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Sodium Acetate [keywords]
- A novel glucoamylase activated by manganese and calcium produced in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus phoenicis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Basic Microbiol 2013 May 17.
This study investigates the production of glucoamylase from Aspergillus phoenicis in Machado Benassi (MB) medium using 1% maltose as carbon source. The maximum amylase activity was observed after four days of cultivation, on static conditions at 30 °C. Glucoamylase production was induced by maltose and inhibited by different glucose concentrations. The optimum of temperature and pH were 60-65 °C, and 4.5 or 5.0 to sodium acetate and Mcllvaine buffers, respectively. It was observed that the enzyme was totally stable at 30-65 °C for 1 h, and the pH range was 3.0-6.0. The enzyme was mainly activated by manganese (176%), and calcium (130%) ions. The products of starch hydrolysis were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and after 3 h, only glucose was detected, characterizing the amylolytic activity as a glucoamylase.
- Decolorization of Dyehouse Effluent and Biodegradation of Congo Red by Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Microbiol Biotechnol 2013 May 16.
A dye-decolorizing bacterium was isolated from a soil sample and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacterium was able to decolorize three different textile dyes, namely, Reactive blue 13, Reactive red 58, and Reactive yellow 42, and a real dyehouse effluent up to 80-95% within 6 h. Some non-textile industrially important dyes were also decolorized to different extents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of Congo red dye and its metabolites showed that the bacterium could degrade it by the asymmetric cleavage of the azo bonds to yield sodium (4- amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) and phenylbenzene. Sodium (4-amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) was further oxidized by the ortho-cleavage pathway to yield 2- (1-amino-2-diazenyl-2-formylvinyl) benzoic acid. There was induction of the activities of laccase and azoreductase during the decolorization of Congo red, which suggests their probable role in the biodegradation. B. thuringiensis was found to be versatile and could be used for industrial effluent biodegradation.
- Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of bio-filter and ecological gravel bed. [Journal Article]
- Water Sci Technol 2013 May; 67(10):2356-62.
Nitrogen removal in micro-polluted surface water by the combined process of a bio-filter and an ecological gravel bed was studied. Sodium acetate was added into micro-polluted surface water as carbon source and the nitrogen removal under different C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the variations in C/N ratio, hydraulic load and temperature have significant influence on nitrogen removal in bio-filter. It was found that the denitrification rate was above 90% when C/N ratio reached 10; also, the denitrification was inhibited at low water temperature (2-10 °C); at the condition of water temperature above 20 °C, C/N ratio 10, hydraulic load 8 m(3)/(m(2) h), the combined process obtained the nitrogen removal of more than 90%, and the residual organics could be removed in ecological gravel bed.
- [Effect of natural and hydrothermal synthetic goethite on the release of methane in the anaerobic decomposition process of organic matter]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Huan Jing Ke Xue 2013 Feb; 34(2):635-41.
The effects of natural goethite (NGt) and synthetic goethite (SGt) on the release of methane in the anaerobic biochemical system consisted of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methane-producing bacteria (MPB) were investigated through batch tests with sodium acetate as the carbon source. To explore the effects and mechanisms of both mineral materials on the release of methane in the anaerobic decomposition process of organic matter in the presence of DIRB, the main gas components and total organic carbon (TOC) , total inorganic carbon (TIC), and Fe2+ in the aqueous phase of the experimental process were determined and XRD analyses were conducted for the solid-phase product. Moreover, the minerals were analyzed by specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative methane and carbon dioxide. Results showed that the maximum cumulative production of methane was brought forward by 60-78 days by the addition of goethite and CO2 was effectively reduced by 30% - 67% compared with the control samples. SGt was more effective than NGt in promoting the release of CH4 and reducing the CO, emission. Furthermore, the analysis of the solid product showed that the addition of goethite can fix part of CO2 by the formation of siderite.
- [Simultaneous determination of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Se Pu 2013 Jan; 31(1):15-21.
An analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics (trimethoprim, erythromycin x 2H2O, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pencilline G, penicillin V potassium salt, cephalexin and sulfamethoxazole), beta-bloker (atenolol), anophelifuge (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzoylamide, DEET), antiepileptics (carbamazepine), central nervous system stimulant (caffeine), lipid modifying agent (clofibric acid), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac sodium salt) and antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban). The detection and qualification of the target compounds were performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized mobile phases were methanol as organic phase, 0. 3% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for ESI- as inorganic phase. Water samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction at 2 mL/min, and all the target PPCPs were efficiently extracted at pH 7. The extracted PPCPs were eluted by the mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (1 : 1, v/v). The average recoveries of the target compounds in the spiked pure water samples ranged from 53.9% - 112%. The average recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 45.1% - 156.6% with the relative standard deviations ranged from 2.4% - 15.7%, in the surface water samples spiked at 100 ng/L. The surface water samples collected from Yu Hangtang River in Hangzhou were detected. The results showed that nine PPCPs were detected including caffeine that reached a maximum concentration of 550.7 ng/L. It proved that this analytical method is reliable and acceptable.
- The effect of selenium supplementation on vaccination response and immune function in adult horses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anim Sci 2013 May 8.
