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Staphylococcal Food Poisoning [keywords]
- Outbreak of Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Due to SEA-Producing Staphylococcus aureus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013 Jun 15.
Abstract In 2008, 150 people gathered for a wedding celebration in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Three hours after ingestion of a variety of foods including pancakes filled with minced chicken, several guests exhibited symptoms of acute gastroenteritis such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and ague. Twelve guests were reported to have fallen ill, with nine of these seeking medical care in hospitals. At least four patients were admitted to the hospital and received inpatient treatment, among them a 2-year-old child and a woman in the 4th month of pregnancy. Within 24 h of the event, an investigative team collected a variety of samples including refrigerated leftovers, food in the storage unit of the caterer, nasal swabs of the caterer, as well as 21 environmental swabs. Five stool samples from patients were provided by the hospitals. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were gathered from eight samples, among them nasal swabs of the caterer, food samples, and one stool sample. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy was used for species identification and for primary clustering of the isolates in a similarity tree. The isolates were further characterized by spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and a DNA microarray was used to determine the presence/absence of genes involved in virulence and antimicrobial resistance. We were able to match an enterotoxigenic strain from the stool sample of a patient to isolates of the same strain obtained from food and the nasal cavity of a food handler. The strain produced the enterotoxin SEA and the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, and was also found to exhibit the genes encoding enterotoxins SEG and SEI, as well as the enterotoxin gene cluster egc. This is one of only a few studies that were able to link a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak to its source.
- Highly Expressed Recombinant SEB for Antibody Production and Development of Immunodetection System. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Microbiol 2012 Jun; 52(2):191-6.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the second most common causal agents of food poisoning throughout the world. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is one of the most potent and a listed biological warfare agent. Therefore, its quick, accurate and sensitive detection is of paramount importance. But availability of sensitive and specific antibodies against SEB is the major bottleneck in the development of an immunodetection system. Therefore, in the present study seb gene was cloned and expressed in a heterologous host resulting in a yield of 92 mg pure toxin per litre of culture broth after Ni-NTA affinity purification. Antibodies raised against the recombinant toxin did not cross react with related enterotoxins and organisms that can gain access in the food. Further, a sandwich ELISA was developed to detect SEB after extraction from artificially spiked food samples like milk, orange juice, skim milk and khoya. The sandwich ELISA was able to detect SEB in the range of 0.25 to 0.49 ng/ml or g of food. The detection system developed in the present study is at least as specific and sensitive as other commercially available kits which use monoclonal antibodies.
- [Multiplex PCR strategy for the simultaneous identification of Staphylococcus aureus and detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in isolates from food poisoning outbreaks]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Biomedica 2013 Mar; 33(1):122-7.
Introduction: Staphylococcal food poisoning is the most frequent type of food poisoning around the world. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins cause significant loss of water in the intestinal lumen, followed by vomiting and diarrhea.
Objective:To report a fast, reliable and inexpensive strategy based on multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of S. aureus and detection of five classical S. aureus enterotoxin genes ( sea, seb, sec, sed, see ) in Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from food poisoning outbreaks. Materials and methods: We analyzed isolates from 12 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Santa Fe province (Argentina). Isolation and phenotypic characterization were carried out by standard procedures. Genotypic analysis was performed by multiplex PCR, using primers for nuc , sea-see and 16S rRNA genes simultaneously.
Results:Of all the strains tested, 58% were found to carry toxigenic genes. Sea and seb toxins were found at the same percentage (29%) while sec, sed and see genes were found in a lower and identical proportion (14%). We did not find more than one different type of S. aureus enterotoxin in the isolates analyzed.
Conclusions:The multiplex PCR strategy designed in this work has enabled us to identify strains of S. aureus and detect -at the same time- their enterotoxigenic ability. At present, our efforts are devoted to the detection of genes encoding enterotoxins other than the classical ones, in order to know their impact on staphylococcal food poisoning, as well as to investigate their relevance to our country's public health.
- Noncontiguous Finished Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus KLT6, a Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Positive Strain Involved in a Food Poisoning Outbreak in Switzerland. [Journal Article]
- Genome Announc 2013; 1(3)
We present the first complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus strain assigned to clonal complex 12. The strain was isolated in a food poisoning outbreak due to contaminated potato salad in Switzerland in 2009, and it produces staphylococcal enterotoxin B.
