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T cell growth factor [keywords]
- A case of neuro-Sweet disease showing the close association between disease activity and levels of soluble IL-2 receptor. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014; 54(11):876-81.
A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital presenting with fever, redness and pain in both the periocular regions, and disturbance of consciousness. He had neck stiffness, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis suggested aseptic meningoencephalitis. Laboratory tests showed increased levels of C-reactive protein, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and MPO-ANCA. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperplastic bone marrow in the clivus and cervical vertebra. Although T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was detected in the bone marrow blood, bone marrow biopsy of the ilium showed no malignant findings. Then he experienced bilateral auricular inflammation and painful erythema of the ankle. A leg skin biopsy demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis with no signs of vasculitis. His HLA-type was defined as Cw1. He was subsequently diagnosed with neuro-Sweet disease. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 5 days and subsequent oral intake of prednisolone (60 mg/day) improved his symptoms. When the prednisolone dose was reduced to 30 mg/day, his symptoms returned and a new lesion was detected in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Upon additional treatment with cyclosporine, the prednisolone dose could be reduced without symptom relapse; sIL-2R and MPO-ANCA levels also decreased to normal. The present case suggested that the activity of neuro-Sweet disease may be associated with myeloid hyperplasia, T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and the amounts of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and MPO-ANCA.
- Low-grade chronic inflammation induces behavioral stereotypy in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Brain Dis 2014 Nov 21.
Schizophrenia is known to be associated with metabolic disturbances including diabetes mellitus, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. A growing body of evidence has suggested abnormal cytokine levels in schizophrenia. In the present study, we explored the effects of low-grade chronic inflammation on behavioral stereotypy in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In order to induce NAFLD, rats were fed with either water enriched with 30 % fructose or plain tap water for 8 weeks. Following feeding period, behavioral stereotypy was evaluated with apomorphine-induced stereotypy test. Also, levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the liver and brain tissues were assessed biochemically. Brain homovanilic acid (HVA) was measured to evaluate the dopamine turnover. NAFLD rats showed significantly higher stereotypy score compared to controls (p = 0.016). TNF-α, IL-2, and NF-κB levels were significantly increased in NAFLD rats compared to control group. Brain HVA levels were elevated in NAFLD rats as well (p = 0.008). Morever, NAFLD group prompted a considerable increase in brain IL-2 immunoexpression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that low-grade chronic inflammation such as NAFLD may enhance apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior via increasing dopaminergic activity in rats.
- [Effect of PD-1 deficiency on atherogenic immune responses]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug 13; 94(30):2377-81.
To explore the functional changes of T lymphocyte from PD-1(-/-) mice and the effects on atherogenic immune responses.PD-1(-/-) mice were mated with ApoE(-/-) mice to obtain PD-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. PD-1(+/+)ApoE(-/-) mice were used as control. Both groups had a high-lipid diet for 12 weeks. Then the samples of aortic sinuses were harvested for oil-red and immunohistochemical stains. Samples of spleen and sera were obtained. Numbers of lymphocytes in spleen were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS). And the cells of proliferation were also measured. The intracellular and serum cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).After a 12-week high-lipid diet, aortic root revealed more lesions in PD-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice than in PD-1(+/+)ApoE(-/-) controls ((0.51 ± 0.08) vs (0.29 ± 0.06) mm(2), t = 2.36, P < 0.01)). There was a significant increase in CD3 T cells in the lesions of PD-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice ((154.88 ± 36.64)/mm(2) vs (59.38 ± 25.28)/mm(2), t = 2.14, P < 0.01). In PD-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice, the numbers of total cells ((8.59 ± 0.55)×10(7)) and cells in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte subsets ((1.53 ± 0.18)×10(7) and (1.41 ± 0.15)×10(7)), increased significantly than those in control mice ((6.29 ± 0.39)×10(7), (0.94 ± 0.10)×10(7) and (0.70 ± 0.09)×10(7) respectively, t = 3.43, 2.88, 4.03, all P < 0.05). Same changes were detected in both CD3(+)CD62L(-) and CD3(+)CD25(+) cells. PD-1 deficiency in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells resulted in enhanced proliferation by either macrophages or dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells (APCs). The supernatant levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) ((53.38 ± 5.94) pg/ml), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ((114.50 ± 9.69) pg/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ((326.00 ± 22.25) pg/ml ) from PD-1(-/-) T cells co-cultured with CD3 were significantly higher than those of control T cells ((15.63 ± 2.23), (33.25 ± 4.16) and (64.50 ± 8.17) pg/ml respectively, t = 5.95, 7.70, 11.03, all P < 0.01). However, only the serum levels of TNF-α increased in PD-1(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice compared with control.PD-1 deficiency in T cells increase markedly immune responses. And it is one of the mechanisms in atherogenesis.
- Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection by adoptive allogeneic immunotherapy using suicide gene-modified lymphocytes: an in vitro proof-of-concept. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gene Ther 2014 Nov 13.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced, end-stage liver disease is a major indication for liver transplantation, but systematic graft reinfection accelerates liver disease recurrence. Transplantation recipients may be ineligible for direct-acting antivirals, owing to toxicity, resistance or advanced liver disease. Adoptive immunotherapy with liver graft-derived, ex vivo-activated lymphocytes was previously shown to prevent HCV-induced graft reinfections. Alternatively, the applicability and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy may be enhanced by 'ready for use' suicide gene-modified lymphocytes from healthy blood donors; moreover, conditional, prodrug-induced cell suicide may prevent potential side effects. Here, we demonstrate that allogeneic suicide gene-modified lymphocytes (SGMLs) could potently, dose- and time-dependently, inhibit viral replication. The effect occurs at effector:target cell ratios that exhibits no concomitant cytotoxicity toward virus-infected target cells. The effect, mediated mostly by CD56+ lymphocytes, is interleukin-2-dependent, IFN-γ-mediated and, importantly, resistant to calcineurin inhibitors. Thus, post-transplant immunosuppression may not interfere with this adoptive cell immunotherapy approach. Furthermore, these cells are indeed amenable to conditional cell suicide; in particular, the inducible caspase 9 suicide gene is superior to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene. Our data provide in vitro proof-of-concept that allogeneic, third-party, SGMLs may prevent HCV-induced liver graft reinfection.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2014.99.
- Changes of serum cytokines-related Th1/Th2/Th17 concentration in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2014 Nov 11.:1-8.
Abstract Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now hypothetically considered to be an autoimmune and inflammatory process in which many pro-inflammatory and T cell-derived cytokines play important roles in the loss of bone mass. For instance, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by Th1 and IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 secreted by Th2 have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a characteristic cytokine secreted by Th17 cells of the CD4 + subgroup. Although IL-17 has been shown to enhance bone resorption in ovariectomized mouse model, bone cells and genetic research, human-related studies of IL-17 are few. Methods: According to WHO classification of osteoporosis by the T scores of BMD, the subjects were divided into the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (T scores≤-2.5), the postmenopausal osteopenia group (-2.5 < T scores<-1), and the postmenopausal normal BMD group (T scores≥-1); 30 subjects in each group. Cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was employed for serum determination of the primary indexes including IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations in the 90 volunteers. In the meantime, serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were also determined in the patients. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was employed in data analysis to determine whether the testing results of various parameters had significant differences. The bivariate correlation was tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. When p < 0.05, the difference was considered to have statistical significance. Results: Serum IL-17A concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group, but the difference between the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group had no statistical significance. IL-17A was negatively correlated with BMD. To our knowledge, we discovered for the first time that serum concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 were significantly lower in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal normal BMD group; IFN-γ and IL-4 were positively correlated with BMD. In addition, we also determined that BMI was negatively correlated with BMD; IL-17A was positively correlated with serum calcium. However, no significant differences in IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-10 were observed among the three groups; these three factors were not correlated with BMD. Conclusions: Our experiments have confirmed the roles of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and in the promotion of bone resorption. Targeted therapy of IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-4 may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our experiments have also confirmed the roles of IFN-γ and IL-4 in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and in the inhibition of bone resorption.
- Prognostic and predictive markers for the new immunotherapies. [Journal Article]
- Oncology (Williston Park) 2014 Nov; 28(11 Suppl 3)
Blocking the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway with monoclonal antibodies has shown promising antitumor responses in clinical trials, with less toxicity than has been seen with prior immune therapies such as interleukin 2 and ipilimumab. Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, recently gained US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with ipilimumab-refractory melanoma, while nivolumab, another anti-PD-1 antibody, and MPDL3280A, an anti-programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) antibody, have been granted FDA "breakthrough designation" for treatment of subsets of patients with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and metastatic bladder cancer, respectively. Encouraging antitumor activity has also been seen with these agents in patients with other malignancies, including non-small-cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer, tumors not previously thought to be immune-responsive. PD-L1 expression has emerged as a potential predictive biomarker for PD-1-directed therapy. Multiple, distinct, companion assays for PD-L1 positivity have been developed, but there is as yet no comparison, standardization, or prospective validation of these assays. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and/or the tumor-immune infiltrate is likely only part of the predictive model necessary for selecting patients predisposed to respond to monotherapy. Additional predictive biomarkers are necessary to identify patients most likely to benefit from PD-1-based combination therapy, since tumor cell PD-L1 expression appears to have limited predictive value in this setting.
