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Tachycardia, paroxysmal supraventricular [keywords]
- Subtle Post-Procedural Cognitive Dysfunction following Atrial Fibrillation Ablation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVES:This study sought to determine whether post-operative neurocognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs following AF ablation.
BACKGROUND:Ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly effective strategy, however the risk of transient ischaemic attack and stroke is approximately 0.5-1%. In addition MRI studies report a 7-14% incidence of silent cerebral infarction. Whether cerebral ischaemia results in POCD after AF ablation is not well-established.
METHODS:The study included 150 patients: 60 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal AF (PAF); 30 patients undergoing ablation for persistent AF n=30 (PeAF) and 30 patients undergoing ablation for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) were compared to a matched non-operative control group of patients with AF awaiting radiofrequency ablation (n=30). Patients were administered 8 neuropsychological tests administered at baseline and at 2 days and 3 months post-operatively. Tests were administered at the same time-points to the non-operative control group. Reliable change index was used to calculate POCD.
RESULTS:The incidence of POCD at day 2 post-procedure was 28% in patients with PAF; 27% in patients with PeAF; 13% in patients with SVT; and 0% in AF control patients (p=0.007). At day 90, the incidence of POCD in patients with PAF was 13%, 20% in patients with PeAF; 3% in patients with SVT, and 0% in AF control patients (p=0.03). When analyzing the 3 procedural groups together, 29/120 (24%) patients manifest POCD at day 2 and 15/120 (13%) at day 90 post ablation procedure; p=0.029. On univariate analysis increasing LA access time was associated with POCD at day 2 (p=0.04) and day 90 (p=0.03)
CONCLUSIONS:Ablation for atrial fibrillation is associated with a 13-20% incidence of POCD in patients with AF at long-term follow up. These results were seen in a population of predominantly CHADS2 0-1 patients who represent the majority of patients undergoing AF ablation. The long-term implications of these subtle changes require further study.
- Recurrence rate of PSVT (paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia) in Rajavithi emergency department. [Journal Article]
- J Med Assoc Thai 2013 Mar.:S47-53.
PSVT (Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia) is a common heart disease, especially in young people. Although PSVT is not a life-threatening illness, its symptoms occur in a sudden onset and with increasing frequency. Because of the severity of its symptoms, it can interfere with patients' quality of life and lead to an increase in anxiety levels. The authors found that patients with PSVT tended to have recurrence of symptoms; however, there has been no previous study in Thailand of the rate of recurrent PSVT in adults. Moreover, there has been no study of the factors which precipitate PSVT cause recurrence, and result in hospitalization.To study the rate of recurrence of PSVT within 90 days, the precipitating factors that cause PSVT and the relationship between the factors that affect recurrence of symptoms and result in admission to hospital.This was a cross-sectional study of patients who had been diagnosed with PSVT and were treated in the emergency room at Rajavithi Hospital from 1st August 2008-31st August 2011. The primary outcome was recurrence of PSVT within 90 days and its impact on hospital admission.The 55 patients in the present study visited the hospital 94 times. The authors found that: 20.0% of patients had recurrence of PSVT within 90 days; 45.7% of patients had no precipitating factors; 33.0% of patients had emotional stress; and 20.0% of patients had stopped taking their medication. Patients who presented at their first visit with a heart rate of more than 200 beats per minute were more likely to have recurrence (statistically significant, HR 2.43, p = 0.017). Patients presenting with low systolic blood pressure (SBP < 90 mmHg), long duration of symptoms, structural heart disease, low serum Hematocrit concentration (Hct < 30%), serum sodium < 135 milligram, and serum potassium < 3.5 milligram were more likely to be admitted to hospital (statistically significant at p = 0.013, 0.012, 0.004, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.004 respectively).There was a high rate of recurrence of PSVT in patients in the emergency department at Rajavithi Hospital. Significant factors affecting recurrence were patients presenting with initial heart rate of over 200 beats per minute. Low systolic blood pressure, long duration of symptoms, structural heart disease, low serum Hematocrit, low serum sodium and serum potassium were associated with hospitalization.
