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- Long-Term Activation upon Brief Exposure to Xanomleline Is Unique to M1 and M4 Subtypes of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e88910.
Xanomeline is an agonist endowed with functional preference for M1/M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It also exhibits both reversible and wash-resistant binding to and activation of these receptors. So far the mechanisms of xanomeline selectivity remain unknown. To address this question we employed microfluorometric measurements of intracellular calcium levels and radioligand binding to investigate differences in the short- and long-term effects of xanomeline among muscarinic receptors expressed individually in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 1/One-min exposure of cells to xanomeline markedly increased intracellular calcium at hM1 and hM4, and to a lesser extent at hM2 and hM3 muscarinic receptors for more than 1 hour. 2/Unlike the classic agonists carbachol, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine 10-min exposure to xanomeline did not cause internalization of any receptor subtype. 3/Wash-resistant xanomeline selectively prevented further increase in intracellular calcium by carbachol at hM1 and hM4 receptors. 4/After transient activation xanomeline behaved as a long-term antagonist at hM5 receptors. 5/The antagonist N-methylscopolamine (NMS) reversibly blocked activation of hM1 through hM4 receptors by xanomeline. 6/NMS prevented formation of xanomeline wash-resistant binding and activation at hM2 and hM4 receptors and slowed them at hM1, hM3 and hM5 receptors. Our results show commonalities of xanomeline reversible and wash-resistant binding and short-time activation among the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. However long-term receptor activation takes place in full only at hM1 and hM4 receptors. Moreover xanomeline displays higher efficacy at hM1 and hM4 receptors in primary phasic intracellular calcium release. These findings suggest the existence of particular activation mechanisms specific to these two receptors.
- Spike-wave discharges in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and their implications for animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- Epilepsy Behav 2014 Mar.:121-31.
Spike-wave discharges (SWDs) are thalamocortical oscillations that are often considered to be the EEG correlate of absence seizures. Genetic absence epilepsy rats of Strasbourg (GAERS) and Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) exhibit SWDs and are considered to be genetic animal models of absence epilepsy. However, it has been reported that other rat strains have SWDs, suggesting that SWDs may vary in their prevalence, but all rats have a predisposition for them. This is important because many of these rat strains are used to study temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), where it is assumed that there is no seizure-like activity in controls. In the course of other studies using the Sprague-Dawley rat, a common rat strain for animal models of TLE, we found that approximately 19% of 2- to 3-month-old naive female Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited SWDs spontaneously during periods of behavioral arrest, which continued for months. Males exhibited SWDs only after 3months of age, consistent with previous reports (Buzsáki et al., 1990). Housing in atypical lighting during early life appeared to facilitate the incidence of SWDs. Spike-wave discharges were often accompanied by behaviors similar to stage 1-2 limbic seizures. Therefore, additional analyses were made to address the similarity. We observed that the frequency of SWDs was similar to that of hippocampal theta rhythm during exploration for a given animal, typically 7-8Hz. Therefore, activity in the frequency of theta rhythm that occurs during frozen behavior may not reflect seizures necessarily. Hippocampal recordings exhibited high frequency oscillations (>250Hz) during SWDs, suggesting that neuronal activity in the hippocampus occurs during SWDs, i.e., it is not a passive structure. The data also suggest that high frequency oscillations, if rhythmic, may reflect SWDs. We also confirmed that SWDs were present in a common animal model of TLE, the pilocarpine model, using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Therefore, damage and associated changes to thalamic, hippocampal, and cortical neurons do not prevent SWDs, at least in this animal model. The results suggest that it is possible that SWDs occur in rodent models of TLE and that investigators mistakenly assume that they are stage 1-2 limbic seizures. We discuss the implications of the results and ways to avoid the potential problems associated with SWDs in animal models of TLE.