- Immune regulation of hydrogen sulfide in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med J (Engl) 2014 Nov; 127(21):3695-9.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chemotherapy can cause immune imbalance, and gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can participate in the process of immune response. This study aimed to investigate the immune regulation of H2S in pediatric ALL.Children (n = 78) with ALL admitted during 2010-2013 were included in this study. Two blood samples were collected in period of before chemotherapy, bone marrow remission and two days after chemotherapy, respectively. Serum contents of H2S and cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), were detected using ELISA method. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the correlation between H2S and cytokines. Furthermore, human Jurkat cells were cultured in vitro, and nucleoprotein of Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected, contents of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and certain cytokines were measured by Western blotting.Serum concentrations of H2S, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and MIP-1a in children with ALL were increased significantly (P < 0.01), while concentrations of IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 decreased obviously (P < 0.01). In patients after chemotherapy, concentrations of H2S and IL-10 were decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but IL-4 and IFN-γ concentrations increased markedly (P < 0.05). At remission stage, H2S, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and MIP-1α concentrations were further decreased markedly (P < 0.05), but concentrations of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased again (P < 0.05). Protein contents of CSE, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-2 of PBMCs also increased markedly in children with ALL. Moreover, changes of CSE protein contents of PBMCs were consistent with serum H2S contents, and there were significant correlation between H2S and certain cytokines based on stepwise regression analysis. Furthermore, compared with those of PBMCs group, in vitro study indicated that Jurkat cells of H2S group expressed IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-2 protein increased obviously (P < 0.05), while IL-4, IL-2 and CSE expression of PPG group decreased markedly (P < 0.05).Gaseous molecule H2S might participate in the process of immune regulation in pediatric ALL through modulating transcription and expression of cytokines.
- Dunaliella salina Exhibits an Antileukemic Immunity in a Mouse Model of WEHI-3 Leukemia Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Agric Food Chem 2014 Nov 14.
Dunaliella salina has been shown to have antioxidant property and induce apoptotic cell death of human cancer cells in vitro. However, there is no information available on D. salina showing an antileukemia effect or immunomodulatory activity in vivo. This study applied D. salina to syngeneic leukemia-implanted mice (BALB/c and WEHI-3) to investigate its immunological and antileukemia properties. Oral administration of D. salina (184.5, 369, and 922.5 mg/kg) inhibited spleen metastasis and prolonged the survival in BALB/c mice that had received an intravenous injection of WEHI-3 cells. The results revealed that D. salina had reduced spleen enlargement in murine leukemia. It had also increased the population and proliferation of T-cells (CD3) and B-cells (CD19) following Con A/LPS treatment on flow cytometry and MTT assay, respectively. Furthermore, D. salina increased the phagocytosis of macrophages and enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells on flow cytometry and LDH assay. Moreover, D. salina enhanced the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin 2 (IL-2) but reduced the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in leukemic mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the application of D. salina had beneficial effects on WEHI-3 leukemic mice by prolonging survival via modulating the immune responses.
- MAC-T Cells as a Tool to Evaluate Lentiviral Vector Construction Targeting Recombinant Protein Expression in Milk. [Journal Article]
- Anim Biotechnol 2015 Apr 3; 26(2):136-42.
Prior to generating transgenic animals for bioreactors, it is important to evaluate the vector constructed to avoid poor protein expression. Mammary epithelial cells cultured in vitro have been proposed as a model to reproduce the biology of the mammary gland. In the present work, three lentiviral vectors were constructed for the human growth hormone (GH), interleukin 2 (IL2), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3) genes driven by the bovine β-casein promoter. The lentiviruses were used to transduce mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), and the transformed cells were cultured on polystyrene in culture medium with and without prolactin. The gene expression of transgenes was evaluated by PCR using cDNA, and recombinant protein expression was evaluated by Western-blotting using concentrated medium and cellular extracts. The gene expression, of the three introduced genes, was detected in both induced and non induced MAC-T cells. The human GH protein was detected in the concentrated medium, whereas CSF3 was detected in the cellular extract. Apparently, the cellular extract is more appropriate than the concentrated medium to detect recombinant protein, principally because concentrated medium has a high concentration of bovine serum albumin. The results suggest that MAC-T cells may be a good system to evaluate vector construction targeting recombinant protein expression in milk.
- Molecular cloning, sequence, and phylogenetic analysis of T helper 1 cytokines of pashmina goats. [Journal Article]
- Anim Biotechnol 2015 Apr 3; 26(2):120-9.
Cytokines play an important role in regulation of immune responses either in health or disease. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding mature Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IL-12 p35 and p40 of Pashmina goat were cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence was deduced from nucleotide sequence and compared with those available in GeneBank. Mature forms of goat IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40 composed of 135, 143, 196, and 305 amino acid residues, respectively. Comparison of amino acid sequence of goat IL-2 with sheep, buffalo, cattle, pig, camel, cat, and human sequences showed homology percentages of 100, 97.8, 96.3, 72.4, 72.4, 67.2, and 64.7, respectively. Amino acid sequence of goat IFN-γ showed 98.6, 95.8, 81.1, 81.8, 80.4, and 62.9 percent homology with sheep, bovine, pig, horse, dog, and humans, respectively. Homology ranging from 81.6 to 99% for IL-12 p35 sequences and 85.6 to 100% for IL-12 p40 sequences at amino acid level were observed across these species. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of goat cytokines revealed close relationship with sheep sequence.