apical dendrites, and axon initial segments of dentate granule cells (GCs). A majority of the synaptic terminals formed by the transplanted cells were apposed to large postsynaptic clusters of gephyrin, indicative of mature inhibitory synaptic complexes. Functionality of these new inhibitory synapses was demonstrated by optogenetically activating VGAT-ChR2-EYFP-expressing transplanted neurons, which generated robust hyperpolarizations in GCs. These findings suggest that fetal GABAergic interneuron grafts may suppress pharmacoresistant seizures by enhancing synaptic inhibition in DG neural circuits.
- Degeneration and Regeneration of GABAergic Interneurons in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice in Experimental Models of Epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- CNS Neurosci Ther 2014 Oct 1.
Mounting evidence showed that GABAergic interneurons play an important role in the generation of seizures by regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the hippocampus; however, there is a continuous debate regarding the alteration in the number of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons during epileptogenesis. Here, we investigated the degeneration and regeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus during epileptogenesis using glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice.Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced chronic kindling model and lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model were used in this study. We found a progressive loss of GABAergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus during post-SE epileptogenesis rather than PTZ kindling. Both types of epileptogenic insults significantly promoted the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus; however, compared to 80% neuronal differentiation ratio in the control group, there was a remarkable decrease in PTZ kindling and pilocarpine models, that is 58% and 29%, respectively. Double/triple immunofluorescence labeling revealed no newborn neurons colabeled with GFP in both intact and epileptic dentate gyrus. In addition, valproate (a first-line antiepileptic drug) treatment prevented the loss of GABAergic interneurons but still failed to induce the regeneration of GAD67-positive interneurons in the dentate gyrus during post-SE epileptogenesis.These results indicate that degeneration of GABAergic interneurons may depend on the type of epileptogenic insult and that no newborn GABAergic interneurons occur in the adult dentate gyrus during epileptogenesis.
- Angle-Closure Glaucoma on Long-Haul Flights. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA Ophthalmol 2014 Sep 25.
Unlike other modes of long-distance travel, long-haul flights delay urgent, specialist medical treatment until the destination is reached or the plane is diverted. Angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) occurring during those flights results in considerable morbidity and may cause permanent visual loss. It is preventable in patients with risk factors but may be an underrecognized and underreported phenomenon on long-haul flights.We report a case series of 3 patients with ACG that developed on long-haul flights. The patients presented to 2 ophthalmic institutions for treatment in the south of England between 2010 and 2012. All patients were female and hypermetropic, and all experienced considerable morbidity while awaiting medical treatment that was not available in flight.Individuals with risk factors should be advised on the symptoms of ACG and the appropriate course of action should those symptoms occur. Prophylactic therapy with pilocarpine, 2%, eyedrops may be useful for individuals with risk factors who are embarking on long-haul flights. Airline personnel should be aware of ACG and encouraged to consider the value of training cabin crews to provide appropriate first-aid measures.
- Hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression Is associated with hippocampal apoptosis during epileptogenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Res 2014 Sep 18.
Cell apoptosis can cause hippocampal neuronal loss after epileptic seizures. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α is an important factor mediating apoptosis after brain injuries, such as cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injures, but little research has been done on its role in the lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced epileptic model. Here, we used a rat model of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) to investigate HIF-1α expression and apoptosis in the hippocampus, and to explore their relationship during epileptogenesis. 120 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with lithium chloride - pilocarpine injections and divided into an experimental group (administered by MK-801) and a positive control group (administered by saline). Then the HIF-1α expression and hippocampal apoptosis were investigated by histological confirmation and western blotting at 24h, 3 d, 7 d and 14 d, respectively. The results showed that the administration of MK-801 significantly reduced (P<0.05) HIF-1α expression and hippocampal apoptosis during epileptogenesis in comparison with the positive control. Moreover, the expression of HIF-1α and hippocampal apoptosis presented significant time - dependent changes (P<0.01) within 2 weeks, and their positive correlation (P<0.05) analyzed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Meanwhile, the HIF-1α immunostained cells were distributed in accord with TUNEL immunostained cells and Caspase-3 immunopositive cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the HIF-1α expression is associated with hippocampal apoptosis, and suggest that HIF-1α is an important factor during epileptogenesis.
- Blockade of excitatory synaptogenesis with proximal dendrites of dentate granule cells following rapamycin treatment in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Neurol 2014 Sep 19.
Inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway with rapamycin blocks granule cell axon (mossy fiber) sprouting after epileptogenic injuries, including pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. However, it remains unclear whether axons from other types of neurons sprout into the inner molecular layer and synapse with granule cell dendrites despite rapamycin treatment. If so, other aberrant positive-feedback networks might develop. To test this possibility stereological electron microscopy was used to estimate numbers of excitatory synapses in the inner molecular layer per hippocampus in pilocarpine-treated control mice, in mice 5 d after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, and after status epilepticus and daily treatment beginning 24 h later with rapamycin or vehicle for 2 months. The optical fractionator method was used to estimate numbers of granule cells in Nissl-stained sections so that numbers of excitatory synapses in the inner molecular layer per granule cell could be calculated. Control mice had an average of 2280 asymmetric synapses in the inner molecular layer per granule cell, which was reduced to 63% of controls 5 d after status epilepticus, recovered to 93% of controls in vehicle-treated mice 2 months after status epilepticus, but remained at only 63% of controls in rapamycin-treated mice. These findings reveal that rapamycin prevented excitatory axons from synapsing with proximal dendrites of granule cells and raise questions about the recurrent excitation hypothesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- BDNF modifies hippocampal KCC2 and NKCC1 expression in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. [Journal Article]
- Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2014; 74(3):276-87.