- The effects of sleep deprivation on microRNA expression in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Feb 11.:159-165.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with significant prevalence and the individuals affected by this disease have a great probability of occurrence of a lethal phenomenon known as Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP occurs mainly during the night and probably during sleep. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this lethal phenomenon are still obscure and new evidences that could corroborate in this area are warranted. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation in the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in the frontal cortex and heart tissues of adult male rats after 50days of saline (SAL) or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PILO). Initially 389 miRNA expressions were evaluated between SAL and PILO groups by microarray. Subsequently, 3 differentially expressed miRNAs of each tissue were investigated after total sleep deprivation (TSD 6h) and paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD 24h). Still, it was analyzed that the effects of sleep rebound with equivalent duration of PSD and TSD. There was a significant increase of miR-146a expression, an important inflammatory modulator in the frontal cortex of PILO rats when compared to SAL animals. Animals treated with pilocarpine were affected by TSD (through overexpression of miRNAs related to inflammatory process) and these changes were maintained even after a sleep window of 6h. In contrast, miRNAs associated with heart diseases were down-regulated in PSD rebound, suggesting a possible restoration of homeostasis in cardiovascular system of SAL and PILO groups.
- Participation of bone marrow-derived cells in hippocampal vascularization after status epilepticus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Seizure 2014 Jan 30.
Diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy, brain trauma and stroke can induce endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis in specific brain areas. During status epilepticus (SE), bone marrow-derived cells are able to infiltrate and proliferate, dramatically increasing at the site of injury. However, it is still unclear whether these cells directly participate in vascular changes induced by SE.To investigate the possible role of bone marrow-derived cells in angiogenesis after seizures, we induced SE by pilocarpine injection in previously prepared chimeric mice. Mice were euthanized at 8h, 7d or 15d after SE onset.Our results indicated that SE modified hippocampal vascularization and induced angiogenesis. Further, bone marrow-derived GFP(+) cells penetrated through the parenchyma and participated in the formation of new vessels after SE. We detected bone marrow-derived cells closely associated with vessels in the hippocampus, increasing the density of blood vessels that had decreased immediately after pilocarpine-induced SE.We conclude that epileptic seizures directly affect vascularization in the hippocampus mediated by bone marrow-derived cells in a time-dependent manner.
- Effect of 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash on xerostomia: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- J Oral Rehabil 2014 Mar; 41(3):226-35.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash in xerostomic patients. Sixty volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group used 0.1% pilocarpine solution, and the control group used 0.9% saline. The short- and long-term effects of pilocarpine were investigated by measuring the severity of oral dryness, minor salivary flow rates and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate at predetermined times. The severity of oral dryness was decreased in both groups at 0, 30 and 60 min after mouthwashing, with no significant difference between the groups. Buccal and labial secretions were increased in both groups, but only the experimental group exhibited increased palatal secretion. Labial and palatal secretions, but not buccal secretion, differed between the groups. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was increased in the experimental group and differed from that in the control group. After 4 weeks, the severity of oral dryness was decreased in both groups and did not differ between them. The oral dryness at night or on awakening significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant difference between them, but the oral dryness at other times of the day and the difficulty in swallowing foods were not significantly changed in both groups. Minor salivary and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates did not increase in both groups. Until 1 h after mouthwashing, 0.1% pilocarpine mouthwash increased minor salivary and unstimulated whole salivary secretions, but was not superior compared with 0.9% saline at relieving subjective oral dryness.
- Hydrogel micropatches for sampling and profiling skin metabolites. [Journal Article]
- Anal Chem 2014 Mar 4; 86(5):2337-44.
Metabolites excreted by skin have a huge potential as disease biomarkers. However, due to the shortage of convenient sampling/analysis methods, the analysis of sweat has not become very popular in the clinical setting (pilocarpine iontophoresis being a prominent exception). In this report, a facile method for sampling and rapid chemical profiling of skin metabolites excreted with sweat is proposed. Metabolites released by skin (primarily the constituents of sweat) are collected into hydrogel (agarose) micropatches. Subsequently, they are extracted in an online analytical setup incorporating nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and an ion trap mass spectrometer. In a series of reference measurements, using bulk sampling and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, various low-molecular-weight metabolites are detected in the micropatches exposed to skin. The sampling time is as short as 10 min, while the desorption time is 2 min. Technical precision of micropatch analysis varies within the range of 3-42%, depending on the sample and the method of data treatment; the best technical precision (≤10%) has been achieved while using an isotopically labeled internal standard. The limits of detection range from 7 to 278 pmol. Differences in the quantities of extracted metabolites are observed for the samples obtained from healthy individuals (intersubject variabilities: 30-89%; n = 9), which suggests that this method may have the potential to become a semiquantitative assay in clinical analysis and forensics.
