- CoP Nanoparticles in Situ Grown in Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Nanoporous Carbons as Superior Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Jul 28.
The development of efficient and low-cost hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is critical for storing energy in hydrogen via water splitting, but still presents great challenges. Herein, we report synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) hierarchical nanoporous carbon (HNC) supported transition metal phosphides (TMPs) for the first time by in-situ growth of CoP nanoparticles (NPs) in CaCO3 NP-templated Cinnamomum platyphyllum leaf extract-derived carbon. They were subsequently employed as a HER catalyst, showing an onset potential of 7 mV, an overpotential of 95.8 mV to achieve 10 mA cm(-2), a Tafel plot of 33 mV dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 0.1182 mA cm(-2), of which the onset overpotential and the Tafel plot are the lowest reported for non-noble-metal HER catalysts, and the overpotential to achieve 10 mA cm(-2) and the exchange current density also compare favorably to most reported HER catalysts. In addition, this catalyst exhibits excellent durability with negligible loss in current density after 2000 CV cycles ranging from +0.01 to -0.17 V vs. RHE at a scan rate of 100 mV s(-1) or 22 h of chronoamperometric measurement at an overpotential of 96 mV and a high Faraday efficiency of close to 100%. This work not only creates a novel high-performance non-noble-metal HER electrocatalyst and demonstrates the great advantages of the in-situ grown 3-D HNC supported TMP NPs for the electrocatalysis of HER, but also offers scientific insight into the mechanism for the in-situ growth of TMP and their precursor NPs, in which an ultra-low reactant concentration and rich functional groups on the 3-D HNC support play critical roles.
- Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Sci Total Environ 2016 Jul 18.
This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants.
- Bioactivation of trimethoprim to protein-reactive metabolites in human liver microsomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Metab Dispos 2016 Jul 25.
The formation of drug-protein adducts via metabolic activation and covalent binding (CVB) may stimulate an immune response or result in direct cell toxicity. Protein CVB is a potentially pivotal step in the development of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a combination antibiotic that commonly causes IADRs. Recent data suggest that the contribution of the TMP component of TMP-SMX to IADRs may be underappreciated. We have previously demonstrated that TMP is bioactivated to chemically reactive intermediates that can be trapped in vitro by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and we have detected TMP-NAC adducts (i.e., mercapturic acids) in the urine of patients taking TMP-SMX. However the occurrence and extent of TMP CVB to proteins was unknown. To determine the ability of TMP to form protein adducts, we incubated [14C]TMP with human liver microsomes in the presence and absence of NADPH. We observed protein CVB that was NADPH-dependent and increased with incubation time and concentration of both protein and TMP. The estimated CVB was 0.8 nmol-equivalent TMP/mg protein, which is comparable to the level of CVB for several other drugs that have been associated with CVB induced toxicity and/or IADRs. Selective inhibitors of CYPs 2B6 and 3A4, as well as NAC, significantly reduced TMP CVB. These results demonstrate for the first time that TMP bioactivation can lead directly to protein adduct formation suggesting that TMP has been overlooked as a potential contributor of TMP-SMX IADRs.
- The Synthesis and Properties of Solution Processable a Red Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complex with Alkyl Group. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2016 Mar; 16(3):2696-700.
The (TMP-HT)2Ir(acac) was synthesized with 2-bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine and 5-hexyl-2-thiopheneboronic acid pinacol ester for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This material was designed on the basis of Gaussian modeling program results. The ligands have both the electron donor and acceptor in a molecule. There are pyridyl group which decrease electron density and thiophene group which increase electron density. Therefore, it showed intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) property. For solution process, the ligand have a alkyl group which has hydrophobic property. The (TMP-HT)21r(acac) was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction and Nonoyama reaction. The (TMP-HT)21r(acac) emitted at approximately 600 nm. The device structures were ITO/PEDOT (500 Å)/TFB (170 Å)/PVK:PBD (40%): (TMPHT)21r(acac) (300 Å:10%)/BH:BD5% (150 Å)/L201(50 Å)/Liq(200 Å)/Al. Electroluminescent properties were observed with devices doped with various doping concentrations.
- Artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction of depth filter loading capacity for filter sizing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biotechnol Prog 2016 Jul 25.
This paper presents an application of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling towards prediction of depth filter loading capacity for clarification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product during commercial manufacturing. The effect of operating parameters on filter loading capacity was evaluated based on the analysis of change in the Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP) as a function of time. The proposed ANN model uses inlet stream properties (feed turbidity, feed cell count, feed cell viability), flux, and time to predict the corresponding TMP. The ANN contained a single output layer with ten neurons in hidden layer and employed a sigmoidal activation function. This network was trained with 174 training points, 37 validation points, and 37 test points. Further, a pressure cut-off of 1.1 bar was used for sizing the filter area required under each operating condition. The modelling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental data with a regression coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.98. The developed ANN model was used for performing variable depth filter sizing for different clarification lots. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the cost savings by using different filter areas for different clarification lots rather than using the same filter area. A 10% saving in cost of goods was obtained for this operation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- High strength paper production based on esterification of thermomechanical pulp fibers in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol). [Journal Article]
- Heliyon 2015 Nov; 1(3):e00038.
Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers, generally used to produce newspapers and carton materials, have poor inter- and intra-fiber bonding contributing to low strength properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) was applied as a co-additive of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), in the presence of sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as a catalyst, to esterify paper sheets based on TMP fibers. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique was used to confirm the formation of the ester bond. The effects of curing temperature, molar mass and mass amount of the PVOH on the tensile index were investigated. The increasing of the curing temperature improved further the wet tensile index. The presence of PVOH increased both the dry and the wet tensile index of the paper sheets. The rise of both the molar mass and the mass amount of PVOH improved the tensile index.
- Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) and in vitro antibacterial activity against Vibrio: PK/PD of SMZ-TMP in crabs and antibacterial activity against Vibrio. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Jul 1.:45-54.
Serious bacterial pathogens have recently become a major cause of massive mortality in swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus). In this study, the antibacterial activity against Vibrio and the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)-trimethoprim (TMP) in crabs were estimated to explore the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) properties of the SMZ-TMP combination. The in vitro bacteriostatic activity and the anti-Vibrio infection activity of the SMZ-TMP combination at various ratios in crabs were studied. A degree of synergism was observed in the SMZ-TMP combination at ratios ranging from 50:1 to 1:5. The results showed that the MIC50 and MIC90 values for different SMZ-TMP combinations were in the ranges of 0.62-5 and 0.62-10μg/mL, respectively. The distribution of the MIC values of the SMZ-TMP combination at ratios of 1:1 and 5:1 were 0.31-5 and 0.31-10μg/mL, respectively. Crabs were then fed the SMZ-TMP combination (at ratios of 5:1 and 1:1) six successive times and then challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 1×10(5), 1×10(6), and 5×10(6) colony forming units (cfu) per crab. The results showed that the number of surviving crabs administered SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 1:1 was greater than that of the crabs given SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 5:1. In addition, the tissue distribution and absorption of SMZ-TMP (ratios of 5:1 and 1:1) in crabs were studied through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the crabs fed SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 5:1, the CmaxSMZ/TMP values in the hemolymph, hepatopancreas, muscle and gill were 104:1. 0.57:1, 19:1 and 6:1, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding CmaxSMZ/TMP values in these tissues in the crabs fed SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 1:1 were 34:1, 0.14:1, 4:1 and 3:1, respectively. The results showed that TMP was better absorbed and eliminated in the crabs fed SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 1:1 than in the crabs fed this combination at a ratio of 5:1. In addition, TMP was absorbed and eliminated more rapidly in the hepatopancreas than in the gill, muscle and hemolymph. The distribution volume of TMP in the hepatopancreas exceeded that of SMZ observed in the experiments. The results indicated that the PK/PD effect of the SMZ-TMP at a ratio of 1:1 was greater than that of the combination at a ratio of 5:1. Our study suggests that a SMZ-TMP ratio of 1:1 may be used to control bacterial disease in aquatic animals.
- Efficient mineralization of the antibiotic trimethoprim by solar assisted photoelectro-Fenton process driven by a photovoltaic cell. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2016 Jul 7.:319-328.
In this study, a novel self-sustainable solar assisted photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) system driven by a solar photovoltaic cell was developed for the efficient mineralization of antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) in water. A comparative degradation of 200mgL(-1) TMP by RuO2/Ti anodic oxidation (AO), anodic oxidation with H2O2 electrogeneration (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and SPEF was investigated. SPEF was proved to exhibit the highest oxidation power, i.e., more than 80% TOC was removed after 360min SPEF treatment of 200mgL(-1) of TMP under optimal conditions at pH 3.0, 1.0mM Fe(2+) and 18mAcm(-2). Influences of current density, pH, initial Fe(2+) and initial TMP concentration on SPEF process were also studied. Ten aromatic intermediates generated from hydroxylation, carbonylation and demethylation reactions were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS system during the SPEF treatment, together with three carboxylic acids (oxamic, oxalic and formic acids) and two inorganic ions (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) measured. Therefore, a reasonable pathway of TMP degradation in SPEF process was proposed.
- Simultaneous Luminescent Thermochromism, Vapochromism, Solvatochromism, and Mechanochromism in a C3-Symmetric Cubane [Cu4I4P4] Cluster without Cu-Cu Interaction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inorg Chem 2016 Jul 19.
A chiral C3-symmetric cubane cluster, [Cu4I4(TMP)4], with enough long Cu-Cu distances to eliminate the presence of Cu-Cu interaction has been synthesized and characterized, which shows simultaneous luminescent thermochromism, solvatochromism, vapochromism, and mechanochromism and is a multiply stimuli-responsive chromic luminescent material. This complex could partly transform into a yellow-emissive bicapped cubane cluster, [Cu6I6(TMP)4(MeCN)2], in acetonitrile (MeCN) vapor and solution, which provides some insight into vapochromism and solvatiochromism. This work challenges and makes us reconsider the conventional viewpoint that Cu-Cu interaction is involved in thermochromism and mechanochromism of copper complexes.
- Tetramethylpyrazine Enhances Functional Recovery after Contusion Spinal Cord Injury by Modulation of MicroRNA-21, FasL, PDCD4 and PTEN Expression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Res 2016 Jul 15.
Our previous study showed Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has protective effects against SCI. In this study, we aimed to uncover the mechanism underlying the protective effects of TMP in SCI. SCI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a modified weight-drop device. One group was subjected to SCI in combination with TMP administration at a dose of 200mg/kg·day, for 3 days. Concurrently, another group received SCI in combination with an equal volume of 0.9% saline. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 4 weeks post-injury by performing the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating procedure. Lesion size and spared tissue were measured by cresyl violet staining. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression was determined by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN are direct targets of miR-21 in many diseases and cell types; their levels were analyzed by western blot. Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the expression of PDCD4 and PTEN. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining and DNA laddering. TMP treatment after contusion SCI significantly improved functional recovery, decreased lesion size, and increased tissue sparing and miR-21 levels; expression of FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN was decreased. TMP treatment also reduced apoptosis after SCI. Thus, TMP administration improved functional recovery and reduced cell apoptosis. Its protective effect may partly based on increasing the expression of miR-21 and decreasing the expression of FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN. These could serve as new exploratory targets for SCI treatment.