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- [Chlamydial infection morbidity in Lviv region during 1992-2012]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Lik Sprava 2013 Sep; (6):111-5.
An epidemiological analysis (in retrospective form) of registered chlamydial infection morbidity in Lviv region during 1992-2012 on the basis of Lviv Regional Dermatovenerology Dispensary was performed. Two trends were detected during the epidemiological study of STI dynamic in Lviv region during 1992-2012: the decline in the number of registered patients with gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and increase the number of people suffering from urogenital mycoplasmosis. Chlamydial infection during last years has tended to reduce the number of registered patients, although the rates of decline are negligible. The number of patients with Chlamydial infection is growing among rural population.
- Recombinant Treponema pallidum Protein Tp0965 Activates Endothelial Cells and Increases the Permeability of Endothelial Cell Monolayer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(12):e115134.
The recombinant Treponema pallidum protein Tp0965 (rTp0965), one of the many proteins derived from the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, shows strong immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of rTp0965 on the endothelial barrier. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with rTp0965 resulted in increased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. These increases contributed to the adhesion and chemataxis of monocytes (THP-1 cells) to HUVECs preincubated with rTp0965. In addition, rTp0965 induced reorganization of F-actin and decreased expression of claudin-1 in HUVECs. Interestingly, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway protected against rTp0965-induced higher endothelial permeability as well as transendothelial migration of monocytes. These data indicate that Tp0965 protein may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis.
- Evolution of the syphilis epidemic among men who have sex with men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sex Health 2014 Dec 17.
Syphilis has existed for millenni, but its epidemiology was only recently linked to men who have sex with men (MSM) after the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s; the syphilis epidemic became concentrated within the MSM community in subsequent decades. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s led to a surge of new syphilis cases and revealed the potentiation between HIV and syphilis, as evidenced by a shift in the natural history of neurosyphilis. In response, MSM revolutionised their sexual behaviour by implementing community-driven seroadaptive strategies to stem HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control in the US called for the elimination of syphilis in the late 1990s since the rates had fallen sharply but this effort was overtaken by a resurgence of global outbreaks among MSM in the 2000s, many of which were linked to methamphetamine use and sexual networking websites. Syphilis remains highly prevalent today, especially among MSM and individuals infected with HIV, and it continues to present a significant public health conundrum. Innovative syphilis prevention strategies are warranted. MSM engaging in high-risk behaviour such as condomless anal receptive intercourse, sex with multiple partners or recreational drug use should be routinely screened for syphilis infection; they should also be counselled about the limits of seroadaptive behaviours and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis as they relate to syphilis transmission.
- Impact of HIV-1 infection on the clinical presentation of syphilis in men who have sex with men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sex Health 2014 Dec 17.
Men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those with HIV-1 infection, are disproportionately affected by syphilis in higher income countries. The course, and some of the clinical features of the disease, especially the development of neurosyphilis, can be affected by HIV-1 co-infection. This review documents potential differences in the clinical features of syphilis in HIV-1 infected and uninfected MSM and highlights the importance of a thorough examination and high index of suspicion when seeing and treating MSM at risk of sexually transmissible infections.
- Will a quadruple multiplexed point-of-care screening strategy for HIV-related co-infections be feasible and impact detection of new co-infections in at-risk populations? Results from cross-sectional studies. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2014; 4(12):e005040.
Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations.A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada.Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%).A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up.
- Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Syphilis, and Co-infections among Antenatal Women in a Tertiary Institution in South East, Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014 Nov; 4(6):954-8.
Sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS are a major public health concern owing to both their prevalence and propensity to affect offspring through vertical transmission.The aim was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis, and co-infections among antenatal women in Enugu, South-East Nigeria.A retrospective study of antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East Nigeria from 1(st) May 2006 to 30(th) April 2008. A pretested data extraction form was used to obtain data on sociodemographic variables and screening test results from the antenatal records. The analysis was done with SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL, USA).A total of 1239 antenatal records was used for the study. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among the antenatal women were 12.4% (154/1239), 3.4% (42/1239) 2.6 (32/1239) 0.08% (1/1239), respectively. The HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infection prevalence rates were 0.24% (3/1239), 0.16% (2/1239), respectively. There was no HBC and HCV co-infection among both HIV positive and negative antenatal women. There was no statistically significant difference in HBV and HCV infection between the HIV positive and negative antenatal women. The only woman that was seropositive for syphilis was also positive to HIV.The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis is still a challenge in Enugu. Community health education is necessary to reduce the prevalence of this infection among the most productive and economically viable age bracket.
