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Smell and Taste Disorders [keywords]
- Aroma and taste perceptions with Alzheimer disease and stroke. [Journal Article]
- Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2013; 53(7):760-9.
Chemosensory disorders of smell or taste in humans have been attributed to various physiological and environmental factors including aging and disease conditions. Aroma and taste greatly condition our food preference, selection and, consumption; the decreased appetite in patients with known neurodegenerative diseases may lead to dietary restrictions that could negatively impact nutritional and health status. The decline in olfactory and gustatory systems in patients with Alzheimer disease and various types of stroke are described.
- [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2013 Mar; 120(3):155-62.
Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice.
- Novel mechanisms underlying inhibitory and facilitatory transcranial magnetic stimulation abnormalities in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- Arch Med Res 2013 Apr; 44(3):221-8.
The motor-evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), its recruitment and the conditioning effects of weak stimuli in Parkinson's disease (PD) have shown contradictory results. The aim of this study is to definitively establish the influences of PD on the TMS-evoked MEP.We investigated resting and active motor thresholds, resting and active recruitment curves, and short interval intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF) in 39 PD patients and 40 age-matched healthy controls. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score was used as a clinical measure.MEPs to single pulses were slightly, but significantly, larger in the PD patients at rest, but increased much less than controls with voluntary muscle activation. PD patients also showed clearly and consistently less ICI and ICF by the conditioning pulse. Both ICI and ICF correlated with MEP threshold in healthy subjects, but not in PD patients. None of the TMS measures correlated with the UPDRS.This study strongly supports the view that PD-related MEPs reflect a disturbed signal-noise ratio of pyramidal neuron responses. Such disturbance may be due to a complex combination of altered presynaptic and surround inhibition that results in unbalanced excitatory/inhibitory input at the brain motor cortex level.
- Olfactory dysfunction: common in later life and early warning of neurodegenerative disease. [Journal Article]
- Dtsch Arztebl Int 2013 Jan; 110(1-2):1-7, e1.
Disturbances of smell and taste are common. About 5% of the general population have anosmia (absence of the sense of smell). Olfactory dysfunction can markedly impair the quality of life.Review of pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search.In recent years, simple and reliable tests of the sense of smell have been introduced in otorhinolaryngology. Olfactory testing has become a new focus of attention in neurology as well, mainly because many patients with neurodegenerative diseases-including the majority of those with Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease-have olfactory loss early on in the course of their disorder. Olfactory dysfunction is thus regarded as an early sign of neurodegenerative disease that may allow a tentative diagnosis to be made years before the motor or cognitive disturbances become evident. As for the treatment of olfactory loss, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgery can help in some cases, and olfactory training can lead to significant improvement of post-viral olfactory deficits.Olfactory dysfunction is common and becomes more common with advancing age. It is increasingly receiving attention as an important sign for the early diagnosis and the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.
- [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2013 Jan; 120(1):34-9.
Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.
- Efficacy of DMSA Therapy in a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. [Journal Article]
- Maedica (Buchar) 2012 Sep; 7(3):214-21.
Objective:the aim of this study was to provide evidence that DMSA detoxification treatments cause a reduction of the heavy metal burden in the autistic, and that this reduction lessens neurological symptoms associated with ASD (Autistic Spectrum Disorder).Method: The participants were 44 children, age 3 to 9 years of age, with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4t Edition, (DMS-IV). The severity of the autistics symptomatologiy had been measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (SCARS). We collected urine samples before and after the DMSA challenge test, comparing urine metal output. We also compared the results of the DMSA detoxification(=the urine challenge test) with behavioral effects, typical for ASD.
Results:The DMSA challenge test increased the urine metal output for a number of potentially toxic metals. Statistically significant difference were noted between the baseline urine and DMSA challenge test regarding the level of cadmium, mercury, and lead (P=0.006, P=0.049, and P=0.008 respectively). We also noted that behavioral effects, typical for ASD (autism spectrum disorders) were reduced with this method of detoxification. A comparison between CARS Subscales and Total Score before and after a 6-month chelation program showed greatest improvements for Verbal and nonverbal communication (P <0.001), Taste, Smell and Touch (P 0.001) and Relating to People (P 0.005). Other improvements were noted for Adaptation to Change and Improvement.
Conclusion:DMSA chelation increased the urinary output of toxic and neurotoxic metals. Our data supports evidence that detoxification treatment with oral DMSA has beneficial effect on ASD patients.
- Nasal nitric oxide levels do not allow for discrimination between olfactory loss due to various etiologies. [Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2013 Feb; 123(2):311-4.
