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T cell growth factor [keywords]
- Attenuation of early atherosclerotic lesions by immunotolerance with β2 glycoprotein I and the immunomodulatory effectors interleukin 2 and 10 in a murine model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2014 Jul 17.
This study assessed the effect of cellular and humoral autoimmune response inhibition after immunization with β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) and the effect of immunomodulation with interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 in the development of early atherosclerotic vascular lesion in a murine model. Atherosclerosis is increasingly considered a chronic inflammatory disease with pathogenic autoimmune processes. Regulatory T cells, and their cytokines, have been implicated in the inhibition of the development of atherosclerotic lesions and involved in the immunologic tolerance induction.Eight-week-old male C57BL6 LDL-receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice were fed a cholesterol-rich (2.8%), high-saturated-fat (82%) diet for a week and divided in five groups. The groups received the following intravenous immunizations: group I (control group): one dose of 5 μg β2-GPI; group II: 5 μg β2-GPI I and 1 μg IL-2; group III: 5 μg β2-GPI and 0.75 μg of IL-10; and group IV: 5 μg β2-GPI, 1 μg IL-2, and 0.75 μg IL-10. The aortas of the mice were assessed 8 weeks after inoculation to determine the aortic lesion size and composition in all groups.β2-GPI immunization attenuated the early atherosclerotic lesions development compared with the control group (P = .001). Macroscopic and histologic aortic atherosclerotic lesions were significantly decreased in the IL-2 and IL-10-treated groups in β2-GPI-tolerant mice compared with the β2-GPI-tolerant group without cytokine injection (P = .001). The association of both cytokines did not provoke a major inhibition in the atherosclerosis development when compared with groups injected with the two cytokines separately.The immunotolerance induction against β2-GPI attenuates the development of atherosclerosis lesions in an animal model, enhanced by downregulation of the cellular and humoral autoimmune response provoked by IL-2 and IL-10.
- Expression of cytokines on the iris of patients with neovascular glaucoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Ophthalmol 2014 Jul 13.
To determine the expression levels of cytokines, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and cell migration associated factors on the iris from subjects with neovascular glaucoma (NVG).After receiving formal consent from 12 subjects with NVG secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 12 subjects with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), trabeculectomy was performed and iris specimens were collected during the surgery. Each subject with NVG received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1 week prior to the surgery. The mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblastic growth factor, placental-induced growth factor, interleukin-2, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and integrin subunit αV were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels were compared between the two groups.The mRNA levels of all inflammatory cytokines and integrin subunit αV were significantly increased in the NVG group compared with POAG controls. However, the mRNA level of growth factors and ICAM-1 did not show any difference between the two groups.Inflammatory process maybe an important cause of iris neovascularization in subjects with NVG in addition to growth factors alone. Further studies should focus on the effect of growth factors in different phases in the pathogenesis of NVG.
- Stereospecificity of ginsenoside rg3 in the promotion of cellular immunity in hepatoma h22-bearing mice. [Journal Article]
- J Food Sci 2014 Jul; 79(7):H1430-5.
Previous investigations have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has many actions including antitumor, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Rg3 exists as 2 stereoisomeric pairs, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(S)-Rg3] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3], which have disparate pharmacological actions because of their different chemical structures. In this study, the 2 epimers were compared for their effects on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma H22 transplanted tumors and the immune function of H22-bearing mice. In vivo efficacy study showed that the growth of H22 transplanted tumors was significantly inhibited when treated with 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 (P < 0.05), and the inhibition rate of tumor growth was 23.6% and 40.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the cellular immunity of H22-bearing mice was remarkably enhanced after Rg3 treatment (P < 0.05), which may be due to stimulation of ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and augmentation of Th1-type cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-γ levels in mice. Interestingly, the effects of 20(R)-Rg3 were significantly greater than those of the S-form (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that Rg3 inhibits H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly by improving the host's cellular immunity in a stereospecific manner, and 20(R)-Rg3 is more potent for treating cancers or other immune-mediated diseases clinically.
- Autoimmune diseases association study with the KIAA1109-IL2-IL21 region in a Tunisian population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Biol Rep 2014 Jul 19.
