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- Economic evaluation of the prophylaxis for thromboembolism in critical care trial (E-PROTECT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trials 2014 Dec 20; 15(1):502.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of critical illness with important clinical consequences. The Prophylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial (PROTECT) is a multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the two most common pharmocoprevention strategies, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) dalteparin, in medical-surgical patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). E-PROTECT is a prospective and concurrent economic evaluation of the PROTECT trial.The primary objective of E-PROTECT is to identify and quantify the total (direct and indirect, variable and fixed) costs associated with the management of critically ill patients participating in the PROTECT trial, and, to combine costs and outcome results to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of LMWH versus UFH, from the acute healthcare system perspective, over a data-rich time horizon of ICU admission and hospital admission. We derive baseline characteristics and probabilities of in-ICU and in-hospital events from all enrolled patients. Total costs are derived from centers, proportional to the numbers of patients enrolled in each country. Direct costs include medication, physician and other personnel costs, diagnostic radiology and laboratory testing, operative and non-operative procedures, costs associated with bleeding, transfusions and treatment-related complications. Indirect costs include ICU and hospital ward overhead costs. Outcomes are the ratio of incremental costs per incremental effects of LMWH versus UFH during hospitalization; incremental cost to prevent a thrombosis at any site (primary outcome); incremental cost to prevent a pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding event or episode of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (secondary outcomes) and incremental cost per life-year gained (tertiary outcome). Pre-specified subgroups and sensitivity analyses will be performed and confidence intervals for the estimates of incremental cost-effectiveness will be obtained using bootstrapping.This economic evaluation employs a prospective costing methodology concurrent with a randomized controlled blinded clinical trial, with a pre-specified analytic plan, outcome measures, subgroup and sensitivity analyses. This economic evaluation has received only peer-reviewed funding and funders will not play a role in the generation, analysis or decision to submit the manuscripts for publication.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00182143. Date of registration: 10 September 2005.
- Effectiveness and safety of s-1-based therapy compared with 5-Fluorouracil-based therapy for advanced colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Review]
- Gastroenterol Res Pract 2014.:146530.
Objectives.The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based therapy (SBT) versus 5-fluorouracil-based therapy (FBT) for advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC). Methods. A meta-analysis of all eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using RevMan 5.1.0 software.
Results.A total of 1625 patients from twelve RCTs including 820 patients in the SBT group and 805 patients in the FBT group were available for analysis. The meta-analysis of overall survival (hazards ratio HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.10), progression-free survival (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18), and overall response rate (odds ratio OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.00-1.53) showed no statistical significance between SBT group and FBT group. The statistically significant differences in the meta-analysis indicated less incidence of graded 3-4 neutropenia (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.35-0.68) and nausea/vomit (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.23-0.72) in the SBT group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of grade 3-4 anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, diarrhea, and treatment-related deaths between two groups.
Conclusions.SBT had similar efficacy and better safety than FBT and was an attractive alternative to FBT for patients of ACRC, but further investigations in different populations would be needed to confirm it.
- Thromboelastometric Monitoring of the Hemostatic Effect of Platelet Concentrates Transfusion in Thrombocytopenic Children Undergoing Chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2014 Dec 18.
Prophylactic platelet concentrates transfusion represents a therapeutic choice in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. This prospective, non-interventional study evaluated the effects of platelet concentrates transfusion on thromboelastometric parameters of platelet function in 36 transfusion occasions for 11 thrombocytopenic children undergoing chemotherapy. Pre- and posttransfusion (1-2 hours) blood samples were analyzed using standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) measurements (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests). Platelet component of the clot was calculated based on the EXTEM and FIBTEM maximum clot elasticity (MCE) results. After transfusion, mean platelet count increased from 16.5 × 10(9)/L to 43.0 × 10(9)/L (P < .001) and platelet component increased from 34.1 to 73.0 (P < .001). Statistically significant increases for posttransfusion EXTEM parameters A10, A20, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) were observed compared to pretransfusion values (P < .001). The EXTEM α-angle values increased posttransfusion (P < .05). The FIBTEM measurements were comparable pre- and posttransfusion. The study showed that platelet concentrates transfusion in thrombocytopenic children undergoing chemotherapy improves platelet-related coagulation pattern.
- Virologic response and haematologic toxicity of boceprevir- and telaprevir-containing regimens in actual clinical settings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Viral Hepat 2014 Dec 18.
Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) in actual clinical settings remain unknown. We determined rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and haematologic adverse effects among persons treated with BOC- or TPV-containing regimens, compared with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG/RBV). Using an established cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), we identified those treated with a BOC- or TPV-containing regimen and HCV genotype 1-infected controls treated with PEG/RBV. We excluded those with HIV coinfection and missing HCV RNA values to determine SVR. Primary endpoints were SVR (undetectable HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after treatment completion) and haematologic toxicity (grade 3/4 anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia). We evaluated 2288 persons on BOC-, 409 on TPV-containing regimen and 6308 on PEG/RBV. Among these groups, respectively, 31%, 43% and 9% were treatment-experienced; 17%, 37% and 14% had baseline cirrhosis; 63%, 54% and 48% were genotype 1a. SVR rates among noncirrhotics were as follows: treatment naïve: 65% (BOC), 67% (TPV) and 31% (PEG/RBV); treatment experienced: 57% (BOC), 54% (TPV) and 13% (PEG/RBV); (P-value not significant for BOC vs TPV; P < 0.0001 for BOC or TPV vs PEG/RBV). Haematologic toxicities among BOC-, TPV- and PEG/RBV-treated groups were as follows: grade 3/4 anaemia 7%, 11% and 3%; grade 4 thrombocytopenia 2.2%, 5.4% and 1.7%; grade 4 neutropenia 8.2%, 5.6% and 3.4%. SVR rates are higher and closer to those reported in pivotal clinical trials among BOC- and TPV-treated persons compared with PEG/RBV-treated persons. Haematologic adverse events are frequent, but severe toxicity is uncommon.
- Phase II trial of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy combined with temozolomide and bevacizumab for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neurooncol 2014 Dec 19.
Bevacizumab blocks the effects of VEGF and may allow for more aggressive radiotherapy schedules. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide and bevacizumab in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were treated with hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy to the surgical cavity and residual tumor with a 1 cm margin (PTV1) to 60 Gy and to the T2 abnormality with a 1 cm margin (PTV2) to 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions over 2 weeks. Concurrent temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) daily) and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) was administered followed by adjuvant temozolomide (200 mg/m(2)) on a standard 5/28 day cycle and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks for 6 months. Thirty newly diagnosed patients were treated on study. Median PTV1 volume was 131.1 cm(3) and the median PTV2 volume was 342.6 cm(3). Six-month progression-free survival (PFS) was 90 %, with median follow-up of 15.9 months. The median PFS was 14.3 months, with a median overall survival (OS) of 16.3 months. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity included neutropenia (10 %) and thrombocytopenia (17 %). Grades 3/4 non-hematologic toxicity included fatigue (13 %), wound dehiscence (7 %) and stroke, pulmonary embolism and nausea each in 1 patient. Presumed radiation necrosis with clinical decline was seen in 50 % of patients, two with autopsy documentation. The study was closed early to accrual due to this finding. This study demonstrated 90 % 6-month PFS and OS comparable to historic data in patients receiving standard treatment. Bevacizumab did not prevent radiation necrosis associated with this hypofractionated radiation regimen and large PTV volumes may have contributed to high rates of presumed radiation necrosis.
- Anamorelin for patients with cancer cachexia: an integrated analysis of two phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lancet Oncol 2014 Dec 15.
Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Anamorelin is an oral ghrelin-receptor agonist with appetite-enhancing and anabolic activity. We assessed the effects of anamorelin on body composition, strength, quality of life, biochemical markers, and safety in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia.Data were pooled, a priori, from two completed phase 2, multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials in patients with advanced or incurable cancer and weight loss of 5% or more. Patients were stratified by weight loss severity (5-15%, >15%) and randomly allocated (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation schedule to anamorelin hydrochloride 50 mg or placebo once-daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was lean body mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry over the 12 week treatment period in eligible patients who had at least one dose of study drug and post-treatment efficacy assessment. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00219817 and NCT00267358.Between June 29, 2005, and Oct 26, 2006, we enrolled 44 patients in the anamorelin group and 38 patients in the placebo group. 74 patients were eligible for the efficacy analyses. Over 12 weeks, lean body mass increased in 38 patients in the anamorelin group by a least-squares mean of 1·89 kg (95% CI 0·84 to 2·95) compared with a decrease of a least-squares mean of -0·20 kg (-1·23 to 0·83) for 36 patients in the placebo group (difference 2·09 kg [0·94-3·25]; p=0·0006). 42 (95%) of 44 patients treated with anamorelin and 33 (87%) of 38 patients treated with placebo had adverse events. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events (treatment-related or not) in the anamorelin group were fatigue, asthenia, atrial fibrillation, and dyspnoea (two [5%] each); in the placebo group, such events were pneumonia (three [8%]) and anaemia, thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, anxiety, and dyspnoea (two [5%] each).Anamorelin treatment for 12 weeks had a favourable clinical response profile in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. These findings support further investigation in this setting.Helsinn Therapeutics (US), Helsinn Healthcare SA.