- A re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2013 May 7.
The common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia is the most common form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It starts frequently with a supraventricular ectopic beat that, on finding the fast pathway in refractory period, travels in the slow pathway as to appear as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG. In this study, we show a singular case of a common atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia triggered by the spontaneous interruption of an atrial tachycardia.
- Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stroke 2013 Apr 30.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:It is unknown whether supraventricular arrhythmias other than atrial fibrillation or flutter are associated with stroke.
METHODS:To examine the association between paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and stroke, we performed a retrospective cohort study using administrative claims data from all emergency department encounters and hospitalizations at California's nonfederal acute care hospitals in 2009. Our cohort comprised all adult patients with ≥1 emergency department visit or hospitalization from which they were discharged alive and without a diagnosis of stroke. Our primary exposure was a diagnosis of PSVT recorded at an encounter before stroke or documented as present-on-admission at the time of stroke. To reduce confounding, we excluded patients with diagnoses of atrial fibrillation. We defined PSVT, stroke, and atrial fibrillation using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes previously validated by detailed chart review.
RESULTS:Of 4806830 eligible patients, 14121 (0.29%) were diagnosed with PSVT and 14402 (0.30%) experienced a stroke. The cumulative rate of stroke after PSVT diagnosis (0.94%; 95% confidence interval, 0.76%-1.16%) significantly exceeded the rate among patients without a diagnosis of PSVT (0.21%; 95% confidence interval, 0.21%-0.22%). In Cox proportional hazards analysis controlling for demographic characteristics and potential confounders, PSVT was independently associated with a higher risk of subsequent stroke (hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-2.62).
CONCLUSIONS:In a large and demographically diverse sample of patients, we found an independent association between PSVT and ischemic stroke. PSVT seems to be a novel risk factor that may account for some proportion of strokes that are currently classified as cryptogenic.
- Impact of Transesophageal Electrophysiologic Study to Elucidate the Mechanism of Arrhythmia on Children With Supraventricular Tachycardia and No Preexcitation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Cardiol 2013 Apr 23.
An electrophysiologic study (EPS) of children and teenagers with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and normal electrocardiography (ECG) in sinus rhythm was evaluated. Generally, EPS is performed only before paroxysmal SVT ablation in these patients. In this study, 140 patients (mean age, 15 ± 3 years) with normal ECG in sinus rhythm were studied for SVT by a transesophageal route in baseline state and after isoproterenol. Idiopathic left or right ventricular tachycardia was diagnosed in four patients (3 %). Anterograde conduction over an atrioventricular (AV) left lateral (n = 10) or septal (n = 9) accessory pathway (AP) was noted in 19 patients (13.5 %) at atrial pacing. Orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) was induced in these children. Five of the patients had a high rate conducted over AP (>240 bpm in baseline state or >290 bpm after isoproterenol). Two of the patients (a 10-year-old girl with well-tolerated SVT and a 17-year-old with syncope-related SVT) had the criteria for a malignant form with the induction of atrial fibrillation conducted over AP at a rate exceeding 290 bpm in baseline state. Of the 140 patients, 74 (53 %) had typical AV node reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), nine had atypical AVNRT (6 %), 1 had atrial tachycardia (0.7 %), and 33 (23.5 %) had AVRT related to a concealed AP with only retrograde conduction. Electrophysiologic study is recommended for children with paroxysmal SVT and normal ECG in sinus rhythm. The data are helpful for guiding the treatment. Ventricular tachycardia or atrial tachycardia can be misdiagnosed. Masked preexcitation syndrome with anterograde conduction through AP was present in 13.5 % of the patients, and 1.4 % had a malignant preexcitation syndrome.
- The effect of nesfatin-1 levels on paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. [Journal Article]
- J Investig Med 2013 Jun; 61(5):852-5.