- NK1 receptors antagonism of dorsal hippocampus counteract the anxiogenic-like effects induced by pilocarpine in non-convulsive Wistar rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Behav Brain Res 2014 Feb 7.
Recent evidence supports a role for the substance P (SP) in the control of anxiety and epilepsy disorders. Aversive stimuli alter SP levels and SP immunoreactivity in limbic regions, suggesting that changes in SP-NK1 receptor signaling may modulate the neuronal excitability involved in seizures and anxiogenesis. The involvement of NK1 receptors of the dorsal hippocampus and lateral septum in the anxiogenic-like effects induced by a single injection of pilocarpine (PILO) was examined in non-convulsive rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Male Wistar rats were systemically injected with methyl-scopolamine (1mg/kg) followed 30min later by saline or PILO (350mg/kg) and only rats that did not present status epilepticus were used. One month later, vehicle or FK888 (100pmol) - an NK1 receptor antagonist - were infused in the dorsal hippocampus or the lateral septum of the rats and then behaviorally evaluated in the EPM. Previous treatment with PILO decreased the time spent in and the frequency of entries in the open arms of the EPM, besides altering risk-assessment behaviors such as the number of unprotected head-dipping, protected stretch-attend postures and the frequency of open-arms end activity, showing thus a long-lasting anxiogenic-like profile. FK888 did not show any effect per se but inhibited the anxiogenic responses induced by PILO when injected into the dorsal hippocampus, but not into the lateral septum. Our data suggest that SP-NK1 receptor signaling of the dorsal hippocampus is involved in the anxiogenic-like profile induced by PILO in rats evaluated in the EPM test.
- Autocrine/paracrine dopamine in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Insect Physiol 2014 Feb 3.:39-45.
Dopamine (DA) is known to be the most potent activator of tick salivary secretion, which is an essential component of successful tick feeding. We examined the quantitative changes of catecholamines using a method coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). We also investigated the levels of catecholamines conjugated to other molecules utilising appropriate methods to hydrolyse the conjugates. Three different biological samples, salivary glands, synganglia, ovaries and haemolymph were compared, and the largest quantity of DA was detected in salivary gland extracts (up to ∼100pg/tick), supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine dopamine activates salivary secretion. Quantitative changes of catecholamines in the salivary glands over the entire blood feeding duration were examined. The amount of dopamine in the salivary glands increased until the day 5 of feeding, at which the rapid engorgement phase began. We also detected a small but significant amount of norepinephrine in the salivary glands. Interestingly, saliva collected after induction of salivary secretion by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine contained a large amount of DA sulphate with a trace amount of DA, suggesting a potential biological role of DA sulphate in tick saliva.
- Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Genes Brain Behav 2014 Feb 4.
The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1(-/-) ) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1(-/-) mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1(-/-) mice appears unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1(-/-) animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1(-/-) mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1(-/-) mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1(-/-) mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1(-/-) mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function.
- Time-Dependent Decrease of Clusterin as a Potential Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Neurosci 2014 Feb 2.
Our previous study on proteomic analysis has shown that clusterin (CLU) is significantly decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with epilepsy. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm CLU concentration reduction in the CSF of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and drug-responsive epilepsy. Fifty-two patients with epilepsy (23 drug resistance and 29 drug effectivity) and 20 control individuals were recruited. The concentrations of CSF and serum CLU were detected. Moreover, alteration of CLU was detected in the rat hippocampus over time after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Our results showed that human CSF-CLU levels were decreased in patients with both drug-resistant epilepsy and drug-responsive epilepsy compared to controls, and concentration of CSF-CLU was obviously lower in drug-resistant epilepsy than in drug-responsive epilepsy. In the pilocarpine-induced seizure rats, expression of neuronal CLU was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner from acute phase to chronic phase after the onset of SE. In conclusion, CLU level is decreased in the CSF of human epilepsy and the similar alteration is confirmed in a rat model with epilepsy. Therefore, CLU might contribute to the development of epilepsy and be a potential CSF biomarker for resistant epilepsy.