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) share several genetic factors resulting in similarity of disease mechanisms. For instance polymorphisms from the KIAA1109-interleukin 2 (IL2)-IL21 block in the 4q27 chromosome, has been associated with a number of autoimmune phenotypes. Here we performed a haplotype-based analysis of this AD related region in Tunisian patients. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs6534347, rs11575812, rs2069778, rs2069763, rs2069762, rs6852535, rs12642902, rs6822844, rs2221903, rs17005931) of the block were investigated in a cohort of 93 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 68 ulcerative colitis (UC), 39 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 162 healthy control subjects of Tunisian origin. In SLE population, haplotypes AGCAGGGTC, AGAAGAGTC, AGAAGGGTC and AGCCGAGTC provided significant evidence of association with SLE risk (p = 0.013, 0.028, 0.018 and 0.048, respectively). In the UC population, haplotype AGCCGGGTC provided a susceptibility effect for UC (p = 0.025). In the CD population, haplotype CAGGCC showed a protective effect against the development of CD (p = 0.038). Haplotype AAGGTT provided significant evidence to be associated with CD risk (p = 0.007). Our results support the existence of the associations found in the KIAA1109/IL2/IL21 gene region with ADs, thus confirms that the 4q27 locus may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of ADs in the Tunisian population.
- Palbociclib, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase4/6, blocks HIV-1 reverse transcription through the control of sterile α motif and HD domain-containing protein-1 activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AIDS 2014 Jul 17.
Sterile α motif and HD domain-containing protein-1 (SAMHD1) inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription by decreasing the pool of intracellular deoxynucleotides. SAMHD1 is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated phosphorylation. However, the exact mechanism of SAMHD1 regulation in primary cells is unclear. We explore the effect of palbociclib, a CDK6 inhibitor, in HIV-1 replication.Human primary monocytes were differentiated into macrophages with monocyte-colony stimulating factor and CD4+ T lymphocytes stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)/interleukin-2. Cells were treated with palbociclib and then infected with a Green fluoresncent protein-expressing HIV-1 or R5 HIV-1 BaL. Viral DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and infection assessed by flow cytometry. Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) content was determined using a polymerase-based method.Pan-CDK inhibitors AT7519, roscovitine and purvalanol A reduced SAMHD1 phosphorylation. HIV-1 replication was blocked by AT7519 (66.4 ± 3.8%; n = 4), roscovitine (47.3 ± 3.9%; n = 4) and purvalanol A (55.7 ± 15.7%; n = 4) at subtoxic concentrations. Palbociclib, a potent and selective CDK6 inhibitor, blocked SAMHD1 phosphorylation, intracellular dNTP levels, HIV-1 reverse transcription and HIV-1 replication in primary macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes. Notably, treatment of macrophages with palbociclib led to reduced CDK2 activation, measured as the phosphorylation of the T-loop at the Thr160. The antiviral effect was lost when SAMHD1 was degraded by Vpx, providing further evidence for a role of SAMHD1 in mediating the antiretroviral effect.Our results indicate that SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction is controlled by CDK as previously suggested but point to a preferential role for CDK2 and CDK6 as mediators of SAMHD1 activation. Our study provides a new signaling pathway susceptible for the development of new therapeutic approaches against HIV-1 infection.
- Epitope-Specific Regulation of Memory Programming by Differential Duration of Antigen Presentation to Influenza-Specific CD8(+) T Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Immunity 2014 Jul 17; 41(1):127-140.
Memory CD8(+) T cells are programmed during the primary response for robust secondary responsiveness. Here we show that CD8(+) T cells responding to different epitopes of influenza virus received qualitatively different signals during the primary response that altered their secondary responsiveness. Nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cells encountered antigen on CD40-licensed, CD70-expressing, CD103(-)CD11b(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) at later times in the primary response. As a consequence, they maintained CD25 expression and responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD27, which together programmed their robust secondary proliferative capacity and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing ability. In contrast, polymerase (PA)-specific CD8(+) T cells did not encounter antigen-bearing, CD40-activated DCs at later times in the primary response, did not receive CD27 and CD25 signals, and were not programmed to become memory CD8(+) T cells with strong proliferative and cytokine-producing ability. As a result, CD8(+) T cells responding to abundant antigens, like NP, dominated the secondary response.