Excitatory GABA actions, induced by altered expression of chloride transporters (KCC2/NKCC1), can contribute to seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we evaluated whether BDNF administration can affect KCC2/NKCC1 expression, ictogenesis and behavioral alterations in this paradigm. Status epilepticus was induced in male rats with pilocarpine, followed by a treatment of either a single high dose or multiple injections of BDNF during the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy. Chloride transporters expression, spontaneous recurrent seizures, and hyperexcitability post-seizural behaviors were evaluated after treatment. NKCC1 protein expression was markedly upregulated, whereas that of KCC2 was significantly downregulated in epileptic hippocampi compared to intact controls. Application of BDNF (both single high dose and multiple injections) increased KCC2 expression in epileptic hippocampi, while NKCC1 expression was downregulated exclusively by the single high dose injection of BDNF. Development of spontaneous recurrent seizures was delayed but not prevented by the treatment, and hyperexcitability behaviors were ameliorated for a short period of time. To prevent GABA-A mediated depolarization and design appropriate treatment strategies for temporal lobe epilepsy, chloride transporters can be considered as a target. Future studies are warranted to investigate any possible therapeutic effects of BDNF via altering chloride transporters expression.
- Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations. [Journal Article, Review]
- Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014.:1693-705.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.
- Effect of spontaneous seizures on GABAA receptor α4 subunit expression in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epilepsia 2014 Sep 15.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is frequently medically intractable and often progressive. Compromised inhibitory neurotransmission due to altered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor α4 subunit (GABAA Rα4) expression has been emphasized as a potential contributor to the initial development of epilepsy following a brain insult (primary epileptogenesis), but the regulation of GABAA Rα4 during chronic epilepsy, specifically, how expression is altered following spontaneous seizures, is less well understood.Continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from rats with pilocarpine-induced TLE were used to capture epileptic animals within 3 h of a spontaneous seizure (SS), or >24 h after the last SS, to determine whether recent occurrence of a seizure was associated with altered levels of GABAA Rα4 expression. We further evaluated whether this GABAA Rα4 plasticity is regulated by signaling mechanisms active in primary epileptogenesis, specifically, increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and early growth response factor 3 (Egr3).Elevated levels of GABAA Rα4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were observed following spontaneous seizures, and were associated with higher levels of BDNF and Egr3 mRNA.These data suggest that spontaneous, recurrent seizures that define chronic epilepsy may influence changes in GABAA Rα4 expression, and that signaling pathways known to regulate GABAA Rα4 expression after status epilepticus may also be activated after spontaneous seizures in chronically epileptic animals.
- Sucrose consumption test reveals pharmacoresistant depression-associated behavior in two mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2014 Sep 11.
Among the co-morbidities observed in epilepsy patients depression is the most frequent one. Likewise, depression by itself is accompanied by an increased risk to develop epilepsy. Both epilepsy and depression are characterized by a high incidence of pharmacoresistance, which might be based on overactivity of multidrug transporters like P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. Using genetically modified mice in preclinical epilepsy research is pivotal for investigating this bidirectional relationship. In the present study, we used the sucrose consumption test (SCT) in the pilocarpine and the intrahippocampal kainate mouse post-status epilepticus model to reveal anhedonic behavior, i.e. hyposensitivity to pleasure, as a key symptom of depression. Mice were repetitively investigated by SCT during early epilepsy and the chronic phase of the disease, during which response to antidepressant drug treatment was assessed. SCT revealed long-lasting anhedonia in both models. Anhedonia appeared to be pharmacoresistant, as neither chronic treatment with imipramine in the pilocarpine model nor chronic treatment with fluoxetine in the kainate model could annihilate the differences in sucrose consumption between control and epileptic mice. Moreover, knock-out of P-glycoprotein did not improve the treatment effect of fluoxetine. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that the SCT is suited for detection of depression-like behavior in mouse models of temporal-lobe epilepsy. Both models might serve as tools to further investigate the neurobiology and pharmacology of epilepsy-associated pharmacoresistant depression.
- Upregulation and Diverse Roles of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in Synaptic Reorganization of the Mossy Fiber Pathway in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Neurobiol 2014 Sep 12.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of intractable epilepsy and is always accompanied with hippocampal sclerosis. The molecular mechanism of this pathological phenomenon has been extensively explored, yet remains unclear. Previous studies suggest that ion channels, especially calcium channels, might play important roles. Transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) is a novel cation channel dominantly permeable to Ca(2+) and widely expressed in the human brain. We measured the expression of two subtypes of TRPC channels, TRPC3 and TRPC6, in temporal lobe epileptic foci excised from patients with intractable epilepsy and in hippocampus of mice with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), an animal model of TLE. Cortical TRPC3 and TRPC6 protein expressions were significantly higher in TLE patients compared with those in controls. Expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 protein also increased significantly in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of SE mice. Inhibition of TRPC3 by intracerebroventricular injection of anti-TRPC3 antibody prevented aberrant-sprouted mossy fiber collaterals in the CA3 region, while inhibition of TRPC6 by anti-TRPC6 antibody reduced dendritic arborization and spine density of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Our results indicate that TRPC3 and TRPC6 participate diversely in synaptic reorganization in the mossy fiber pathway in TLE.