Selenium status has been reported to affect immune function across many different species. Yet few studies have focused on the effect of Se status on the equine immune system. This study examined the effect of Se supplementation on vaccination response and immune function in mature horses. Twenty-eight horses were blocked by age and sex, and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups: low Se (LS), adequate Se (AS), Se-yeast (SP) and, sodium selenite (SS). For 35 wk, horses allocated to LS, SP and SS received a low-Se diet (0.06 mg/kg DM) with the intention to lower Se stores, while AS received an adequate Se diet (0.12 mg/kg DM). A 29-wk repletion phase was as follows: LS and AS were kept on the diets fed during the depletion period, while SP and SS received the depletion diet plus their respective Se supplements to achieve a dietary Se concentration of 0.3 mg/kg DM. The Se status of the horses was monitored using whole blood Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity as indicators. At wk 22 and 25 of the repletion phase, horses were vaccinated intramuscularly with 10 mg ovalbumin (OVA). Horses were also vaccinated against equine influenza at wk 25. Blood samples were collected for 7 wk following initial vaccination for serum separation, and at 0, 3 and 5 wk post vaccination for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation and whole blood cytokine mRNA evaluation. At wk 22 of the repletion phase, both Se and GSH-Px were greater for SP and SS compared to AS and LS (P < 0.001). Serum vitamin E was similar between treatments. Response to OVA vaccination, evaluated as OVA specific IgG production, cytokine mRNA expression of PBMC stimulated with OVA in vitro, and lymphocyte proliferation, was unaffected by Se status. Similarly, memory response to the influenza vaccine was not affected by Se status. However, lower mRNA expression of selected cytokines was observed in PBMC stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for LS as compared to AS, SP, and SS (P < 0.05). Whole blood mRNA expression of IL-10 was greater for SS compared to LS, AS, and SP (P = 0.043). Although the OVA and influenza vaccination responses were unaffected by Se status, other measures of immune function did indicate that low Se status could adversely affect cell-mediated immunity.
- A new electrochemically active bacterium phylogenetically related to Tolumonas osonensis and power performance in MFCs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bioresour Technol 2013 Apr 15.:141-148.
A facultative anaerobic bacterium (designated as P2-A-1) was isolated from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Tolumonas osonensis OCF 7(T) according to its biochemical, physiological and morphological characteristics. Through parameters optimization, the P2-A-1 MFC reached the maximum power density of 424mW/m(2) in the substrate of 2g/L sodium acetate. Further, a facile bacteria treatment approach by chemically "perforating" pores and channels on bacterial membrane was developed to significantly improve the power density. And 1mM of EDTA-treated cell yielded the highest power density of 509.1mW/m(2) because the membrane permeability of cell was enhanced by verification of coenzyme Q and fatty acid composition tests. It offers a novel facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that can utilize a wide variety of substrates for power production, making it highly valuable for application in MFCs.
- α-Glucosidase Inhibiton and Antiglycation Activity of Laccase-Catalyzed Catechin Polymers. [Journal Article]
- J Agric Food Chem 2013 May 15; 61(19):4577-84.
Catechin polymers were produced by laccase (12 U/mL) in a mixture of sodium acetate buffer (1% (+)-catechin, 100 mM, pH 5) and methanol (buffer:methanol = 95:5, v/v). The freeze-dried catechin polymers were recovered from the precipitate after dialysis followed by centrifugation. Catechin polymers extracted with 20% ethanol had potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 4 μg/mL, and they were present as a mixture of dimers, trimers, and tetramers. The antihyperglycemic effect of the catechin polymers was confirmed by an oral maltose tolerance test. The catechin polymers also had significantly improved antiglycation and superoxide dismutase-like activities compared to those of (+)-catechin. Since formation of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress are accelerated in hyperglycemic conditions, we suggest that enzymatic production of catechin polymers could have a potential protective effect in type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications, and other free radical related diseases.
- The Effect of Enriched Milk with Selenium and Vitamin E on Growth Rate, Hematology, Some Blood Biochemical Factors, and Immunoglobulins of Newborn Goat Kids. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Trace Elem Res 2013 May 7.
Thirty male and female (n = 15 for each one) Markhoz newborn goat kids (aged 7 ± 3 days) were distributed in a randomized block design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement: two levels of sodium selenite as a source of selenium (0.2 or 0.3 ppm Se), two levels of α-tocopherol acetate as a source of vitamin E (150 or 200 IU Vit E), and one control treatment with six repetitions per treatment (each replicate included three male and three female kids). Animals were fed daily by Se-Vit E-enriched milk (Se-Vit E treatments) or non-enriched milk (control treatment). Growth rate, hematology, and serum biological parameters were measured. The levels of serum albumin (P < 0.01), serum globulin (P < 0.05), total serum protein levels (P < 0.01), erythrocyte counts (RBC) (P < 0.001), hemoglobin (P < 0.001), hematocrit (P < 0.001), leukocyte counts (WBC) (P < 0.001), IgA (P < 0.05), IgG (P < 0.01), and IgM (P < 0.01) significantly differed among treatments, while no significant differences were observed for calcium, lymphocyte, neutrophil average daily gain and body weight among treatments. Kids feeding by enriched milk with 0.3 ppm Se and 200 IU Vit E had significantly higher serum total protein, globulin, RBC, IgA, IgG, and IgM compared to control and those fed by enriched milk to 0.2 ppm Se and 200 IU Vit E had significantly higher WBC counts.
- Determination by LC-MS of Juvenile Hormone Titers in Hemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2013 May 7.
Juvenile hormone (JH) I, II and III in the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). JHs were treated with methanol and trifluoroacetic acid to convert into JH methoxyhydrines (JH-MHs). The key to the analytical condition for JH-MHs was the addition of 5 µM sodium acetate to the eluting solution. Each JH-MH was observed as the sodium adduct ion with good sensitivity. This improved method enabled the titration of JH I, II and III in hemolymph of the silkworm to be monitored from the 3rd instar through to the early pupal stage. A peak of JH I was observed immediately after ecdysis in the 3rd and 4th instar stages. The JH I titer sharply decreased on day 1 and reached the lowest level before ecdysis, but there was no peak at the beginning of the 5th stadium, and no apparent increase was observed until pupation.