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- SARM Is Required for Neuronal Injury and Cytokine Production in Response to Central Nervous System Viral Infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Immunol 2013 Jun 7.
Four of the five members of the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor family are required for signaling downstream of TLRs, promoting innate immune responses against different pathogens. However, the role of the fifth member of this family, sterile α and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing 1 (SARM), is unclear. SARM is expressed primarily in the CNS where it is required for axonal death. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have also shown a role for SARM in innate immunity. To clarify the role of mammalian SARM in innate immunity, we infected SARM(-/-) mice with a number of bacterial and viral pathogens. SARM(-/-) mice show normal responses to Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and influenza virus, but show dramatic protection from death after CNS infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Protection correlates with reduced CNS injury and cytokine production by nonhematopoietic cells, suggesting that SARM is a positive regulator of cytokine production. Neurons and microglia are the predominant source of cytokines in vivo, supporting a role for SARM as a link between neuronal injury and innate immunity.
- Molecular Analysis of Parapoxvirus Detected in Eight Calves in Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Med Sci 2013 Jun 7.
Molecular analysis of parapoxvirus envelope genes was performed. Parapoxvirus DNA was detected in eight calves from eight farms in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, between April and September 2010. Seven of the detected viruses were identified as bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) by sequencing, because their nucleotide identity was more than 96.8% similar compared with BPSV strain V660. Among them, two formed a subgroup, because their amplicons were digested with Xmn I (a marker for BPSV) and Hinc II, and exhibited a T61C nucleotide substitution in the sequenced region. The remaining virus was pseudocowpox virus that had not been reported previously in Japan. Our results demonstrate the presence of a new BPSV variant in Japan, with genetic variability in the envelope gene.
- Opportunistic microorganisms in individuals with lesions of denture stomatitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Jun 6.
The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.
- A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral inhibitor of aurora and other kinases, in advanced hematologic malignancies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Leuk Res 2013 Jun 5.
A phase I dose-escalation study of MSC1992371A, an oral aurora kinase inhibitor, was carried out in patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients received escalating doses either on days 1-3 and 8-10 (n=36) or on days 1-6 (n=39) of a 21-day cycle. The maximum tolerated doses were 37 and 28mg/m(2)/day, respectively. Dose-limiting toxicities included severe neutropenia with infection and sepsis, mucositis/stomatitis, and diarrhea. Complete responses occurred in 3 patients. Four disease-specific expansion cohorts then received the dose and schedule dictated by the escalation phase but the study was prematurely discontinued due to hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity at clinically effective doses.
- PRODUCTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON-γ IN LOW OXYGEN TENSION CONDITION: A FORMULATION APPROACH. [Journal Article]
- Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2013 Aug 18; 43(6):586-600.
The low stability of recombinant human interferon-γ (rhIFN-γ) therapeutic protein imposes some restrictions in its medical applications. In the current study, the effect of oxygen tension on the stability of purified rhIFN-γ was investigated. The rhIFN-γ was purified (>99%) by a two-step chromatographic process. Storage vials were filled by purified formulated product under normal atmospheric oxygen and low oxygen tension conditions. At different time intervals, the amounts of rhIFN-γ covalent dimers and deamidated forms were analyzed using analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; size exclusion and cation exchange) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) methods. To determine the biological activity of purified rhIFN-γ, an antiviral activity assay against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was performed. Upon rhIFN-γ long-term storage in a low oxygen tension condition, the amounts of rhIFN-γ covalent dimers and deamidated forms and also the biological activity of rhIFN-γ changed a little. In contrast, by 9 months of storage of rhIFN-γ preparations under normal atmospheric condition, the amount of covalent dimers and deamidated forms increased with time and reached to approximately 3.5% and 11.5% of the initial amount, respectively. The antiviral specific activity of 9-month-old rhIFN-γ preparations decreased to 41% of the initial amount at normal storage condition, while no significant reduction was seen at the low oxygen tension condition. In conclusion, oxygen tension during storage could have a significant impact on rhIFN-γ stability and finally on the quality of pharmaceutical rhIFN-γ product.
- Brazilian green propolis compared to miconazole gel in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.:947980.