Nesfatin-1 was originally identified as a neuropeptide of the hypothalamus, which is a key integration area of the brain, where numerous neuropeptides and transmitters are released to participate in the control of essential body functions. In the literature, there are no studies showing the relationship between the nesfatin-1 level and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. We hypothesize that the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 may increase during supraventricular tachycardia, to engage the vagal stimulation to terminate by the inhibition of neuropeptide-Y, and may activate oxytocin and the corticotropin-releasing hormone.This study includes 120 cases (80 patients and 40 controls). Patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia were compared with the control group with regard to sex, nesfatin-1 level, comorbid diseases, serum renal function values, and patients' vital findings.The nesfatin-1 levels were significantly higher in the paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia group than in the control group and positively correlated highly with heart rate (r = 0.634; P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.644 for the nesfatin-1 levels (P = 0.0051). The sensitivity and specificity values of the nesfatin-1 levels were 41.2% and 95%, respectively (cutoff value >1743.7 pg/mL).At the end of this study, a statistically significant correlation was found between the serum nesfatin-1 level and supraventricular tachycardia. Although multifactorial causes may explain the relationship, we based our hypothesis on the relationship of the antagonistic effects of nesfatin-1 on the neuropeptide-Y and activated oxytocin.
- Myocardial ischemia caused by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a patient with anomalous origin of right coronary artery arising from left sinus of valsalva. [Journal Article]
- Korean Circ J 2013 Feb; 43(2):123-6.
Anomalous origin of a coronary artery is rare and does not generally lead to myocardial infarction and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). We report an uncommon case of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva with PSVT and myocardial ischemia. A 58-year-old man presented with PSVT. After arrhythmia subsided, electrocardiogram showed ST and T wave abnormalities, and transient cardiac enzymes were found to be elevated. Coronary CT angiography confirmed that there was anomalous origin of the RCA originating from the left sinus of Valsalva and no intracoronary stenotic lesion. He was managed with conservative treatment, having no symptoms on clinical follow-up for 4 years.
- Effects of landiolol hydrochloride on intractable tachyarrhythmia after pediatric cardiac surgery. [Journal Article]
- Ann Thorac Surg 2013 May; 95(5):1685-8.
While β-blockers can be effective in controlling tachyarrhythmias after pediatric cardiac surgery, a negative inotropic influence sometimes complicates their use. Landiolol hydrochloride is a novel, ultra-short-acting β-blocker recently developed in Japan. The drug has higher β1:β2 selectivity ratio and a less negative inotropic effect. This study retrospectively evaluates the efficacy and safety of landiolol in the management of tachyarrhythmias after pediatric cardiac surgery.A retrospective analysis was performed on 312 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Twelve patients were treated with landiolol for critical tachyarrhythmia. The mean age of patients was 28.7 ± 10.6 months. Five junctional ectopic tachycardia, 2 atrial flutters, 1 paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, 1 atrial fibrillation, 1 atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and 2 excessive sinus tachycardia were treated.The mean loading and maintenance doses were 11.3 ± 4.0 and 6.8 ± 0.9 μg/kg per minute, respectively. Rate control was achieved in all patients. Landiolol reduced the heart rate from 169.7 ± 11.4 to 127.7 ± 7.5 beats per minute (p < 0.05) while blood pressure did not significantly change. Tachyarrhythmias were converted to sinus rhythm in 70.0% of the cases and the average time needed to achieve heart rate reduction was 2.3 ± 0.5 hours.Landiolol was efficacious in treating tachyarrhythmia in pediatric cardiac surgery. The desired negative chronotropic effect was achieved without significant hemodynamic compromise. The ultra-short half-life of landiolol provided rapid dose manipulation. This study suggests that landiolol is a promising option for the management of postoperative tachyarrhythmias in pediatric patients.
- A single microvascular decompression surgery cures a patient with trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, tinnitus, hypertension, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by the compression of a vertebral artery. [Journal Article]
- Neurol India 2013 Jan-Feb; 61(1):73-5.
This report presents a 72-year-old woman with posterior cranial fossa neurovascular compression syndrome that included paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the posterior cranial fossa, and a gross left vertebral artery was identified as the offending vessel. The neurovascular conflicts were associated with the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, IX, and X. The patient experienced significant postoperative relief. Probably this is the first report of a single microvascular decompression, having cured such a high number of syndromes, including paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.