Nasal nitric oxide (NO) and olfactory function are decreased in patients with chronic inflammatory sinonasal disease, suggesting a link between these two parameters. The aim of the study was to investigate nasal NO levels in patients with olfactory dysfunction due to different causes.Prospective study in a university clinic setting (tertiary referral center).Posttraumatic (n = 11), idiopathic (n = 13), and sinonasal-related olfactory-impaired patients (n = 55) were compared with healthy subjects (n = 11). Nasal NO levels, olfactory testing (Sniffin' Sticks), and rhinosinusitis questionnaires (Short-Form 36, Sinonasal Outcome Test 22, Rhinosinusitis Disability Index) were obtained.No significant difference in nasal NO levels were found between the different olfactory dysfunction causes. Nasal NO correlated negatively with age and positively with overall olfactory function, olfactory discrimination, and identification but not with olfactory thresholds. The more nasal symptoms prevailed in the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index, the lower the nasal NO.Nasal NO levels do not allow for discrimination between olfactory loss due to various etiologies based on the present data. Nasal NO production seems to decrease with age and also seems to be associated to overall olfactory function and in particular to central nervous system tasks such as olfactory discrimination and identification but not to olfactory thresholds. These findings raise questions about the link and interaction between olfactory function and nasal NO.
- Determination of problems in patients with post-laryngectomy. [Journal Article]
- Scand J Psychol 2013 Apr; 54(2):107-11.
The purpose of this study is the determination of the physical and psychosocial problems of total and partial laryngectomies. A total of 25 patients, who were operated with the diagnosis of larynx carcinoma in 2010 at Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Otolaryngology Department, were included in the study. They were evaluated with the help of the Personal Information Form (PIF) and the Determination Form of Post Laryngectomy Problem (DFPLP) for the problems they encountered after the operation. Total laryngectomy (TL) was performed on 76% of patients. It was determined that patients undergoing total laryngectomy experienced some physical and psycho-social problems such as problems in sleep (31.6%), smell (52.6%), taste (36.8%), and difficulty in swallowing solid foods (36.8%). Furthermore in patients with TL surgery whilst 47.4% of them think that their sexual lives were affected rather negatively, this rate was determined as 33.3% in patients with partial laryngectomy surgery (PL). The psychosocial score averages of the patients who had smell and taste disorders were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The patients, who underwent a laryngectomy operation, experienced many physical, social, and psychological problems. Thus, medical personnel also need to pay attention to these concomitant problems that occur during the treatment of the primary disease and the application of necessary supplementary treatments such as voice prosthesis, pre-op and post-op counseling, and anti-depressants seems significant in terms of increasing the life quality of the patients.
- Anatomy and physiology of the senses. [Journal Article, Review]
- Nurs Stand 2012 Oct 3-9; 27(5):35-42.
This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the sensory systems of the body. Sensory organs may be categorised as general or special. Sensory systems enabling sight, hearing, smell and taste may be classified as special. Sensory systems enabling proprioception, touch, and thermal and pain perception may be classified as general. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of the sensory systems, examining structures associated with vision and hearing, equilibrium and sensation. Common disorders of vision and hearing are also considered, including glaucoma, cataract, age-related hearing impairment and conductive hearing impairment.
- Nonmotor symptoms in drug-induced parkinsonism and drug-naïve Parkinson disease. [Journal Article]
- Can J Neurol Sci 2013 Jan; 40(1):36-41.
The clinical manifestations of drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) and Parkinson disease (PD) are nearly indistinguishable, making it difficult to differentiate DIP from PD, especially in the early stages. We compared non-motor symptoms between patients with DIP and those with drug-naïve PD in the early stages using the Non Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS).We prospectively enrolled 28 patients with DIP, 35 patients with drug-naïve PD, and 32 controls with no history of neurological diseases or related medical problems. We investigated demographic characteristics, medical and drug history, parkinsonian motor symptoms, and non-motor symptoms. We used the NMSS to evaluate non-motor symptoms in all patients.The total NMSS scores were higher in patients with PD than those with DIP, as were the scores for certain domains, including the cardiovascular, sleep/fatigue, urinary, sexual, and miscellaneous domains. When controlling for age and gender, the correlation analysis revealed that scores for urinary symptoms (urgency, frequency and nocturia), sleep disturbances (daytime sleep, restless legs), concentration, taste or smell were significantly associated with PD.Our data suggest that non-motor symptoms, particularly urinary symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, restless leg syndrome, attention deficit and hyposmia may be helpful to differentiate between DIP and PD in the early stages.