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- Epigenetic regulation of Atrophin1 by lysine-specific demethylase 1 is required for cortical progenitor maintenance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Commun 2014.:5815.
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is involved in gene regulation and development; however, its precise function, molecular targets and underlying mechanisms during development are poorly understood. Here we show that LSD1 is required for neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) maintenance during cortical development. A ChIP-seq analysis identified a LSD1-binding site (LBAL) downstream of Atrophin1 (ATN1). Surprisingly, tranylcypromine (LSD1 inhibitor) treatment increased H3K4 methylation at LBAL, leading to ATN1 repression and NPC differentiation. Knockdown of LSD1 and ATN1 phenocopied each other in inducing NPC premature differentiation and depletion, which could be rescued by ATN1 overexpression, suggesting that LSD1 controls NPC differentiation via regulation of ATN1 methylation status and expression. The involvement of LSD1 in ATN1 expression and NPC maintenance were confirmed in knockout mice. These findings hint at the potential application for the clinical drug, tranylcypromine, in the prevention and/or treatment of ATN1-associated degenerative disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.
- Suppression of invasion and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer lines by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of slug activity. [Journal Article]
- Neoplasia 2014 Dec; 16(12):1047-58.
Most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) exhibit gene expression patterns associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a feature that correlates with a propensity for metastatic spread. Overexpression of the EMT regulator Slug is detected in basal and mesenchymal-type TNBCs and is associated with reduced E-cadherin expression and aggressive disease. The effects of Slug depend, in part, on the interaction of its N-terminal SNAG repressor domain with the chromatin-modifying protein lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1); thus, we investigated whether tranylcypromine [also known as trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine hydrochloride (PCPA) or Parnate], an inhibitor of LSD1 that blocks its interaction with Slug, suppresses the migration, invasion, and metastatic spread of TNBC cell lines. We show here that PCPA treatment induces the expression of E-cadherin and other epithelial markers and markedly suppresses migration and invasion of TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT-549. These effects were phenocopied by Slug or LSD1 silencing. In two models of orthotopic breast cancer, PCPA treatment reduced local tumor growth and the number of lung metastases. In mice injected directly in the blood circulation with MDA-MB-231 cells, PCPA treatment or Slug silencing markedly inhibited bone metastases but had no effect on lung infiltration. Thus, blocking Slug activity may suppress the metastatic spread of TNBC and, perhaps, specifically inhibit homing/colonization to the bone.
- Inhibition of LSD1 reduces herpesvirus infection, shedding, and recurrence by promoting epigenetic suppression of viral genomes. [Journal Article]
- Sci Transl Med 2014 Dec 3; 6(265):265ra169.
Herpesviruses are highly prevalent and maintain lifelong latent reservoirs, thus posing challenges to the control of herpetic disease despite the availability of antiviral pharmaceuticals that target viral DNA replication. The initiation of herpes simplex virus infection and reactivation from latency is dependent on a transcriptional coactivator complex that contains two required histone demethylases, LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) and a member of the JMJD2 family (Jumonji C domain-containing protein 2). Inhibition of either of these enzymes results in heterochromatic suppression of the viral genome and blocks infection and reactivation in vitro. We demonstrate that viral infection can be epigenetically suppressed in three animal models of herpes simplex virus infection and disease. Treating animals with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine to inhibit LSD1 suppressed viral lytic infection, subclinical shedding, and reactivation from latency in vivo. This phenotypic suppression was correlated with enhanced epigenetic suppression of the viral genome and suggests that, even during latency, the chromatin state of the virus is dynamic. Therefore, epi-pharmaceuticals may represent a promising approach to treat herpetic diseases.
- Reversible Inhibitors of LSD1 as Therapeutic Agents in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Significance and Progress to Date. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Res Rev 2014 Nov 24.
In the 10 years since the discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), this epigenetic eraser has emerged as an important target of interest in oncology. More specifically, research has demonstrated that it plays an essential role in the self-renewal of leukemic stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This review will cover clinical aspects of AML, the role of epigenetics in the disease, and discuss the research that led to the first irreversible inhibitors of LSD1 entering clinical trials for the treatment of AML in 2014. We also review recent achievements and progress in the development of potent and selective reversible inhibitors of LSD1. These compounds differ in their mode of action from tranylcypromine derivatives and could facilitate novel biochemical studies to probe the pathways mediated by LSD1. In this review, we will critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of published series of reversible LSD1 inhibitors. Overall, while the development of reversible inhibitors to date has been less fruitful than that of irreversible inhibitors, there is still the possibility for their use to facilitate further research into the roles and functions of LSD1 and to expand the therapeutic applications of LSD1 inhibitors in the clinic.
