- Therapy implications of the role of interleukin-2 in cancer. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Immunol 2016 Oct 26; :1-8
- Despite its apparent failure in cancer therapy, IL-2 still remains fundamental in the activation of antitumor immunity. Areas covered: The aim of this review is the reinterpretation of the role of IL...
Despite its apparent failure in cancer therapy, IL-2 still remains fundamental in the activation of antitumor immunity. Areas covered: The aim of this review is the reinterpretation of the role of IL-2 in anticancer immunity, according to knowledge gained of the cytokine network, by highlighting its importance in inducing T helper-1 (TH1) cell proliferation, natural killer (NK) actHivation and IL-12 secretion. However, its main negative effect is the stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which in contrast suppresses anticancer immunity. Expert commentary: Cardiovascular toxicity, which was the main clinical problem at the beginning of IL-2 therapy at high intravenous doses, has almost been completely solved by subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 injection. In order to enhance the anticancer efficacy of IL-2, several strategies have been explored, including chemotherapy and interferon, but up until now no regimen has appeared to be clearly better than IL-2 alone. However, considering the role of immune checkpoints (PD-1 and CTLA-4) in Tregs stimulation, the most effective immunotherapy in the future could be concomitant IL-2 administration, to enhance lymphocyte count, and checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies, or IL-12, which is also able to counteract IL-2-induced Treg cell generation. Therefore, the time for IL-2 immunotherapy in cancer treatment has finally arrived.
- Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses. [Journal Article]
- NMedNat Med 2016 Oct 24
- Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastat...
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity. Maximal antitumor efficacy required four components: a tumor-antigen-targeting antibody, a recombinant interleukin-2 with an extended half-life, anti-PD-1 and a powerful T cell vaccine. Depletion experiments revealed that CD8(+) T cells, cross-presenting dendritic cells and several other innate immune cell subsets were required for tumor regression. Effective treatment induced infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor, enhanced antibody-mediated tumor antigen uptake and promoted antigen spreading. These results demonstrate the capacity of an elicited endogenous immune response to destroy large, established tumors and elucidate essential characteristics of combination immunotherapies that are capable of curing a majority of tumors in experimental settings typically viewed as intractable.
- Effects of polysaccharide from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on intestinal barrier functions of rats. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2016 Sep 29; 94(Pt A):1-9
- The intestinal mucosal barriers play essential roles not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also the innate defense against most intestinal pathogens. In the present study, polysa...
The intestinal mucosal barriers play essential roles not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also the innate defense against most intestinal pathogens. In the present study, polysaccharide from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum was given via oral administration to rats (100mg/kg body weight, 21days) to investigate its effects on intestinal barrier functions, including the mechanical barrier, immunological barrier and biological barrier function. It was found that the polysaccharide administration could significantly up-regulate the expression of occludin, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in ileum, markedly improve the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-4, and decrease the level of diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum. Meanwhile, rats from the polysaccharide group showed significant higher microbiota richness in cecum as reflected by the Chao 1 index compared with the control group. Moreover, the polysaccharide decreased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. Our results indicated that the polysaccharide from the mycelia of G. lucidum might be used as functional agent to regulate the intestinal barrier functions.
- Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Secretion of Programmed Death-1 Ligands Regulates T Cell Mediated Immunosuppression. [Journal Article]
- SCStem Cells 2016 Sep 27
- Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert broad immunosuppressive potential, modulating the activity of cells of innate and adaptive immune systems. As MSCs become accepted as a therapeutic option for t...
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert broad immunosuppressive potential, modulating the activity of cells of innate and adaptive immune systems. As MSCs become accepted as a therapeutic option for the treatment of immunological disorders such as Graft versus Host Disease, our need to understand the intricate details by which they exert their effects is crucial. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an important regulator in T cell activation and homeostatic control. It has been reported that this pathway may be important in contact-dependent mediated immunomodulation by MSCs. The aim of this study was to establish whether MSCs, in addition to their cell-surface expression, are able to secrete PD-1 ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) and their potential importance in modulating contact-independent mechanisms of MSC immunosuppression. Here we report that MSCs express and secrete PD-L1 and PD-L2 and that this is regulated by exposure to interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α. MSCs, via their secretion of PD-1 ligands, suppress the activation of CD4+ T cells, downregulate interleukin-2 secretion and induce irreversible hyporesponsiveness and cell death. Suppressed T cells demonstrated a reduction in AKT phosphorylation at T308 and a subsequent increase in FOXO3 expression that could be reversed with blockade of PD-L1. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, that MSCs are able to secrete PD-1 ligands, with this being the first known report of a biological role for PD-L2 in MSCs. These soluble factors play an important role in modulating immunosuppressive effects of MSCs directly on T cell behavior and induction of peripheral tolerance. Stem Cells 2016.
- Expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from human pancreatic tumors. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunother Cancer 2016; 4:61
- CONCLUSIONS: TIL expanded from pancreatic tumors are functional and able to respond to pancreatic tumor associated antigens. PD-1 blockade, 41BB stimulation, and CD8(+) T cell enrichment are effective strategies to improve TIL yield and tumor reactivity. These results support the development of adoptive cell therapy strategies using TIL for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
- Phase I/IIa Study of Low Dose Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 (IL-2) for Treatment of Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease. [Clinical Trial]
- AMActa Med Okayama 2016; 70(5):429-433
- Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) remains a major problem for long survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, corticosteroid therapy is effective fo...
Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) remains a major problem for long survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Currently, corticosteroid therapy is effective for cGVHD as the first line therapy. However, prolonged therapy with corticosteroids causes various severe adverse events. To develop the new therapeutic strategy of cGVHD, we have launched a multicenter phase I/IIa clinical trial of low dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) for treatment of steroid refractory cGVHD, which is constituted of 2 sequential phases (induction phase and maitanance phase). This study will provide the new therapeutic option for patients with refractory cGVHD after allogeneic HSCT.
- Beneficial in-vitro effects of interleukin-2, interleukin-12, and their combination on functional and receptor characteristics of natural killer cells in metastatic melanoma patients with normal serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. [Journal Article]
- MRMelanoma Res 2016; 26(6):551-564
- Considering tumor-mediated suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, the aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro effects of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, as immunostimulatory cytokines, on ...
Considering tumor-mediated suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, the aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro effects of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, as immunostimulatory cytokines, on the functional and receptor characteristics of NK cells and their subsets in healthy control (HC) and metastatic melanoma (MM) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 27 HC and 35 MM patients were stimulated in vitro with IL-2, IL-12, and their combination for functional and phenotypic analysis. IL-2, IL-12, and primarily their combination, significantly induced NK cell activity, CD107a degranulation marker, and perforin expression in NK cells and their subsets in HC and MM patients. Furthermore, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 was significantly more efficient than IL-12 alone in the augmentation of NK cell cytotoxicity and CD107a expression. Also, IL-2 and IL-12 reciprocally upregulated each other's receptors, IL-2Rα and IL-12Rβ1/β2, on NK cells and their subsets in MM and HCs. In addition, the priming of NK cells with IL-2 before IL-12 treatment led to an increase in the expression of both IL-12 receptors. In contrast to IL-12, IL-2 increased activating NKG2D and DNAM-1, as well as inhibitory CD158a and CD158b KIRs. In addition, the cytokines investigated exerted a more potent effect on the increase in NK cell activity and the expression of various NK cell receptors in MM patients with normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels. Therefore, serum LDH could represent a predictor of response to cytokine immunotherapy in MM patients. The optimization of combined IL-2/IL-12 therapy is needed to enhance NK cell functions in MM patients stratified by their LDH levels.
- Discovery of a new structural class of competitive hDHODH inhibitors with in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Sep 3; 791:205-212
- Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) is an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that involves in the fourth step of the biosynthesis of pyrimidine base. Inhibitors of hDHODH have been proven ef...
Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) is an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that involves in the fourth step of the biosynthesis of pyrimidine base. Inhibitors of hDHODH have been proven efficacy for the treatments of inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In the present study, ascochlorin (ASC) and its derivatives, natural compounds from fungal metabolites, were discovered as hDHODH inhibitors by high-throughput screening. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that ASC competitively binds to hDHODH at the site of coenzyme Q substrate. In ex vivo study, ASC significantly inhibited the ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes proliferation and interleukin-2, interferon-γ production. Furthermore, ASC showed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on the mice ears swelling, allogenic skin grafts and rat collagen-induced arthritis animal disease models. ASC significantly reduced ears edema level of mice, increased the survival time of allogenic skin implanted on the mice and attenuated arthritis severity of rat model. In conclusion, ASC was identified as a new structural class of hDHODH inhibitors with efficient anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive activity, and may be a promising candidate for the development of new therapy in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
- IL-2 and IL-6 cooperate to enhance the generation of influenza-specific CD8 T cells responding to live influenza virus in aged mice and humans. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2016 Jun 28; 7(26):39171-39183
- An age-related decline in cytolytic activity has been described in CD8+ T cells and we have previously shown that the poor CD8+ effector T cell responses to influenza A/H3N2 challenge result from a d...
An age-related decline in cytolytic activity has been described in CD8+ T cells and we have previously shown that the poor CD8+ effector T cell responses to influenza A/H3N2 challenge result from a decline in the proportion and function of these cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we describe that addition of exogenous cytokines to influenza-stimulated PBMC from both aged mice and humans, enhances the generation of influenza specific CD8 CTL by increasing their proliferation and survival. Our data show that the addition of IL-2 and IL-6 to splenocytes from mice previously infected with influenza virus restores the aged CD8+ T cell response to that observed in young mice. In humans, IL-2 plus IL-6 also reduces the proportion of apoptotic effector CD8+ T cells to levels resembling those of younger adults. In HLA-A2+ donors, MHC Class I tetramer staining showed that adding both exogenous IL-2 and IL-6 resulted in greater differentiation into influenza-specific effector CD8+ T cells. Since this effect of IL-2/IL-6 supplementation can be reproduced with the addition of Toll-like receptor agonists, it may be possible to exploit this mechanism and design new vaccines to improve the CD8 T cell response to influenza vaccination in older adults.
New Search Next
- Dynamical properties and tumor clearance conditions for a nine-dimensional model of bladder cancer immunotherapy. [Journal Article]
- MBMath Biosci Eng 2016 Oct 1; 13(5):1059-1075
- Understanding the global interaction dynamics between tumor and the immune system plays a key role in the advancement of cancer therapy. Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky et al. (2015) developed a mathematical...
Understanding the global interaction dynamics between tumor and the immune system plays a key role in the advancement of cancer therapy. Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky et al. (2015) developed a mathematical model for the study of the immune system response to combined therapy for bladder cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) . We utilized a mathematical approach for bladder cancer treatment model for derivation of ultimate upper and lower bounds and proving dissipativity property in the sense of Levinson. Furthermore, tumor clearance conditions for BCG treatment of bladder cancer are presented. Our method is based on localization of compact invariant sets and may be exploited for a prediction of the cells populations dynamics involved into the model.