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T cell growth factor [keywords]
- Early specification of CD8(+) T lymphocyte fates during adaptive immunity revealed by single-cell gene-expression analyses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Immunol 2014 Mar 2.
T lymphocytes responding to microbial infection give rise to effector cells that mediate acute host defense and memory cells that provide long-lived immunity, but the fundamental question of when and how these cells arise remains unresolved. Here we combined single-cell gene-expression analyses with 'machine-learning' approaches to trace the transcriptional 'roadmap' of individual CD8(+) T lymphocytes throughout the course of an immune response in vivo. Gene-expression signatures predictive of eventual fates could be discerned as early as the first T lymphocyte division and may have been influenced by asymmetric partitioning of the receptor for interleukin 2 (IL-2Rα) during mitosis. Our findings emphasize the importance of single-cell analyses in understanding fate determination and provide new insights into the specification of divergent lymphocyte fates early during an immune response to microbial infection.
- Inducible Protein-10, a Potential Driver of Neurally Controlled Interleukin-10 and Morbidity in Human Blunt Trauma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Crit Care Med 2014 Feb 26.
Blunt trauma and traumatic spinal cord injury induce systemic inflammation that contributes to morbidity. Dysregulated neural control of systemic inflammation postinjury is likely exaggerated in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. We used in silico methods to discern dynamic inflammatory networks that could distinguish systemic inflammation in traumatic spinal cord injury from blunt trauma.Retrospective study.Tertiary care institution.Twenty-one severely injured thoracocervical traumatic spinal cord injury patients and matched 21 severely injured blunt trauma patients without spinal cord injury.None.Serial blood samples were obtained from days 1 to 14 postinjury. Twenty-four plasma inflammatory mediators were quantified. Statistical significance between the two groups was determined by two-way analysis of variance. Dynamic Bayesian network inference was used to suggest dynamic connectivity and central inflammatory mediators. Circulating interleukin-10 was significantly elevated in thoracocervical traumatic spinal cord injury group versus non-spinal cord injury group, whereas interleukin-1β, soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-7, interleukin-13, interleukin-17, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon-γ were significantly reduced in traumatic spinal cord injury group versus non-spinal cord injury group. Dynamic Bayesian network suggested that post-spinal cord injury interleukin-10 is driven by inducible protein-10, whereas monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was central in non-spinal cord injury dynamic networks. In a separate validation cohorts of 356 patients without spinal cord injury and 85 traumatic spinal cord injury patients, individuals with plasma inducible protein-10 levels more than or equal to 730 pg/mL had significantly prolonged hospital and ICU stay and days on mechanical ventilator versus patients with plasma inducible protein-10 level less than 730 pg/mL.This is the first study to compare the dynamic systemic inflammatory responses of traumatic spinal cord injury patients versus patients without spinal cord injury, suggesting a key role for inducible protein-10 in driving systemic interleukin-10 and morbidity and highlighting the potential utility of in silico tools to identify key inflammatory drivers.
- [Flow cytometry in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Orv Hetil 2014 Mar 1; 155(10):389-95.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a multisystem inflammation, generated by the uncontrolled and excessive activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Severe immunodeficiency and generalized macrophage activation can often be detected in the background of this life threatening disorder. It is classified as a primary immunodeficiency. Functional abnormalities of the perforin protein or defects in granule secretory mechanisms are caused by gene mutations in most cases. Diagnostic criteria of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are the following: fever, splenomegaly, cytopenias affecting at least two of the 3 lineages in peripheral blood, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperferritinemia, elevated serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25), hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis in bone marrow and decreased cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cell activity. In this case report the authors summarize the utility of functional flow cytometry in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Using flow cytometry, elevated intracellular perforin content, decreased killing activity of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, and impaired cell surface expression of CD107a (LAMP1 protein) from in vitro stimulated blood lymphocytes were detected. Abnormal secretion of perforin was also demonstrated. Genetic testing revealed mutation of the MUNC 13-4 gene, which confirmed the base of the abnormal flow cytometric findings. This case report demonstrates the value of functional flow cytometry in the rapid diagnosis of genetically determined hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a condition in which early diagnosis is critical for optimal management. The authors emphasize the significance of functional flow cytometry in the differential diagnosis of immunodeficiencies. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(10), 389-395.
- Outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with immunotherapy prior to or after BRAF inhibitors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer 2014 Feb 27.