- SLC10A4 Is a Vesicular Amine-Associated Transporter Modulating Dopamine Homeostasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Psychiatry 2014 Jul 24.
The neuromodulatory transmitters, biogenic amines, have profound effects on multiple neurons and are essential for normal behavior and mental health. Here we report that the orphan transporter SLC10A4, which in the brain is exclusively expressed in presynaptic vesicles of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons, has a regulatory role in dopamine homeostasis.We used a combination of molecular and behavioral analyses, pharmacology, and in vivo amperometry to assess the role of SLC10A4 in dopamine-regulated behaviors.We show that SLC10A4 is localized on the same synaptic vesicles as either vesicular acetylcholine transporter or vesicular monoamine transporter 2. We did not find evidence for direct transport of dopamine by SLC10A4; however, synaptic vesicle preparations lacking SLC10A4 showed decreased dopamine vesicular uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we observed an increased acidification in synaptic vesicles isolated from mice overexpressing SLC10A4. Loss of SLC10A4 in mice resulted in reduced striatal serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine concentrations and a significantly higher dopamine turnover ratio. Absence of SLC10A4 led to slower dopamine clearance rates in vivo, which resulted in accumulation of extracellular dopamine. Finally, whereas SLC10A4 null mutant mice were slightly hypoactive, they displayed hypersensitivity to administration of amphetamine and tranylcypromine.Our results demonstrate that SLC10A4 is a vesicular monoaminergic and cholinergic associated transporter that is important for dopamine homeostasis and neuromodulation in vivo. The discovery of SLC10A4 and its role in dopaminergic signaling reveals a novel mechanism for neuromodulation and represents an unexplored target for the treatment of neurological and mental disorders.
- Synthesis, biological activity and mechanistic insights of 1-substituted cyclopropylamine derivatives: a novel class of irreversible inhibitors of histone demethylase KDM1A. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur J Med Chem 2014 Oct 30.:352-63.
Histone demethylase KDM1A (also known as LSD1) has become an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer as well as other disorders such as viral infections. We report on the synthesis of compounds derived from the expansion of tranylcypromine as a chemical scaffold for the design of novel demethylase inhibitors. These compounds, which are substituted on the cyclopropyl core moiety, were evaluated for their ability to inhibit KDM1A in vitro as well as to function in cells by modulating the expression of Gfi-1b, a well recognized KDM1A target gene. The molecules were all found to covalently inhibit KDM1A and to become increasingly selective against human monoamine oxidases MAO A and MAO B through the introduction of bulkier substituents on the cyclopropylamine ring. Structural and biochemical analysis of selected trans isomers showed that the two stereoisomers are endowed with similar inhibitory activities against KDM1A, but form different covalent adducts with the FAD co-enzyme.
- Development of an in vitro cytochrome P450 cocktail inhibition assay for assessing the inhibition risk of drugs of abuse. [Journal Article]
- Toxicol Lett 2014 Oct 1; 230(1):28-35.
Drugs of abuse are not tested for cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before distribution. Therefore, a cocktail assay should be developed for testing the inhibition potential for all relevant CYPs. The following CYP test substrates and selective inhibitors were incubated in pooled human liver microsomes: phenacetin (alpha-naphthoflavone for CYP1A2), coumarin (tranylcypromine, CYP2A6), bupropion (sertraline, CYP2B6), amodiaquine (trimethoprim, CYP2C8), diclofenac (sulfaphenazole, CYP2C9), omeprazole (fluconazole, CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (quinidine, CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (clomethiazole, CYP2E1), testosterone (verapamil, CYP3A). Samples were analyzed after protein precipitation using a Thermo Fisher Q-Exactive LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. The IC50 values were calculated by plotting the concentration of the formed metabolite, relative to the control sample, over the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration. They were determined either for single substrate or the cocktail incubation. Unfortunately, the cocktail assay had to be split because of interferences during incubation caused by substrates or metabolites, but the mixture of both incubates could be analyzed in one analytical run. The IC50 values determined in the single substrate or both cocktail incubations were comparable among themselves and with published data. In conclusion, the new inhibition cocktail assay was reproducible and applicable for testing the inhibition potential of drugs of abuse as exemplified for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amfetamine (DOI).
- How treatable is refractory depression? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Jun 4.:148-152.