Aim.To evaluate the efficacy of Brazilian green propolis in comparison to miconazole gel in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Methods. Forty-five denture stomatitis patients, with palatal mucosa erythema levels classified according to Newtons's criteria and with positive culture to Candida spp., were randomly divided into three treatment groups: 15 received miconazole gel 2%, 15 received propolis gel 2,5%, and 15 received propolis 24% for mouthwash. After four daily use lasting two weeks, they were reexamined for the denture stomatitis degree and for a second culture of Candida. The Wilcoxon's test was applied to compare the results of clinical classification of the denture stomatitis and the Candida spp. colonies numbers, before and after each treatment. The Kruskall-Wallis's test was used to compare efficacy among the three treatment groups.
Results.There were a significant reduction or complete remission of denture stomatitis (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease of Candida colonies for the three groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the efficacy among the treatment groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusion.Brazilian green propolis has a similar effect as miconazole in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis being an alternative in the therapeutics of this condition.
- Suppression of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Sunitinib Enhances Oncolytic Virotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Ther 2013 Jun 4.
The use of lytic viruses to preferentially infect and eliminate cancer cells while sparing normal cells is a promising experimental therapeutic approach for treating cancer. However, the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy is often limited by two innate immunity pathways, the protein kinase PKR and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate (OAS)/RNase L systems, which are widely present in many but not all tumor cell types. Previously, we reported that the anticancer drug, sunitinib, an inhibitor of VEGF-R and PDGF-R, has off-target effects against both PKR and RNase L. Here we show that combining sunitinib treatments with infection by an oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), led to the elimination of prostate, breast, and kidney malignant tumors in mice. In contrast, either virus or sunitinib alone slowed tumor progression but did not eliminate tumors. In prostate tumors excised from treated mice, sunitinib decreased levels of the phosphorylated form of translation initiation factor, eIF2-α, a substrate of PKR, by 10-fold while increasing median viral titers by 23-fold. The sunitinib/VSV regimen caused complete and sustained tumor regression in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. Results indicate that transient inhibition of innate immunity with sunitinib enhances oncolytic virotherapy allowing the recovery of tumor-bearing animals.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.112.
- Evaluation of cre recombinase delivery in mammalian cells using baculovirus infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biotechnol 2013 May 31.
In vivo conditional knock-out of a protein is a method of choice to decipher its biological function. It can be achieved by encoding the cre-recombinase on a recombinant virus to exert spatio-temporal control of its expression and enzymatic activity and, subsequently, of the target gene deletion. Recombinant baculoviruses have been successfully used to express a wide range of proteins in insect cells. More recently, their potential to infect mammalian cells has been addressed but, so far, their ability to yield a conditional knock-out as a result of efficient in vivo cre-recombinase gene delivery has not been examined. Cre-recombinase fused to the green fluorescent protein was cloned under the control of the CAG promoter in a recombinant Autographa californica baculovirus expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope G protein for increased mammalian cell infection. Gene delivery was evaluated in vitro in mammalian cells, neuroblastoma and mouse primary neuronal cultures as well as in vivo in the mouse brain. Infection with adeno-associated viruses encoding the cre-recombinase fused to the green fluorescent protein was performed as a positive control. Our results indicate that baculovirus infection leads to functional cre-recombinase expression in non-neuronal and neuroblastoma cell lines but not in mouse primary neuronal cultures or brain.
- Elevated serum IgE in recurrent aphthous stomatitis and associations with disease characteristics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oral Dis 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVES:To characterize demographic, clinical and serological parameters in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients and analyse their association with serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Forty-nine patients with RAS responded to a questionnaire that included demographic background, stress status, smoking habits, history and course of RAS episodes. They were also subjected to relevant laboratory tests, including determination of serum IgE levels.
RESULTS:A familial history of RAS was reported by 47.9% of the patients, stress in the previous year by 51.1% and smoking by 18.4%. Non-Caucasian origin, familial history of RAS, stress and smoking were associated with increased severity of RAS episodes. Haematological deficiencies were observed in 18.7% of RAS patients. Average IgE levels were increased and were significantly associated with younger age, ≤12 years of schooling, female gender, RAS episode frequency of every 2 weeks, early onset of RAS episodes and elevated C reactive protein levels.
CONCLUSION:Immunoglobulin E levels may be considered as part of the RAS patient's work-up. Further research is needed to identify biological mechanisms that account for the observed associations.
- Multicenter phase II study of capecitabine combined with nedaplatin for recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2013 Jun 1.