- Oral immunization with Lactococcus lactis secreting attenuated recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B induces a protective immune response in a murine model. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Microb Cell Fact 2013.:32.
Staphylococcus aureus is unrestrictedly found in humans and in animal species that maintain thermal homeostasis. Inadequate cleaning of processing equipment or inappropriate handling can contaminate processed food and cause severe food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a potent superantigenic exotoxin, is produced by 50% of clinical isolates of S. aureus and is associated with massive food poisoning and with the induction of toxic shock syndrome.A gene sequence encoding a recombinant SEB (rSEB), devoid of superantigenic activity, was successfully cloned and expressed in a cytoplasmic or a secreted form in the food-grade lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis. The recombinant protein detected in the cytoplasm or in the culture medium exhibited the expected molecular mass and was recognized by a SEB-polyclonal antibody. Oral immunization with the recombinant L. lactis strains induced a protective immune response in a murine model of S. aureus infection. Immunized mice survived intraperitoneal challenge with an S. aureus SEB-producer strain. Counts of S. aureus in the spleen of rSEB-immunized mice were significantly reduced. The rSEB-immunized mice showed significant titers of anti-SEB IgA and IgG in stools and serum, respectively. Both recombinant L. lactis strains were able to elicit cellular or systemic immune responses in mice, with no significant difference if rSEB was produced in its cytoplasmic or secreted form. However, recombinant L. lactis expressing the cytoplasmic rSEB increased the survival rate of the challenged mice by 43%.These findings show the vaccine efficacy of L. lactis carrying an attenuated SEB, in a murine model, following lethal S. aureus challenge.
- Effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on growth and gene expression of enterotoxins A, C and E in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Food Microbiol 2013 May 15; 163(2-3):159-65.
Staphylococcal food poisoning results from the consumption of food in which enterotoxigenic staphylococci have grown and produced toxins. The present study was conducted with three principal aims: i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ii) to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of EO on the growth of bacteria over 72 h (at 25 and 35 °C), and iii) to investigate the expression of genes involved in the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEC and SEE over 72 h at 35 °C. The MIC and MBC of Z. multiflora Boiss. EO were 0.03 and 0.04%, respectively. Colony counting at 24, 48 and 72 h of 3 day cultures grown in the presence of 75%MIC of the EO showed that the growth rate was reduced 2.16, 2.78 and 2.91 log 10 cfu/ml at 25 °C, and 1.34, 2.35 and 2.57 log 10 cfu/ml at 35 °C, respectively, compared to control cultures. SubMIC levels of EO also significantly decreased the expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-related genes and therefore the production of SEs in a dose dependent manner. For example, when cultured with 75% MIC, the transcriptional levels of sea, sec, see and agrA were decreased 11.7, 9.3, 10.45 and 10.3 fold after 18 h and 13.9, 11.21, 12.44 and 12.52 fold after 72 h in comparison to control, respectively.
- Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biomed Res Int 2013.:895816.
Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is an important human pathogen that produces a variety of toxins and causes a wide range of infections, including soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and staphylococcal food poisoning. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the arcC gene of S. aureus was developed and evaluated with 119 S. aureus and 25 non-S. aureus strains. The usefulness of the assay was compared with the PCR method that targets spa and arcC genes. The optimal temperature for the LAMP assay was 58.5°C with a detection limit of 2.5 ng/μL and 10(2) CFU/mL when compared to 12.5 ng/μL and 10(3) CFU/mL for PCR (spa and arcC). Both LAMP and PCR assays were 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% positive predictive value (PPV), and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). When tested on 30 spiked blood specimens (21 MRSA, eight non-S. aureus and one negative control), the performance of LAMP and PCR was comparable: 100% specific, 100% sensitive, 100% PPV, and 100% NPV. In conclusion, the LAMP assay was equally specific with a shorter detection time when compared to PCR in the identification of S. aureus. The LAMP assay is a promising alternative method for the rapid identification of S. aureus and could be used in resource-limited laboratories and fields.
