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- The opposite effect of isotype-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors on adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. [Journal Article]
- Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2013 Jun 1; 23(11):3273-6.
Adiponectin production during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) can be used to evaluate the pharmacological activity of anti-diabetic drugs to improve insulin sensitivity. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine and pargyline inhibit adipogenesis in murine pre-adipocytes. In this study, however, we found that selective MAO-A inhibitors, moclobemide and Ro41-1049, and a selective MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, promoted adiponectin production during adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs, which suggested the anti-diabetic potential of these drugs. In contrast, non-selective MAO inhibitors, phenelzine and tranylcypromine, inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hBM-MSCs. Concomitant treatments of MAO-A and MAO-B selective inhibitors did not change the stimulatory effect on adiponectin production in hBM-MSCs. Taken together, the opposite effects of isotype-selective MAO inhibitors on adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs may not be directly associated with the inhibitory effects of MAO, suggested that the structure of MAO inhibitors may contain a novel anti-diabetic pharmacophore.
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors revisited: what you should know. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Feb; 74(2):189-91.
- Lysine-specific demethylase 1 is a therapeutic target for fetal hemoglobin induction. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Med 2013 Mar; 19(3):291-4.
Enhanced fetal γ-globin synthesis alleviates symptoms of β-globinopathies such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, but current γ-globin-inducing drugs offer limited beneficial effects. We show here that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) inhibition by RNAi in human erythroid cells or by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine in human erythroid cells or β-type globin-transgenic mice enhances γ-globin expression. LSD1 is thus a promising therapeutic target for γ-globin induction, and tranylcypromine may serve as a lead compound for the development of a new γ-globin inducer.
- An update on amine oxidase inhibitors: Multifaceted drugs. [Journal Article]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2013 Jul.:118-24.
Although not used as extensively as other antidepressants for the treatment of depression, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors continue to hold a niche in psychiatry and to have a relatively broad spectrum with regard to treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Experimental and clinical research on MAO inhibitors has been expanding in the past few years, primarily because of exciting findings indicating that these drugs have neuroprotective properties (often independently of their ability to inhibit MAO). The non-selective and irreversible MAO inhibitors tranylcypromine (TCP) and phenelzine (PLZ) have demonstrated neuroprotective properties in numerous studies targeting elements of apoptotic cascades and neurogenesis. l-Deprenyl and rasagiline, both selective MAO-B inhibitors, are used in the management of Parkinson's disease, but these drugs may be useful in the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders given that they demonstrate neuroprotective/neurorescue properties in a wide variety of models in vitro and in vivo. Although the focus of studies on the involvement of MAO inhibitors in neuroprotection has been on MAO-B inhibitors, there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that MAO-A inhibitors may also have neuroprotective properties. In addition to MAO inhibition, PLZ also inhibits primary amine oxidase (PrAO), an enzyme implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These multifaceted aspects of amine oxidase inhibitors and some of their metabolites are reviewed herein.
- Withdrawal and Discontinuation Phenomena Associated with Tranylcypromine: A Systematic Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pharmacopsychiatry 2013 Jan 28.
Tranylcypromine (TCP) is an effective antidepressant with a complex pharmacological profile and a relevant risk of abuse and dependence. Withdrawal phenomena (WP, in the case of TCP-abuse/dependence) or discontinuation phenomena (DP, in the case of absent TCP-abuse/dependence) subsequent to abrupt termination of TCP are a potentially severe clinical syndrome. We conducted a systematic review of all previously published WP/DP cases following abrupt termination of TCP in order to identify typical clinical presentations and risk factors of WP/DP and frequency of TCP abuse or dependence within these patients. By searching the Medline and Scopus databases we identified n=25 cases (cohort WP: n=18, cohort DP: n=7). Delirium was found in n=13 patients (cohort WP: 10/55.6%; cohort DP: 3/42.9%), n=6 demonstrated WP/DP without delirium (WP: 6/33.3%; DP: 0/0%) and n=5 rapid relapse in depression (WP: 1/5.6%; DP: 4/57.1%). Mean time until development of WP/DP was 1.9 (WP) and 2.2 (DP) days. Mean duration of WP/DP was 5.7 (WP) and 11.3 (DP) days. All patients of cohort WP were described to feature TCP-abuse/dependence. Patients with delirium were on average older (41.8 years vs. 37.8 years) and featured higher mean prescribed (71.0 mg vs. 38.3 mg) and actually taken daily TCP dosages (285.8 mg vs. 187.7 mg). In conclusion, even termination of lower daily dosages of TCP may result in delirium. Thrombocytopenia features diagnostic value in patients with deliria of unknown etiology. TCP should be administered with great care, especially in dependence-prone patients.·
- Anticonvulsant action of indazole. [Journal Article]
- Epilepsy Res 2013 May; 104(3):203-16.
