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- Current smoking is associated with a poor visual acuity improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 May; 28(5):769-74.
In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the third ranibizumab injection. To evaluate the risk factors associated with VA improvement after IVR, patient demographic data and systemic risk factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into a poor VA improvement group and a good VA improvement group, with reference to the median visual improvement in all eyes. Among 125 eyes, 66 eyes (52.8%) were included in the responder group and 59 eyes (47.2%) in the non-responder group. The median VA improvement after 3 monthly ranibizumab injections was -0.05 logMAR. Multivariate analyses revealed that current smoking (adjusted OR, 7.540; 95% CI, 1.732-32.823) was independently associated with poor VA improvement after IVR treatment for exudative AMD. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower VA gains with IVR treatment for exudative AMD.
- Prevalence and risk factor of neck pain in elderly korean community residents. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 May; 28(5):680-6.
Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact.
- Management of cancer survivors in clinical and public health perspectives: current status and future challenges in Korea. [Journal Article]
- J Korean Med Sci 2013 May; 28(5):651-7.
The number of cancer survivors is increasing dramatically. Many cancer survivors face lifetime risks associated with their cancer therapy, with a significant proportion at risk for serious morbidity and premature mortality. Concerns regarding the long-term physical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cancer treatment on cancer survivors and their families are increasingly being recognized and addressed by public and private sector. This article summarizes economic burden of cancer survivors, main post-treatment health problems including secondary primary cancer and comorbidities, health behaviors such as smoking, exercise and physical activity, nutrition, and psychosocial problems. Faced with various health and psychosocial problems specific to this population, several healthcare and policy models are being suggested to address these issues, including 'shared care model' and 'integrative supportive care service delivery system for cancer survivors'. More effort is needed to make the cancer survivorship agenda a reality, attended by a wide variety of stakeholders including researchers, patients, providers, and policy makers.
- Trends in smoking and lung cancer mortality in Japan, by birth cohort, 1949-2010. [Journal Article]
- Bull World Health Organ 2013 May 1; 91(5):332-40.
To determine smoking trends in Japan in comparison with lung cancer mortality.Age-specific smoking prevalence among cohorts born between 1897 and 1985 were determined for the period 1949-2010. The percentages of the cohorts born between 1893 and 1979 who initiated smoking early (e.g. before the age of 20 years) were determined. The results were compared against lung cancer mortality rates in people aged 40-84 years belonging to cohorts born between 1868 and 1968.In males, smoking prevalence was generally high, particularly among those born before the late 1950s, and early initiation was fairly uncommon. Early initiation was most common among recent birth cohorts of males, who showed relatively low prevalences of smoking. In females, the prevalence of smoking was generally low and early initiation was very uncommon, particularly among those born in the late 1930s and before the late 1940s, respectively. Recent cohorts of females showed relatively high prevalences of smoking and relatively high percentages of early initiation. In both sexes, lung cancer mortality was generally low but increased over the study period.Lung cancer mortality in Japanese males was relatively low given the high prevalence of smoking, perhaps because early initiation was fairly uncommon. Over the last four decades, however, early initiation of smoking has become more common in both sexes. The adverse effect this is likely to have on lung cancer mortality rates has probably not been observed because of the long time lag between smoking initiation and death from lung cancer.
- Systemic Sclerosis in Canada's North American Native Population: Assessment of Clinical and Serological Manifestations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Rheumatol 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:Certain North American Native (NAN) populations are known to have higher rates of systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to non-NAN; however, little is known of the specific disease characteristics in this population in Canada. This study compares the clinical and serological manifestations of SSc in NAN and white patients.
METHODS:This cross-sectional, multicenter study included subjects enrolled in the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry between September 2004 and June 2012. Subjects were evaluated with complete medical histories, physical examinations, and self-questionnaires. Ethnicity was defined by self-report. Disease characteristics were compared between NAN and white patients and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the independent association between ethnicity and various clinical manifestations.
RESULTS:Of 1278 patients, 1038 (81%) were white, 71 (6%) were NAN, and 169 (13%) were classified as non-white/non-NAN. There were important differences between NAN and white subjects with SSc. In multivariate analysis adjusting for socioeconomic differences and smoking status, NAN ethnicity was an independent risk factor for the severity of Raynaud phenomenon and more gastrointestinal symptoms, and was associated with a nonsignificant increase in the presence of digital ulcers.
CONCLUSION:NAN patients with SSc have a distinct clinical phenotype. Our study provides a strong rationale to pursue further research into genetic and environmental determinants of SSc.
- The Influence of Age, Smoking, Antiretroviral Therapy, and Esophagitis on the Local Immunity of the Esophagus in Patients with AIDS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2013 May 15.
Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.
- Physical Fitness and Risk for Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Heart Fail 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:-Multiple studies have demonstrated strong associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and lower cardiovascular disease mortality. In contrast, little is known about associations of fitness with non-fatal cardiovascular events.
