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- Role of adenosine in the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation. [Journal Article]
- Front Cell Neurosci 2014.:312.
Despite the effectiveness of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of epilepsy, mechanisms responsible for the antiepileptic effects of this therapy remain elusive. As adenosine modulates neuronal excitability and seizure activity in animal models, we hypothesized that this nucleoside could be one of the substrates involved in the effects of AN DBS. We applied 5 days of stimulation to rats rendered chronically epileptic by pilocarpine injections and recorded epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. We found that slices from animals given DBS had reduced hippocampal excitability and were less susceptible to develop ictal activity. In live animals, AN DBS significantly increased adenosine levels in the hippocampus as measured by microdialysis. The reduced excitability of DBS in vitro was completely abolished in animals pre-treated with A1 receptor antagonists and was strongly potentiated by A1 receptor agonists. We conclude that some of the antiepileptic effects of DBS may be mediated by adenosine.
- Systematic literature review: xerostomia in advanced cancer patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Support Care Cancer 2014 Oct 18.
Dry mouth (xerostomia) is one of the commonest symptoms in cancer patients and can adversely affect quality of life. The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in treating xerostomia in adult advanced cancer patients.The literature search was performed in February 2014 using databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BNI and Cochrane library. The search was carried out using standard MeSH terms and was limited to adult population and English language. Studies investigating xerostomia secondary to head and neck cancer treatment and autoimmune disease were excluded. Titles and abstracts were screened and reviewed for eligibility. Only studies involving primary research were included in the analysis.Six studies met the eligibility criteria for review: three randomized controlled trials and three prospective studies. The quality assessment and reporting was performed using PRISMA, Jadad and STROBE. These studies compared acupuncture, pilocarpine, Saliva Orthana and chewing gum with each other or with placebo. All interventions were considered effective in treating xerostomia. However, effectiveness versus placebo could not be demonstrated for Saliva Orthana. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the study type and intervention.Limited published data exists reporting the effectiveness of measures in the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Based on primary research of low quality, firm conclusions cannot be drawn. However, pilocarpine, artificial saliva, chewing gum and acupuncture can be tried based on the available data. This highlights the explicit need to improve our evidence base. Properly constructed randomized controlled trials demonstrating effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for dry mouth are required.
- Upregulated dynamin 1 in an acute seizure model and in epileptic patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Synapse 2014 Oct 16.
Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that is an essential component of membrane fission during synaptic vesicle recycling and endocytosis. This study evaluated the dynamin 1 expression pattern in the acute lithium-pilocarpine rat model and in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated whether altering the dynamin 1 expression pattern affects epileptic seizures in vivo and in vitro. The immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR results show that the dynamin 1 expression level increased significantly in experimental rats from day 1 to day 7 after the onset of seizures and was significantly higher in TLE patients. The behavioral study revealed that inhibiting dynamin 1 increased the latency time of the first seizure and decreased the frequency and severity of the seizures. In addition, electrophysiological recordings from brain slices showed that inhibiting dynamin 1 reduces the frequency of Mg-free induced seizure-like activity. The anticonvulsant effect of dynasore was more effective at 10 µM than at 1 µM or 160 µM. These results indicate that the altered level of dynamin 1 may contribute to the development of epileptic seizures and that the targeted regulation of dynamin 1 activity may control epileptic seizures. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. [Journal Article]
- Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2014 Sep; 69(9):621-6.
Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) on the expression of inflammatory molecules.The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1β and TNFα were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin.These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus.
- Conjunctival matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in glaucoma patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Ophthalmol 2014 Oct 13.
Chronic conjunctival inflammation, caused by various reasons, for example long-term use of topical drugs and/or their preservatives, affects the outcome of glaucoma surgery by interfering with wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) remodel extracellular matrix (ECM) and are involved in the wound healing process. This study was designed to evaluate the conjunctival expression of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in the normal eye, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and exfoliation glaucoma (ExG) and whether there is an association between staining intensities and deep sclerectomy outcome.Immunohistochemical procedures were performed on conjunctival samples which were obtained from POAG (n = 11) and ExG (n = 14) patients as well as normal (n = 7) subjects. Antibodies against MMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9) and TIMPs (TIMP-1, -2 and -3) were used.In conjunctival stroma, expression levels of MMP-2 (p = 0.047), MMP-3 (p = 0.009), MMP-9 (p < 0.001), TIMP-1 (p = 0.003), TIMP-2 (p < 0.001) and TIMP-3 (p < 0.001) in ExG and MMP-9 (p = 0.008), TIMP-2 (p = 0.02) and TIMP-3 (p = 0.002) in POAG were significantly increased compared to control. We further found correlations between expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 and the length of pilocarpine treatment.The expression of MMPs and TIMPs is increased in the conjunctiva of POAG and ExG patients having a long history of topical antiglaucoma drops. Antiglaucoma agents and/or their preservatives alter the remodelling balance of ECM in conjunctiva of POAG and ExG eyes. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs may play a crucial role in the conjunctival wound healing process and the outcome of glaucoma surgery.