Patients who do not remit following one or more attempts at treatment present a clinical challenge, as well as prolonged suffering and disability. Discouragement is common, so knowledge of likelihood of eventual remission as well as which treatments might ultimately be effective would help patient and clinician alike.Thirty-one patients with major depression were recruited, 28 beginning study treatment. All had remained significantly depressed following adequate (4 weeks taking ≥ PDR maximum dose) trials on ≥ two antidepressants having different presumed mechanisms. Patients were begun on tranylcypromine to 60mg/d, were then treated with up to 120mg/d and then had dextroamphetamine added. Following two week wash-out, patients were then treated with nortriptyline+lithium, and then phenelzine was added. Each successive phase was entered only if remission had not been achieved, and phases could be skipped.Eighteen of the 28 patients (65%) remitted in one of the five phases of the study, plus 5 additional patients with open post-study treatment (total remitting, 82%). By study phase, Eight of 27 (30%) patients remitted with initial dosing of tranylcypromine up to 60mg/d, 6/18 (33%) remitted with above PDR dosing of tranylcypromine up to 120mg/d, and 1/6 (17%) to adding dextroamphetamine. With nortriptyline, 1/10 (10%) remitted with nortriptyline+lithium, and 1/5 (20%) when phenelzine was added. Eighteen of the 28 patients (64%), or 78% of those who remitted, maintained their good benefit for at least six months.The majority of depressed patients refractory to two or more adequately utilized differently acting antidepressant medications can still remit and about half may maintain remission for extended periods. "Refractory depression" appears to be a relative description for many unresponsive depressed patients.(1.)
- Inhibition of histone demethylase, LSD2 (KDM1B), attenuates DNA methylation and increases sensitivity to DNMT inhibitor-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014 Jul; 146(1):99-108.
Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunction of histone lysine demethylase is associated with abnormal chromatin remodeling and gene silencing, contributing to breast tumorigenesis. In silico analysis shows that the newly identified histone demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 2 is highly expressed in breast cancer, especially in invasive tumors. However, it is currently unknown how LSD2 regulates chromatin remodeling and gene expression regulation in breast cancer. Using short hairpin RNA, we stably knocked down LSD2 (LSD2-KD) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. LSD2-KD led to accumulation of H3K4me1/2 without changing methylation levels of other key histone lysine residues, suggesting that LSD2 acts as a bona fide H3K4 demethylase in breast cancer cells. LSD2-KD resulted in decreased colony formation and attenuated global DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, treatment with the DNMT inhibitor, 5-aza-deoxycytidine (DAC), synergistically increased mRNA expression of aberrantly silenced genes important in breast cancer development, including PR, RARβ, ERα, SFRP1, SFRP2, and E-cadherin in LSD2-KD cells. Furthermore, LSD2-KD cells are more susceptible to cell death than scramble controls, and combined treatment with tranylcypromine, an LSD2 inhibitor, and DAC resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. DNMT inhibition by DAC in LSD2-KD cells led to internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, enhanced PARP cleavage and increased sub-G1 apoptotic cell population. These results demonstrate an important role for LSD2 in regulation of DNA methylation and gene silencing in breast cancer, and suggest that inhibition of LSD2 in combination with DNA methyltransferase inhibition represents a novel approach for epigenetic therapy of breast cancer.
- Differential effects of antidepressant drugs on mTOR signalling in rat hippocampal neurons. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014 Jun 5.:1-16.
Recent studies suggest that ketamine produces antidepressant actions via stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leading to increased levels of synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, mTOR activation may be related to antidepressant action. However, the mTOR signalling underlying antidepressant drug action has not been well investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether alterations in mTOR signalling were observed following treatment with antidepressant drugs, using ketamine as a positive control. Using Western blotting, we measured changes in the mTOR-mediated proteins and synaptic proteins in rat hippocampal cultures. Dendritic outgrowth was determined by neurite assay. Our findings demonstrated that escitalopram, paroxetine and tranylcypromine significantly increased levels of phospho-mTOR and its down-stream regulators (phospho-4E-BP-1 and phospho-p70S6K); fluoxetine, sertraline and imipramine had no effect. All drugs tested increased up-stream regulators (phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK) levels. Increased phospho-mTOR induced by escitalopram, paroxetine or tranylcypromine was significantly blocked in the presence of specific PI3K, MEK or mTOR inhibitors, respectively. All drugs tested also increased hippocampal dendritic outgrowth and synaptic proteins levels. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, significantly blocked these effects on escitalopram, paroxetine and tranylcypromine whereas fluoxetine, sertraline and imipramine effects were not affected. The effects of escitalopram, paroxetine and tranylcypromine paralleled those of ketamine. This study presents novel in vitro evidence indicating that some antidepressant drugs promote dendritic outgrowth and increase synaptic protein levels through mTOR signalling; however, other antidepressant drugs seem to act via a different pathway. mTOR signalling may be a promising target for the development of new antidepressant drugs.