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- HIV Incidence in Asia: A Review of Available Data and Assessment of the Epidemic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS Rev 2013 May 17; 15(2):67-76.
Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.
- HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis prevalence and coinfection among sex workers in Southern Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2013 May 10.:0.
Introduction Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to HIV, hepatitis, and syphilis coinfection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tubarão, Laguna, and Imbituba, Southern Brazil. We surveyed 147 SWs using face-to-face interviews and blood sampling for serological evaluation. Results Prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) was 23.1%, syphilis 19.7%, hepatitis C (HCV) 8.8%, and HIV 8.8%. Of 13 HIV-infected patients, 3 were co-infected with HCV, 4 with syphilis, and 5 with HBV. Conclusions SWs had high HIV infection rates, and coinfection with viral hepatitis and syphilis.
- [Spontaneous and voluntary fetal losses in Brazil in 1999-2000: a study of associated factors]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Bras Epidemiol 2013 Mar; 16(1):18-29.
Despite its illegality in Brazil, about 31% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Most abortions are performed by unskilled personnel and under unsafe conditions, resulting in increased female mortality. This study used data from a cross-sectional representative sample of 3,047 puerperal women, in 1999-2000, part of a national multicenter study on the prevalence of syphilis in Brazil. Of these, 1,838 women with at least one previous pregnancy before the reference pregnancy were included in the analysis. The outcomes studied were voluntary prior fetal loss, spontaneous prior fetal loss, and no prior fetal loss. The analysis was carried out using multinomial logistic regression. The results indicated a high number of fetal losses per woman (up to six); and 31% of the losses were voluntary. The absence of prenatal care, history of STD in the reference pregnancy, and absence of living children were factors that increased the odds of fetal loss. For voluntary fetal loss, being non-white, having more than one partner in the previous year, and an early age at first sexual intercourse also increased the odds of fetal loss. These data confirm the public health relevance of abortion in Brazil. Characteristics related to women´s vulnerability should be considered in family planning programs in order to reduce the number of abortions and their consequences. Counseling must also be provided, targeting women with a previous abortion.
- Secondary syphilis presenting as a generalized lymphadenopathy: clinical mimicry of malignant lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Jun; 40(6):490-2.
The diagnosis of syphilis remains challenging. The absence of classical features of the disease, such as the rash of secondary syphilis or genital lesion, may pose diagnostic difficulties. In this article, we report a case of secondary syphilis in which the clinical syndrome and pattern of fluorodeoxyglucose uptake mimicked malignant lymphoma. This case highlights the importance of thorough history taking including sexual contact. Clinicians should be alert for syphilis-underlying unexplained lymphadenopathy, even in the absence of typical rash or genital lesion.
- A cross-sectional study of sexually transmitted pathogen prevalence and condom use with commercial and noncommercial sex partners among clients of female sex workers in southern India. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2013 Jun; 40(6):482-9.
Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are an important bridging population for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, the extent of risk to female noncommercial partners (NCPs) of clients has not been explored.Data originated from a cross-sectional behavioral and biological survey of FSW clients from 5 districts in Karnataka state, southern India. Clients were classified into 3 groups: married, single with at least 1 NCP, and single without an NCP. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between group membership and condom use patterns with FSWs and, where applicable, NCPs. HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and other sexually transmitted infections were examined. Normalized weights were used to account for a complex sampling design.Most respondents in our sample (n = 2328) were married (61%). Compared with single respondents without an NCP, married clients were more likely to never use condoms with both occasional (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.5; P < 0.0001) and regular (AOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; P = 0.015) FSWs. Among clients with an NCP, married clients were at higher odds of never using a condom with their NCP (AOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 3.7-8.1; P < 0.0001). Overall prevalence for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and chlamydia or gonorrhea infection was 5.7%, 28.3%, 3.6%, and 2.1%, respectively. The prevalence of HSV-2 was 37%, 16%, and 19% among those who were married, those single without an NCP, and those single with an NCP, respectively.Married respondents were least likely to use condoms with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, while also having the highest prevalence of HSV-2. These results illustrate the risk posed to both commercial partners and NCPs of married clients.
- Eye Banking and Corneal Transplantation Communicable Adverse Incidents: Current Status and Project NOTIFY. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cornea 2013 May 14.
PURPOSE:: Evidence of the transmission of disease via donor ocular tissue has been demonstrated for adenocarcincoma, rabies, hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and a variety of bacterial and fungal infections.
METHODS::Although there is no evidence to date of disease transmission for HIV infection, syphilis, hepatitis C, hepatitis A, tuberculosis, HTLV-1 and -2 infection, active leprosy, active typhoid, smallpox, and active malaria, these entities remain contraindications for transplantation for all eye banks nationally and internationally. The potential sources of contamination include infected donors, during the process of removing tissue from cadaveric donors, the processing environment, and contaminated supplies and reagents used during processing. The transmissions of Herpes simplex virus and HSV via corneal graft have been shown to be responsible for primary graft failure. HSV-1 may also be an important cause of PFG.
RESULTS::The long latency period of some diseases, the emergence of new infectious disease, and the reemergence of others emphasize the need for long-term record maintenance and effective tracing capabilities.
CONCLUSIONS::The standardization of definitions for adverse events and reactions will be necessary to support the prevention and transmission of disease. International classification of a unique identification system for donors will be increasingly important for vigilance and traceability in cross-national exportation of human cells, tissues, and cellular- and tissue-based products. Opportunities for continuous improvement exist as does the need for constant vigilance and surveillance.
- An annular patch of the scalp reveals tertiary syphilis. [LETTER]
- Int J Dermatol 2013 May 15.
- Male breast disease: pictorial review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. [Journal Article]
- Radiographics 2013 May; 33(3):763-79.
The male breast is susceptible to many of the same pathologic processes as the female breast. Many of these conditions have mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance imaging findings that allow differentiation between clearly benign conditions and those that require biopsy. Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast and has characteristic imaging features that usually allow differentiation from malignancy. Mammography is the initial imaging modality for a clinically suspicious mass. A palpable mass that is occult or incompletely imaged at mammography mandates targeted US. Suspicious or indeterminate masses require biopsy, which can usually be performed with US guidance. Approximately 0.7% of breast cancers occur in men. Men with breast cancer often present at a more advanced stage than do women owing to a delay in diagnosis. Benign breast neoplasms that may occur in men include angiolipoma, schwannoma, intraductal papilloma, and lipoma. Benign nonneoplastic entities that may occur in the male breast include intramammary lymph node, sebaceous cyst, diabetic mastopathy, hematoma, fat necrosis, subareolar abscess, breast augmentation, venous malformation, secondary syphilis, and nodular fasciitis. Familiarity with the salient features of the classic benign male breast conditions will allow accurate imaging interpretation and avoid unnecessary and often invasive treatment. © RSNA, 2013.
- Peripheral neuropathy caused by cryoglobulinaemia with false-positive serological tests of syphilis. [Letter]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2013 May; 126(10):1996.