The immunotherapy (IT) agents ipilimumab and interleukin-2 as well as BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) vemurafenib and dabrafenib, with or without trametinib (MEK inhibitors), are all FDA-approved treatments for BRAF metastatic melanoma, but there are few studies to guide optimal sequencing. This retrospective analysis describes the outcomes of patients treated with either BRAFi before IT or IT before BRAFi.A cohort of patients treated with BRAFi alone or with MEK inhibitor was retrospectively identified. Response rate (RR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated for the entire cohort, subdivided by BRAFi prior to or after IT.RR and median PFS and OS calculated from commencement of BRAFi following IT (N = 32) were 57%, 6.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3-9.1 months), and 19.6 months (95% CI = 10.0-undefined months), respectively; whereas for BRAFi initially (N = 242) were 66%, 5.6 months (95% CI = 4.7-6.8 months), and 13.4 months (95% CI = 10.1-17.0 months). Results were similar when controlled for prognostic variables. A total of 193 patients discontinued BRAFi, with OS of 2.9 months (range of 1.8-4.4 months) from day of BRAFi discontinuation. Forty patients subsequently received IT with ipilimumab. Only half could complete 4 doses of ipilimumab; PFS with ipilimumab was 2.7 months (95% CI = 1.8-3.1 months) and OS was 5.0 months (95% CI = 3.0-8.8 months).In this retrospective analysis, prior treatment with IT does not appear to negatively influence response to BRAFi. Outcomes for IT with ipilimumab following BRAFi discontinuation are poor. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define if sequencing IT prior to BRAFi therapy is superior to sequencing BRAFi prior to IT. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
- Peripheral interleukin-2 level is associated with negative symptoms and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Physiol Behav 2014 Feb 25.
Although several studies have pointed to a possible role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in schizophrenia (SZ), association between IL-2 and the different groups of symptoms has not been explored. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible correlation of peripheral IL-2 levels with symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with SZ. In addition, we compared the plasma levels of IL-2 between patients with SZ and healthy controls. Twenty-nine chronically medicated outpatients with SZ according to DSM-IV were compared with twenty-six healthy controls. The patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). All the participants had blood collected into EDTA tubes by venipuncture between 9:00 and 10:00AM. Plasma concentrations of IL-2 were determined by cytometric bead array. A computerized neuropsychological battery assessed verbal learning, verbal fluency, working memory, set shifting, executive function, inhibition and intelligence. Patients with SZ had lower levels of IL-2 than healthy controls (p<0.001). In the SZ group, IL-2 levels were positively correlated with scores in the digit span test (rho=0.416, P=0.025) and intelligence (rho=0.464, P=0.011). We also found a negative correlation between IL-2 and total score in the negative subscale of PANSS (rho=-0.447, p=0.015). Our findings suggest that IL-2 may be involved in the mechanisms related to cognitive deterioration and negative symptomatology in schizophrenia.
- Sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs by IL2 control autoimmunity without impairing immune responses to infection, vaccination and cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Immunol 2014 Feb 19.
Interleukin 2 (IL2) is the key cytokine supporting survival and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). We recently reported that low-dose IL2 safely expands/stimulates Tregs and improves autoimmune conditions in humans. Further development of IL2 in autoimmune diseases will require chronic IL2 administration, which could affect beneficial effector immune responses regulated by Tregs. We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer to continuously release IL2 in mice and assessed its long-term effects on immune responses. A single rAAV-IL2 injection enabled sustained stimulation and expansion of Tregs without inducing Teff activation and prevented diabetes in NOD mice. After several weeks of IL2 production, mice responded normally to a viral challenge and to vaccination, and had pregnancies with offspring that developed normally. They showed no change in the occurrence and growth of chemically-induced tumors. Altogether, chronic low-dose IL2 treatment does not affect beneficial effector immune responses at doses that prevent autoimmune diabetes.
- Effects of Topical Sphingosine-1-Phosphate 1 Receptor Agonist on Corneal Allograft in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cornea 2014 Feb 25.