- Seven years of undiagnosed syphilis: a missed opportunity for mother and child. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J STD AIDS 2014 Dec 12.
We report the case of congenital syphilis diagnosed in a 7-year-old child after her 32-year-old mother was investigated for neurosyphilis. Our case illustrates the importance of antenatal syphilis screening and the need for a clear referral and management pathway for women with positive serology to ensure cases such as ours do not occur in the future.
- Correlates of prevalent HIV infection among adults and adolescents in the Kisumu incidence cohort study, Kisumu, Kenya. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J STD AIDS 2014 Dec 12.
We estimated HIV prevalence and identified correlates of HIV infection among 1106 men and women aged 16-34 years residing in Kisumu, Kenya. Demographic, sexual, and other behavioural data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview in conjunction with a medical examination, real-time parallel rapid HIV testing, and laboratory testing for pregnancy, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with prevalent HIV infection by gender. Overall HIV prevalence was 12.1%. HIV prevalence among women (17.1%) was approximately two and one half times the prevalence among men (6.6%). Odds of HIV infection in men increased with age (aOR associated with one year increase in age = 1.21, CI = 1.07-1.35) and were greater among those who were uncircumcised (aOR = 4.42, CI = 1.41-13.89) and those who had an herpes simplex virus type 2 positive (aOR = 3.13, CI = 1.12-8.73) test result. Odds of prevalent HIV infection among women also increased with age (aOR associated with one year increase in age = 1.16, CI = 1.04-1.29). Women who tested herpes simplex virus type 2 positive had more than three times the odds (aOR = 3.85, CI = 1.38-10.46) of prevalent HIV infection compared with those who tested herpes simplex virus type 2 negative. Tailored sexual health interventions and programs may help mitigate HIV age and gender disparities.
- Point-of-Care Treponemal Tests for Neurosyphilis Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2015 Jan; 42(1):48-52.
The laboratory diagnosis of neurosyphilis rests upon identifying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities, including CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) reactivity. The CSF-VDRL may not be available in the parts of the world where neurosyphilis is most common. Treponemal immunochromatographic strip tests (ICSTs) have been developed as point-of-care tests on blood for syphilis diagnosis in resource-limited settings.We optimized 3 commercial ICSTs for performance on CSF and tested CSF samples from 217 patients with syphilis. The Syphicheck-WB test (Qualpro Diagnostics, Goa, India; "Syphicheck") was chosen for further study based on agreement with CSF-VDRL test results. We determined CSF-Syphicheck titers for 152 samples. We modified the CSF-Syphicheck for point-of-care testing in a US sexually transmitted diseases clinic and compared results on 102 paired centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF samples obtained in the laboratory to the results obtained at point of care; results of samples diluted 1:4 were compared in a subset.The diagnostic sensitivity of a reactive CSF-Syphicheck (62%-64%) and the diagnostic specificity of a CSF-Syphicheck titer at or above 1:4 (79%-81%) were equivalent to the CSF-VDRL (54%-69% sensitivity, 73%-75% specificity) for laboratory and clinical neurosyphilis diagnoses. The CSF-Syphicheck normalized after neurosyphilis therapy similarly to the CSF-VDRL. The modified CSF-Syphicheck performed well at the point of care, albeit with better performance on cell-free compared with uncentrifuged CSF.Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal ICSTs hold promise for point-of-care neurosyphilis diagnosis in regions where the CSF-VDRL is not available. Further study should address the performance of CSF ICSTs in resource-limited settings.
- Test positivity for Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infection among a cohort of individuals released from jail in marion county, indiana. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2015 Jan; 42(1):30-6.
Individuals entering jails have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), but there are few data on STI in the postincarceration period. This study aimed to describe rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infection among individuals released from Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana jails.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals incarcerated in Marion County, Indiana jails from 2003 to 2008 (n = 118,670). We linked county jail and public health data to identify individuals with positive STI test results in the 1 year after release from jail. Rates per 100,000 individuals and Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for each STI, stratified by demographic, STI, and jail characteristics.We found significantly higher rates of STI in this cohort than in the general population, with rates in the 1 year after release being 2 to 7 times higher for chlamydia, 5 to 24 times higher for gonorrhea, and 19 to 32 times higher for syphilis compared with rates in the general population. Characteristics most associated with increased risk of a positive STI test result among this cohort were younger age for chlamydia and gonorrhea, older age for syphilis, black race for men, being jailed for prostitution for women, history of STI, and history of prior incarceration.This study found high rates of STIs among a cohort of individuals recently released from jail and identified a number of risk factors. Further study is needed to improve targeted STI testing and treatment among this high-risk population.