- Enterotoxigenic potential of coagulase-negative staphylococci. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Int J Food Microbiol 2013 Apr 15; 163(1):34-40.
Staphylococci are a worldwide cause of human and animal infections including life-threatening cases of bacteraemia, wound infections, pyogenic lesions, and mastitis. Enterotoxins produced by some staphylococcal species were recognized as causative agents of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), being also able to interrupt human and animal immune responses. Only enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus were as yet well characterized. Much less is known about enterotoxigenic potential of coagulase-negative species of genus Staphylococcus (CNS). The pathogenic role of CNS and their enterotoxigenicity in developing SFP has not been well established. Although it has been reported that enterotoxigenic CNS strains have been associated with human and animal infections and food poisoning, most of research lacked a deeper insight into structure of elements encoding CNS enterotoxins. Recent studies provided us with strong evidence for the presence and localization of enterotoxin-coding elements in CNS genomes and production of enterotoxins. Thus, the importance of pathogenic potential of CNS as a source of staphylococcal enterotoxins has been highlighted in human and animal infections as well as in food poisoning.
- Enterotoxin genes in coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from bovine milk. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Dairy Sci 2013 May; 96(5):2866-72.
The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 10 Brazilian dairy herds and study their capability to produce enterotoxins. Herds were selected based on size and use of milking technology, and farms were visited once during the study. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20 mL) was collected from all CMT-positive quarters. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. was performed using conventional microbiology, and PCR was used to determine the presence of enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). Of the 1,318 CMT-positive milk samples, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 263 (19.9%). Of these isolates, 135 (51%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and 128 (49%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Eighteen different species of CNS were isolated, among which S. warneri, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus were the most frequent. The distribution of Staphylococcus species was different among herds: S. epidermidis was found in 8 herds, S. warneri was found in 7 herds, and S. hyicus in 6 herds. Some of the CNS species (S. saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, and S. chromogenes) were isolated in only one of the farms. Genes related to production of enterotoxins were found in 66% (n=85) of all CNS and in 35% of the CPS isolates. For both CNS and CPS isolates, the most frequently identified enterotoxin genes were sea, seb, and sec; the prevalence of sea differed between CPS (9.5%) and CNS (35.1%) isolates. Staphylococcus warneri isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than seb, sec, or sed, whereas S. hyicus isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than sec. Over 60% of CNS belonged to 3 major species, which carried 62.2 to 81.3% of the enterotoxin genes. The high prevalence highlights the potential for food poisoning caused by these species. For possible high-risk situations for food poisoning, such as milk produced with total bacterial counts greater than regulatory levels and stored under inappropriate temperatures, monitoring contamination with CNS could be important to protect human health. Because the prevalence of CNS intramammary infections in dairy herds is usually high, and these species can be found in great numbers in bulk milk, identification of risk factors for production of staphylococcal enterotoxins should be considered in future studies.
- Application of IgY to sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow devices, and immunopillar chips for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxins in milk and dairy products. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Microbiol Methods 2013 Mar; 92(3):323-31.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), produced by Staphylococcus aureus, are a major cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. Traditionally, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse passive latex agglutination with rabbit antibody IgG have been used to detect SEs. However, most of these kits require a long processing time and there is a risk of false-positive results since IgG reacts nonspecifically with protein A produced by S. aureus. In this study, we prepared antienterotoxin chicken IgY antibodies specific for each SE (SEA to SEE) without reaction to protein A, which enabled a drastic reduction in nonspecific reactions. ELISAs, lateral flow device (LFDs), and IgY-based immunopillar chips were developed for SE detection. All the ELISAs developed were as sensitive as commercially available kits. The SEs in milk were successfully detected by the ELISAs, LFDs, and immunopillar chips without any sample pretreatment. The LFD could detect SEA even at the low concentration of 0.2 ng/ml within 15 min in milk. The detection limit of the immunopillar chips for the SEs ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 ng/ml in milk; the SEs were detected within 12 min and specialized skills were not required. The ELISA and LFD detected SEA in dairy products artificially contaminated with S. aureus, including ice cream, yogurt, and café au lait, in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, IgY allows highly specific detection of SEs, and ELISAs, LFDs, and immunopillar chips should be useful tools for screening SEs in milk and dairy products.