METHODS AND RESULTS:-Linking individual participant data from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study with Medicare claims files, we studied 20,642 participants (21% women) with fitness measured at mean age 49 years and who survived to receive Medicare coverage from 1999 to 2009. Fitness was categorized into age- and sex-specific quintiles (Q) according to Balke protocol treadmill time with Q1 as low fitness. Fitness was also estimated in metabolic equivalents according to treadmill time. Associations between midlife fitness and hospitalizations for heart failure and acute myocardial infarction after age 65 were assessed by applying a proportional hazards model to the multivariate failure time data. After 133,514 person-years of Medicare follow-up, we observed 1,051 hospitalizations for heart failure and 832 hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction. Compared to high fitness (Q4-5), low fitness (Q1) was associated with a higher rate of heart failure hospitalization (14.3% vs. 4.2%) and hospitalization for myocardial infarction (9.7% vs. 4.5%). After multivariable adjustment for baseline age, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, smoking status and total cholesterol, a 1 unit greater fitness level in metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved in midlife was associated with approximately a 20% lower risk for heart failure hospitalization after age 65 [Men, hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals): 0.79 (0.75-0.83), p<0.001; Women: 0.81 (0.68-0.96), P=0.01] but just a 10% lower risk for acute myocardial infarction in men [0.91 (0.87-0.95), p< 0.001] and no association in women [0.97 (0.83-1.13), p=0.68].
CONCLUSIONS:-Fitness in healthy, middle-aged adults is more strongly associated with heart failure hospitalization than acute myocardial infarction outcomes decades later in older age.
- Do MDR1 and SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms Influence the Therapeutic Response to Atorvastatin? A Study on a Cohort of Egyptian Patients with Hypercholesterolemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Diagn Ther 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Statins are among the most prescribed drugs worldwide to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Interindividual variability in drug response is a major clinical problem and is of concern during drug development. Statins, such as atorvastatin, are taken orally and access to their site of action in the liver is greatly facilitated by both intestinal and hepatic transporters.
OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of polymorphisms of the multidrug resistance 1(MDR1) and solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) genes on the therapeutic response to atorvastatin as well as the presence of gender-gene interaction.
METHODS:Serum lipid levels were determined at baseline and 4 weeks following 40 mg/day atorvastatin treatment in 50 Egyptian hypercholesterolemic patients (27 males and 23 females). Identification of MDR1 C3435T and SLCO1B1 A388G gene polymorphisms was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.
RESULTS:Treatment with atorvastatin resulted in a mean reduction of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) of 8.7 %, 9.2 %, and 4.1 %, respectively, and a mean increase of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of 1 %. Baseline and post-treatment HDL-C levels were statistically significantly higher in the MDR 1 TT homozygotes when compared with the CC wild type. The percentage change in TC, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C did not show any statistically significant difference when compared among the different MDR 1 C3435T or SLCO1B1 A388G genotypes. The SLCO1B1 GG homozygotes showed a decrease in TG, whereas there was an increase in TG following atorvastatin treatment in AA and AG carriers in females; however, males did not show any statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant association between either the coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors (family history of CAD, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking) or concomitant medications with the percentage change in different lipid parameters.
CONCLUSION:MDR1 C3435T was associated with baseline and post-treatment HDL-C variation. SLCO1B1 A388G showed gender-related effects on TG change following atorvastatin treatment. None of the comorbidities or the concomitant medications influenced the percentage change of lipid parameters following atorvastatin treatment. The results of this study may lead to an improved understanding of the genetic determinants of lipid response to atorvastatin treatment.
- Social Adversity Experience and Blood Pressure Control Following Antihypertensive Medication Use in a Community Sample of Older Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Behav Med 2013 May 16.
BACKGROUND:Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for hypertension and has been shown to affect response to treatment for psychiatric illnesses.
PURPOSE:We investigate the relationship between a history of social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use.
METHODS:A total of 1,186 participants selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study (531 men and 655 women, aged 42 to 80 years) had attended two health checks at which blood pressure measurements were taken; were taking antihypertensive medication at the second, but not the first health check; and had completed a questionnaire assessment of their social and psychological circumstances which included details of traumatic experiences in childhood and of adverse life events, long-term difficulties, and perceived stress in adulthood.
RESULTS:Experience of recent loss events in adulthood was associated with a smaller reduction in systolic blood pressure after starting hypertension treatment (β = 1.78, 95 % confidence interval 0.15-3.40, per life event), independently of age, sex, preexisting health conditions, cigarette smoking history, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity.
CONCLUSION:Results from this study suggest that stress caused by recent losses may be associated with reduced effectiveness of treatment for hypertension. Subject to replication, these findings may help determine the specific physiological mechanisms by which medication treatment effectiveness is affected by stress.
- The relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness and depressive and anxiety disorders in women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2013 May 15.