- Breathlessness with pulmonary metastases: a multimodal approach. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Adv Pract Oncol 2013 Nov; 4(6):415-22.
Case Study Sarah is a 58-year-old breast cancer survivor, social worker, and health-care administrator at a long-term care facility. She lives with her husband and enjoys gardening and reading. She has two grown children and three grandchildren who live approximately 180 miles away. SECOND CANCER DIAGNOSIS One morning while showering, Sarah detected a painless quarter-sized lump on her inner thigh. While she thought it was unusual, she felt it would probably go away. One month later, she felt the lump again; she thought that it had grown, so she scheduled a visit with her primary care physician. A CT scan revealed a 6.2-cm soft-tissue mass in the left groin. She was referred to an oncologic surgeon and underwent an excision of the groin mass. Pathology revealed a grade 3 malignant melanoma. She was later tested and found to have BRAF-negative status. Following her recovery from surgery, Sarah was further evaluated with an MRI scan of the brain, which was negative, and a PET scan, which revealed two nodules in the left lung. As Sarah had attended a cancer support group during her breast cancer treatment in the past, she decided to go back to the group when she learned of her melanoma diagnosis. While the treatment options for her lung lesions included interleukin-2, ipilimumab (Yervoy), temozolomide, dacarbazine, a clinical trial, or radiosurgery, Sarah's oncologist felt that ipilimumab or radiosurgery would be the best course of action. She shared with her support group that she was ambivalent about this decision, as she had experienced profound fatigue and nausea with chemotherapy during her past treatment for breast cancer. She eventually opted to undergo stereotactic radiosurgery. DISEASE RECURRENCE After the radiosurgery, Sarah was followed every 2 months. She complained of shortness of breath about 2 weeks prior to each follow-up visit. Each time her chest x-ray was normal, and she eventually believed that her breathlessness was anxiety-related. Unfortunately, Sarah's 1-year follow-up exam revealed a 2 cm × 3 cm mass in her left lung, for which she had a surgical wedge resection. Her complaints of shortness of breath increased following the surgery and occurred most often with anxiety, heat, and gardening activities, especially when she needed to bend over. Sarah also complained of a burning "pins and needles" sensation at the surgical chest wall site that was bothersome and would wake her up at night. Sarah met with the nurse practitioner in the symptom management clinic to discuss her concerns. Upon physical examination, observable signs of breathlessness were lacking, and oxygen saturation remained stable at 94%, but Sarah rated her breathlessness as 7 on the 0 to 10 Borg scale. The nurse practitioner prescribed duloxetine to help manage the surgical site neuropathic pain and to assist with anxiety, which in turn could possibly improve Sarah's breathlessness. Several nonpharmacologic modalities for breathlessness were also recommended: using a fan directed toward her face, working in the garden in the early morning when the weather is cooler, gardening in containers that are at eye level to avoid the need to bend down, and performing relaxation exercises with pursed lip breathing to relieve anxiety-provoked breathlessness. One month later, Sarah reported relief of her anxiety; she stated that the fan directed toward her face helped most when she started to feel "air hungry." She rated her breathlessness at 4/10 on the Borg scale. SECOND RECURRENCE: MULTIPLE PULMONARY NODULES Sarah's chest x-rays remained clear for 6 months, but she developed a chronic cough shortly before the 9-month exam. An x-ray revealed several bilateral lung lesions and growth in the area of the previously resected lung nodule. Systemic therapy was recommended, and she underwent two cycles of ipilimumab. Sarah's cough and breathlessness worsened, she developed colitis, and she decided to stop therapy after the third cycle. In addition, her coughing spells triggered bronchospasms that resulted in severe anxiety, panic attacks, and air hunger. She rated her breathlessness at 10/10 on the Borg scale during these episodes. She found communication difficult due to the cough and began to isolate herself. She continued to attend the support group weekly but had difficulty participating in conversation due to her cough. Sarah was seen in the symptom management clinic every 2 weeks or more often as needed. No acute distress was present at the beginning of each visit, but when Sarah began to talk about her symptoms and fear of dying, her shortness of breath and anxiety increased. The symptom management nurse practitioner treated the