Here we report that indazole is characterized as a potential anticonvulsant, inhibiting pentylenetetrazole-, electroshock- and strychnine-induced convulsions in mice (ED50's: 39.9, 43.2 and 82.4mg/kg, respectively) but not bicuculline- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions. The median toxic dose (TD50) of indazole was 52.3mg/kg by the minimal motor impairment test. Therefore, nontoxic doses produced anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole- and electroshock-induced seizures. Indazole (50mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous activity but induced hypothermia. It also inhibited the metabolism of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain in vivo and the activities of monoamine oxidase A and B in vitro, with IC50 values of 20.6μM and 16.3μM, respectively. However, these inhibitory effects do not account for the anticonvulsant activity because treatment with typical monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as pargyline or tranylcypromine did not completely reproduce the anticonvulsant activity of indazole. In the animal seizure models tested, the anticonvulsant profile of indazole most resembled that of gabapentin and somewhat resembled those of the AMPA/kainate antagonist NBQX and the sodium channel inhibitor phenytoin, but differed from that of benzodiazepine. The isobolographic analyses showed that the interactive mode of indazole with gabapentin, NBQX or phenytoin is additive. These results suggest that indazole has anticonvulsant activity and multiple mechanisms.
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors potentiate the effects of deep brain stimulation. [Case Reports, Letter, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Psychiatry 2012 Dec 1; 169(12):1320-1.
- Inhibiting interactions of lysine demethylase LSD1 with snail/slug blocks cancer cell invasion. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Cancer Res 2013 Jan 1; 73(1):235-45.
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is required for cancer cell invasion is regulated by a family of E-box-binding transcription repressors, which include Snail (SNAIL1) and Slug (SNAI2). Snail appears to repress the expression of the EMT marker E-cadherin by epigenetic mechanisms dependent on the interaction of its N-terminal SNAG domain with chromatin-modifying proteins including lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A). We assessed whether blocking Snail/Slug-LSD1 interaction by treatment with Parnate, an enzymatic inhibitor of LSD1, or TAT-SNAG, a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the SNAG domain of Slug, suppresses the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells of different origin and genetic background. We show here that either treatment blocked Slug-dependent repression of the E-cadherin promoter and inhibited the motility and invasion of tumor cell lines without any effect on their proliferation. These effects correlated with induction of epithelial and repression of mesenchymal markers and were phenocopied by LSD1 or Slug downregulation. Parnate treatment also inhibited bone marrow homing/engraftment of Slug-expressing K562 cells. Together, these studies support the concept that targeting Snail/Slug-dependent transcription repression complexes may lead to the development of novel drugs selectively inhibiting the invasive potential of cancer cells.
- Tianeptine in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors for major depressive disorder. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2012.
Major depressive disorder may respond to monotherapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or tianeptine. Literature search showed no reports of MAOIs combined with tianeptine. The method included was clinical case history. A 59-year-old woman had partial improvement of depression with the MAOI tranylcypromine combined with topiramate, trazodone and ziprasidone. The patient had further improvement of depression symptoms after addition of tianeptine. No adverse events were evident. The combination of MAIOs and tianeptine may be effective for refractory major depressive disorder.
- Risperidone attenuates the increase of extracellular nitric oxide and glutamate levels in serotonin syndrome animal models. [Journal Article]
- Neurosci Lett 2012 Oct 18; 528(1):22-6.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) syndrome is a potentially life-threatening neurotoxic condition provoked by pharmacologically induced excess serotonergic activity. Several studies report that nitric oxide (NO) and glutamate play a role in psychostimulant-induced hyperthermia related to neurotoxicity. In the present study, the involvement of NO and glutamate, as well as the effect of risperidone, a potent 5-HT(2A) and D(2) (and a less potent D(1)) receptor antagonist, were investigated in animal models of 5-HT syndrome. Two 5-HT syndrome animal models were utilized. The first model was induced by administration of tranylcypromine, a nonselective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, and fluoxetine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. The second model was induced by the administration of clorgyline, an MAO-A inhibitor, and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, a precursor of 5-HT. Changes in the level of NO metabolites and glutamate in the anterior hypothalamus were measured using microdialysis. In both models, NO metabolite levels significantly increased, and this increase was significantly attenuated by risperidone pretreatment. Extracellular levels of glutamate were increased only in the tranylcypromine and fluoxetine model, and this increase was significantly attenuated by risperidone pretreatment. These results indicate that NO and glutamate may be involved in the development of 5-HT syndrome and that risperidone may be effective against neurotransmitter abnormalities in 5-HT syndrome.