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- The pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - the physicians: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) and Karel Wenckebach (1864-1940). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Biogr 2014 Jul 22.
Three physicians are discussed. Sigmund Freud, probably the best-known member of the Vienna School of Medicine, was the path-breaking pioneer in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Julius Wagner-Jauregg was a psychiatrist who discovered the link between iodine deficiency and goitre and also developed malaria therapy to treat progressive paralysis caused by syphilis for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Karel Wenckebach, the pioneering Dutch cardiologist, is best known for the Wenckebach block. After the Anschluss, fate dealt very different hands to these three physicians. Freud fled to London where he soon died. Wagner-Jauregg, who had some pan-Germanic sympathies as well as views on eugenics, left a controversial legacy. The Dutch cardiologist Wenckebach died in Vienna shortly after his homeland had been invaded in 1940 by that of his hosts.
- The Pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - The medical scientists: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Biogr 2014 Jul 22.
Two famous medical scientists are described whose major advances were made largely from laboratory-based research. Karl Landsteiner, who received the Nobel Prize in 1930, was the discoverer or co-discoverer of the blood groups and the Rhesus factor. He contributed to the understanding of poliomyelitis, syphilis and typhus. He made major contributions to immunology, inter alia by isolating haptens. After World War I, he left Austria and continued his work initially in the Netherlands and then at the Rockefeller Institute in the USA. Otto Loewi, a pharmacologist, received his Nobel Prize (jointly with his life-long friend, Sir Henry Dale) in 1936 for his discovery that acetylcholine was the chemical agent for the stimulation of autonomic nerves to transmit to the organs they govern. He also made numerous other contributions including the demonstration that amino acids could be converted by animals to proteins. He left Austria after the Anschluss and settled in the USA.
- [Leukocyte elastase, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and C-reactive protein in patients with delayed negativation of serological reactions after treatment of early syphilis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter 2014 Jan-Mar; (1):8-12.
It was investigated the activity of leukocyte elastase, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and C-reactive protein in patients with delayed negativation of serological reactions after a treatment of syphilis. The patients were divided into three subgroups. The first subgroup consisted of patients who did not have the signs of non-specific immune system response. Second subgroup consisted of patients with clear signs of infection process. The patients this subgroup had elevated values of the contents of inflammatory mediators. The remaining patients with questionable results were attributed in the third subgroup. The obtained results can be of great value to determine further treatment strategy in patients with delayed negativation of serological reactions.
- Current trends in donor testing to detect syphilis infection. [Journal Article]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2014 Sep; 16(9):423.
Potential organ and tissue donors are tested to detect infection with T. pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. Important considerations for testing potential donors include available specimen type and volume, turnaround time, and ability to distinguish between past and current infection. Aspects of syphilis infection that inform organ and tissue donor assay selection and interpretation and the principles underlying available assays are described. Serologic assays for syphilis are the methods most commonly used in donor testing. The two categories of serologic assays, treponemal and nontreponemal, have advantages and limitations for testing potential donors. Knowledge of the common syphilis-testing algorithms used in clinical diagnostic testing is useful for assay selection in the organ and tissue donor setting.
- Seroprevalence of syphilis and biologically false positive cases in a tertiary care center. [Letter]
- Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2014 Jul-Aug; 80(4):340-1.
- The Social Justice Agenda. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Public Health 2014 Jul 17.:e1-e3.
I do not pretend to understand the moral universe. The arc is a long one. My eye reaches but little ways. I cannot calculate the curve and complete the figure by experience of sight. I can divine it by conscience. And from what I see I am sure it bends toward justice. -Theodore Parker, 19th century abolitionist and Unitarian minister Four years ago, I wrote a chapter for a volume since published titled, "The Search for the Legacy of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee: Reflective Essays Based Upon Findings From the Tuskegee Legacy Project."(1) (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 17, 2014: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302127).
- Delayed Onset of the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction in Doxycycline-Treated Disease: A Case Report and Review of its Histopathology and Implications for Pathogenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Jul 15.
: The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient inflammatory syndrome triggered hours after the start of antibiotic treatment of spirochete infections, namely syphilis. Clinically, JHR manifests as an abrupt onset of constitutional symptoms and exacerbation of cutaneous lesions that resolve without intervention. JHR's pathogenesis is unclear and it is histopathologically rarely reported. Herein, the authors report a 47-year-old woman, with solitary erythema migrans and positive Lyme disease serology, who presented for medical care 14 days after commencement of doxycycline therapy. She complained of malaise, facial flushing, gingival erythema, and acquisition of additional plaques characterized by swelling, increased erythema, pruritus, and exfoliative scale. Punch biopsies demonstrated subacute to chronic spongiotic psoriasiform reaction patterns with a superficial lymphocytic infiltrate. By Borrelia-specific immunohistochemistry, spirochetes were found in the deep dermis, unassociated with inflammation, and focally in the upper spinous layer, associated with spongiosis. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction. Doxycycline was discontinued, and symptoms and signs resolved within a few days. Liberation of endotoxin-like materials (eg, lipoproteins) from degenerating spirochetes and concomitant cytokine production is the suspected cause of JHR and supported by the finding of lesional spirochetes. Alternatively, a reversal reaction with a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction is also a plausible cause based on spirochetes found in the lymphocytic spongiotic dermatitis.
- A reaudit of the management of syphilis in pregnancy in a large inner London hospital. [Letter]
- Sex Transm Infect 2014 Aug; 90(5):381.
- [Syphilis: the new epidemic among MSM]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 Jun 12.:38-43; quiz 44.
- [An increase in the prevalence of syphilis in women in Eastern Bohemia - 30 years of surveillance.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2014; 63(2):95-98.
Epidemiological data on sexually transmitted infections in the Czech Republic has been carefully reported for many years. Here we present an analysis of regional data on syphilis spanning more than 30 years in eastern Bohemia. The epidemiological data were derived from the mandatory reporting of sexually transmitted diseases covering the period 1981-2011. The data showed a minimal incidence of cases in 1990 and an increasing trend thereafter. Two peaks in the incidence are apparent - within years 1995-1999 and 2003-2007. Interestingly, while before 1990 the numbers of positive men always exceeded those of women, their numbers equalized or even reversed within the two peaks. The results may also reflect trends in social change in the country after 1989. The analysis showed that the regional prevalence of syphilis in eastern Bohemia still remains low compared to some other regions of the Czech Republic. Keywords: syphilis - Treponema pallidum - Czech Republic.