The aim of this study was to compare the antirejection effects of topical selective sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1) agonist and cyclosporine A (CsA) on the acceptance of a transplanted, allogeneic cornea graft in a murine animal model.Fifty-six BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. All the mice received corneal grafts from 28 C57BL/6 donors. Experimental recipients were treated with 0.25%, 0.5% S1P1 agonist suspension eye drops or 1% CsA eye drops 4 times a day after the corneal graft was performed. Controls received no treatment. The corneal grafts were imaged and evaluated with clinical scoring. The excised corneal sections 14 days after transplantation were stained using hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological evaluation. CD86+ and MHC-II+ dendritic cells in corneal samples were identified by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of mRNA in the cornea was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR for interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4.Corneal graft survival was prolonged by treatment with 0.5% S1P1 agonist and 1% CsA (P < 0.01, respectively) when compared with that in the control in clinical scoring. In addition, topical application of 0.5% S1P1 increased the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 mRNA expression of the corneal grafts. There were significant differences observed with 0.5% S1P1 and agonist 1% CsA (P < 0.01, respectively) when compared with the values of the control group in histology scoring.Topical 0.5% S1P1 agonist is as effective as 1% CsA, and both can effectively prolong the survival of corneal allografts in mice.
- Family studies of type 1 diabetes reveal additive and epistatic effects between MGAT1 and three other polymorphisms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Genes Immun 2014 Feb 27.
In a recent study on multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed additive effects and epistatic interactions between variants of four genes that converge to induce T-cell hyperactivity by altering Asn-(N)-linked protein glycosylation: namely, the Golgi enzyme MGAT1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), interleukin-2 receptor-α (IL2RA) and interleukin-7 receptor-α (IL7RA). As the CTLA-4, IL2RA and IL7RA variants are associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we examined for joint effects in T1D. Employing a novel conditional logistic regression for family-based data sets, epistatic and additive effects were observed using 1423 multiplex families from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Consortium data set. The IL2RA and IL7RA variants had univariate association in MS and T1D, whereas the MGAT1 and CTLA-4 variants associated with only MS or T1D, respectively. However, similar to MS, the MGAT1 variant haplotype interacted with CTLA4 (P=0.03), and a combination of IL2RA and IL7RA (P=0.01). The joint effects of MGAT1, CTLA4, IL2RA, IL7RA and the two interactions using a multiple conditional logistic regression were statistically highly significant (P<5 × 10(-10)). The MGAT1-CTLA-4 interaction was replicated (P=0.01) in 179 trio families from the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes study. These data are consistent with defective N-glycosylation of T cells contributing to T1D pathogenesis.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 27 February 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.7.
- Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR. [Journal Article]
- Vet Res 2014; 45(1):24.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vaccine that enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would benefit PPR control and eradication programmes, particularly in the later stages of an eradication campaign and for countries where the disease is not endemic. In order to create a vaccine that would enable infected animals to be distinguished from vaccinated ones (DIVA vaccine), we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox (FP) and replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus 5 (Ad), expressing PPRV F and H proteins, in goats. The Ad constructs induced higher levels of virus-specific and neutralising antibodies, and primed greater numbers of CD8+ T cells than the FP-vectored vaccines. Importantly, a single dose of Ad-H, with or without the addition of Ad expressing ovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and/or ovine interleukin-2, not only induced strong antibody and cell-mediated immunity but also completely protected goats against challenge with virulent PPRV, 4 months after vaccination. Replication-defective Ad-H therefore offers the possibility of an effective DIVA vaccine.
- High Level of Serum Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor at Transplantation Predicts Poor Outcome of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult T-cell Leukemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Feb 21.
Prognosis for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is very poor, and only allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has been considered to be a curative treatment for ATL. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed data for patients who had received allo-SCT for ATL in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, to determine prognostic factors. Fifty-six patients with a median age of 57 years received allo-SCT. Twenty-eight (50.0%) of the patients had acute type and 22 (46.4%) had lymphoma type. Twenty-three (41.1%) of the patients received allo-SCT in complete remission (CR), while the others were in non-CR. Seventeen (30.4%) of the patients received myeloablative conditioning, while the others received reduced-intensity conditioning. With a median follow-up period of 48 months (range, 17-134 months), 1-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS rates were 55.4% and 46.1%, respectively. The survival curve reached a plateau at 22 months after SCT. Male sex, high level of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) at SCT and non-CR at SCT were determined to be significant risk factors for OS. High level of sIL-2R at SCT was a risk factor for poor OS in patients with non-CR at SCT by univariate analysis (P=0.02), and it remained significant after adjustment by sex [hazard ratio: 2.73 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-7.90)]. High level of sIL-2R at SCT was also determined to be a risk factor for disease progression (P=0.02). This region-wide study showed encouraging results for survival after allo-SCT for ATL and demonstrated for the first time that a high level of sIL-2R at SCT predicts worse SCT outcome.