- Long-term decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with nitration of its alpha subunit. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epilepsy Res 2014 Sep 28.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy with about one third of TLE patients being refractory to antiepileptic drugs. Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying seizure activity is fundamental to the discovery of new drug targets. Brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity contributes to the maintenance of the electrochemical gradients underlying neuronal resting and action potentials as well as the uptake and release of neurotransmitters. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with changes in the alpha subunit phosphorylation and/or redox state. Activity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase decreased in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice 60 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). In addition, the Michaelis-Menten constant for ATP of α2/3 isoforms increased at the same time point. Nitration of the α subunit may underlie decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, however no changes in expression or phosphorylation state at Ser(943) were found. Further studies are necessary define the potential of nitrated Na(+),K(+)-ATPase as a new therapeutic target for seizure disorders.
- Early Life Status Epilepticus and Stress Have Distinct and Sex-Specific Effects on Learning, Subsequent Seizure Outcomes, Including Anticonvulsant Response to Phenobarbital. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- CNS Neurosci Ther 2014 Oct 14.
Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event.3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury.3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event.Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events.
- Reciprocal regulation of epileptiform neuronal oscillations and electrical synapses in the rat hippocampus. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109149.
Gap junction (GJ) channels have been recognized as an important mechanism for synchronizing neuronal networks. Herein, we investigated the participation of GJ channels in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) by analyzing electrophysiological activity following the blockade of connexins (Cx)-mediated communication. In addition, we examined the regulation of gene expression, protein levels, phosphorylation profile and distribution of neuronal Cx36, Cx45 and glial Cx43 in the rat hippocampus during the acute and latent periods. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the GJ blockade anticipates the occurrence of low voltage oscillations and promotes a marked reduction of power in all analyzed frequencies.Cx36 gene expression and protein levels remained stable in acute and latent periods, whereas upregulation of Cx45 gene expression and protein redistribution were detected in the latent period. We also observed upregulation of Cx43 mRNA levels followed by changes in the phosphorylation profile and protein accumulation. Taken together, our results indisputably revealed that GJ communication participates in the epileptiform activity induced by pilocarpine. Moreover, considering that specific Cxs undergo alterations through acute and latent periods, this study indicates that the control of GJ communication may represent a focus in reliable anti-epileptogenic strategies.
- p75NTR, but Not proNGF, Is Upregulated Following Status Epilepticus in Mice. [Journal Article]
- ASN Neuro 2014; 6(5)
ProNGF and p75(NTR) are upregulated and induce cell death following status epilepticus (SE) in rats. However, less is known about the proneurotrophin response to SE in mice, a more genetically tractable species where mechanisms can be more readily dissected. We evaluated the temporal- and cell-specific induction of the proneurotrophins and their receptors, including p75(NTR), sortilin, and sorCS2, following mild SE induced with kainic acid (KA) or severe SE induced by pilocarpine. We found that mature NGF, p75(NTR), and proBDNF were upregulated following SE, while proNGF was not altered, indicating potential mechanistic differences between rats and mice. ProBDNF was localized to mossy fibers and microglia following SE. p75(NTR) was transiently induced primarily in axons and axon terminals following SE, as well as in neuron and astrocyte cell bodies. ProBDNF and p75(NTR) increased independently of cell death and their localization was different depending on the severity of SE. We also examined the expression of proneurotrophin co-receptors, sortilin and sorCS2. Following severe SE, sorCS2, but not sortilin, was elevated in neurons and astrocytes. These data indicate that important differences exist between rat and mouse in the proneurotrophin response following SE. Moreover, the proBDNF and p75(NTR) increase after seizures in the absence of significant cell death suggests that proneurotrophin signaling may play other roles following SE.
- Decreased fast ripples in the hippocampus of rats with spontaneous recurrent seizures treated with carbenoxolone and quinine. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:282490.