- [Infections caused by non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella at theInfectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital Brno in 2011-2013.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2014; 63(4):289-296.
Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe the basic clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics in adult patients with salmonellosis hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital Brno in 2011-2013.Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters of 161 patients hospitalized at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital Brno from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013.Results: Invasive salmonellosis was seen in 22.4 % of the study group. The overall lethality rate reached 3.1 %. Treatment with antibiotics was used in 93.8% of patients. Transient mild to moderate leukocytopenia was reported in 4.3 % of patients and thrombocytopenia in 9.3% of patients. Transient changes in white blood cells as well as in the thrombocyte count were not clinically important. Long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors is a risk factor for salmonellosis (p = 0.128), but not for invasive salmonellosis. Long-term use of opioids (p = 0.003) and/or acetylsalicylic acid (p = 0.015) is a risk factor for invasive salmonellosis. Other risk factors for invasive disease are: age over 70 years (p = 0.011), arterial hypertension (p = 0.004), disease duration of less than three days (p = 0.006), serum creatinine level above 250 μmol/l (p = 0.01), peripheral leucocyte count above 12 x 109/l (p=0.001), and body temperature above 38 °C (p = 0.001). Hypokalemia does not represent a risk factor for invasive salmonellosis.Conclusions: Aged patients on long-term opioids or acetylsalicylic acid, with disease duration of less than three days, and meeting the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome are at the highest risk for invasive salmonellosis. Empirical antibiotics are prescribed too often and the treatment is not properly de-escalated.Keywords: almonellosis - antibiotic resistance - sepsis - carriage.
- Notes from the field: fatal rat-bite Fever in a child - san diego county, california, 2013. [Journal Article]
- MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 Dec 19; 63(50):1210-1.
In August 2013, the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency was notified of a fatal case of rat-bite fever (RBF) in a previously healthy male, aged 10 years, who owned pet rats. Two days before his death, the patient experienced rigors, fevers, vomiting, headaches, and leg pains. His physician noted a fever of 102.6°F (39.2ºC), documented a normal examination, diagnosed viral gastroenteritis, and prescribed anti-nausea medication. During the next 24 hours, the patient experienced vomiting and persistent fever. He was confused and weak before collapsing at home. Paramedics reported the patient was unresponsive and had dilated pupils; resuscitation was initiated in the field and was continued for >1 hour after arrival at the emergency department but was unsuccessful. A complete blood count performed during resuscitation revealed anemia (hemoglobin 10.0 g/dL [normal = 13.5-18.0 g/dL], thrombocytopenia (platelets 40,000/µL [normal = 140,000-440,000/µL]), leukocytosis (white blood cells 17,900 cells/µL [normal = 4,000-10,500/µL]) with 16% band neutrophils; the patient also had evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. No rash or skin breakdown was noted. Lung, liver, and epiglottis tissue collected postmortem was positive for Streptobacillus moniliformis DNA by polymerase chain reaction.
- Successful treatment of relapsing autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with rituximab. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Int 2014 Dec; 56(6):914-8.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy. The standard treatment for TTP is plasmapheresis. For refractory or relapsing cases, various immunosuppressive agents have been tried, and among them rituximab has shown promising results. TTP is rarer in the pediatric age group and the use of rituximab in children with TTP is limited. Reported herein is the successful treatment of relapsing autoimmune TTP with rituximab in a 12-year-old girl.
- Use of eltrombopag after romiplostim in primary immune thrombocytopenia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Haematol 2014 Dec 18.
The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (THPO-RAs), romiplostim and eltrombopag, are effective and safe in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However, the value of their sequential use when no response is achieved or when adverse events occur with one THPO-RA has not been clearly established. Here we retrospectively evaluated 51 primary ITP adult patients treated with romiplostim followed by eltrombopag. The median age of our cohort was 49 (range, 18-83) years. There were 32 women and 19 men. The median duration of romiplostim use before switching to eltrombopag was 12 (interquartile range 5-21) months. The reasons for switching were: lack of efficacy (n = 25), patient preference (n = 16), platelet-count fluctuation (n = 6) and side-effects (n = 4). The response rate to eltrombopag was 80% (41/51), including 67% (n = 35) complete responses. After a median follow-up of 14 months, 31 patients maintained their response. Efficacy was maintained after switching in all patients in the patient preference, platelet-count fluctuation and side-effect groups. 33% of patients experienced one or more adverse events during treatment with eltrombopag. We consider the use of eltrombopag after romiplostim for treating ITP to be effective and safe. Response to eltrombopag was related to the cause of romiplostim discontinuation.