suspected underlying cause of the breathlessness and prescribed oral lorazepam (0.5 to 1 mg every 6 hours) for anxiety and codeine cough syrup for the cough. Opioids were initiated for chest wall pain and to control the breathlessness. Controlled-release oxycodone was started at 10 mg every 12 hours with a breakthrough pain (BTP) dose of 5 mg every 2 hours as needed for breathlessness or pain. Sarah noted improvement in her symptoms and reported a Borg scale rating of 5/10. Oxygen therapy was attempted, but subjective improvement in Sarah's breathlessness was lacking. END OF LIFE Sarah's disease progressed to the liver, and she began experiencing more notable signs of breathlessness: nasal flaring, tachycardia, and restlessness. Opioid doses were titrated over the course of 3 months to oxycodone (40 mg every 12 hours) with a BTP dose of 10 to 15 mg every 2 hours as needed, but her breathlessness caused significant distress, which she rated 8/10. The oxycodone was rotated to IV morphine continuous infusion with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) that was delivered through her implantable port. This combination allowed Sarah to depress the PCA as needed and achieve immediate control of her dyspneic episodes. Oral lorazepam was also continued as needed. Sarah's daughter moved home to take care of her mother, and hospice became involved for end-of-life care. As Sarah became less responsive, nurses maintained doses of morphine for control of pain and breathlessness and used a respiratory distress observation scale to assess for breathlessness since Sarah could no longer self-report. A bolus PCA dose of morphine was administered by Sarah's daughter if her mother appeared to be in distress. Sarah died peacefully in her home without signs of distress.
- Implementation of an Interleukin-2 National Registry: an opportunity to improve cancer outcomes. [Journal Article]
- J Immunother Cancer 2014.:20.
Cancer registries have proven valuable with respect to validating therapeutic safety and drug efficacy, uncovering real-world implementation practices, and their evolution over time. Modern cancer therapeutics are approved as single agents oftentimes compared to the least active approved standard agent in randomized trials. However, the burgeoning diversity and number of drugs introduces a complexity that quickly outstrips the knowledge provided by these pivotal trials. This gap in information is particularly relevant when survival is the primary therapeutic endpoint. In addition, the inherent complexity of the immune response will make registries a particularly important tool in expeditiously understanding solid tumor immunotherapy and patient outcomes.
- Mast cell leukemia with prolonged survival on PKC412/midostaurin. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014; 7(6):3439-43.
Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of systemic mastocytosis. There are approximately 50 reported cases since 1950s. MCL is refractory to cytoreduction chemotherapy and the average survival is only six months. We report a MCL case in a 71 year-old woman with high tumor load at the initial presentation in 2005, who did not respond to either interleukin-2 or dasatinib therapy. After enrolled in a clinical trial of PKC412 (or Midostaurin) with a daily dose of 100 mg, the patient responded well to PKC412 and became transfusion independent in three months. Since then, her disease had been stably controlled. This is the first report of a high-tumor-load MCL case which achieved prolonged survival (101 months) by PKC 412. The 101-month overall survival is the longest among reported MCL cases in the English literature.
- The adaptor TRAF3 restrains the lineage determination of thymic regulatory T cells by modulating signaling via the receptor for IL-2. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Immunol 2014 Jul 20.
The number of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) must be tightly controlled for efficient suppression of autoimmunity with no impairment of normal immune responses. Here we found that the adaptor TRAF3 was intrinsically required for restraining the lineage determination of thymic Treg cells. T cell-specific deficiency in TRAF3 resulted in a two- to threefold greater frequency of Treg cells, due to the more efficient transition of precursors of Treg cells into Foxp3(+) Treg cells. TRAF3 dampened interleukin 2 (IL-2) signaling by facilitating recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP to the IL-2 receptor complex, which resulted in dephosphorylation of the signaling molecules Jak1 and Jak3 and negative regulation of signaling via Jak and the transcription factor STAT5. Our results identify a role for TRAF3 as an important negative regulator of signaling via the IL-2 receptor that affects the development of Treg cells.