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- Elevation of rat brain tyrosine levels by phenelzine is mediated by its active metabolite β-phenylethylidenehydrazine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2014 Mar 6.:67-73.
Phenelzine, a non-selective irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO), has been used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders for several decades. It is a unique inhibitor of MAO as it is also a substrate for MAO, with one of the metabolites being β-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), and it also inhibits several transaminases (e.g. GABA transaminase) in the brain when administered i.p. to rats. Administration of either phenelzine or PEH to rats has been reported to produce dramatic increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while reducing levels of glutamine; these effects are abolished for phenelzine, but not for PEH, when the animals are pre-treated with another MAO inhibitor, suggesting that they are mediated by the MAO-catalyzed formation of PEH from phenelzine. In the present report, we have found that phenelzine and E- and Z-geometric isomers of PEH significantly increased rat whole brain concentrations of l-tyrosine. In a time-response study, acute administration of phenelzine, E-PEH and Z-PEH (30mg/kg i.p.) elevated rat whole brain l-tyrosine levels at 3 and 6h following injection, reaching approximately 265-305% of vehicle-treated controls at 3h. To determine whether the effect on l-tyrosine is MAO-dependent, animals were pre-treated with the non-selective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine (1mg/kg i.p.) prior to administration of phenelzine, racemic PEH or vehicle controls. This pre-treatment reversed the effects of phenelzine, but not of PEH, on brain l-tyrosine levels, suggesting that the tyrosine-elevating property of phenelzine is largely the result of its active metabolite PEH. These results are discussed in relation to possible therapeutic applications of these drugs.
- Computational Comparison of Imidazoline Association with the I2 Binding Site in Human Monoamine Oxidases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Chem Inf Model 2014 Apr 2.
Imidazoline ligands in I2-type binding sites in the brain alter monoamine turnover and release. One example of an I2 binding site characterized by binding studies, kinetics, and crystal structure has been described in monoamine oxidase B (MAO B). MAO A also binds imidazolines but has a different active site structure. Docking and molecular dynamics were used to explore how 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride (2-BFI) binds to MAO A and to explain why tranylcypromine increases tight binding to MAO B. The energy for 2-BFI binding to MAO A was comparable to that for tranylcypromine-modified MAO B, but the location of 2-BFI in the MAO A could be anywhere in the monopartite substrate cavity. Binding to the tranylcypromine-modified MAO B was with high affinity and in the entrance cavity as in the crystal structure, but the energies of interaction with the native MAO B were less favorable. Molecular dynamics revealed that the entrance cavity of MAO B after tranylcypromine modification is both smaller and less flexible. This change in the presence of tranylcypromine may be responsible for the greater affinity of tranylcypromine-modified MAO B for imidazoline ligands.
- Tranylcypromine reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection in mice. [Journal Article]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 May; 58(5):2807-15.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection.
- Electrochemical detection of human cytochrome P450 2A6 inhibition: a step toward reducing dependence on smoking. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Anal Chem 2014 Mar 4; 86(5):2760-6.
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2A6 has been demonstrated to play an important role in nicotine metabolism and consequent smoking habits. Here, the "molecular Lego" approach was used to achieve the first reported electrochemical signal of human CYP2A6 and to improve its catalytic efficiency on electrode surfaces. The enzyme was fused at the genetic level to flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (FLD) to create the chimeric CYP2A6-FLD. Electrochemical characterization by cyclic voltammetry shows clearly defined redox transitions of the haem domain in both CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Electrocatalysis experiments using coumarin as substrate followed by fluorimetric quantification of the product were performed with immobilized CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Comparison of the kinetic parameters showed that coumarin catalysis was carried out with a higher efficiency by the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, with a calculated kcat value significantly higher (P < 0.005) than that of CYP2A6, whereas the affinity for the substrate (KM) remained unaltered. The chimeric system was also successfully used to demonstrate the inhibition of the electrochemical activity of the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, toward both coumarin and nicotine substrates, by tranylcypromine, a potent and selective CYP2A6 inhibitor. This work shows that CYP2A6 turnover efficiency is improved when the protein is linked to the FLD redox module, and this strategy can be utilized for the development of new clinically relevant biotechnological approaches suitable for deciphering the metabolic implications of CYP2A6 polymorphism and for the screening of CYP2A6 substrates and inhibitors.
- Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 by the acyclic diterpenoid geranylgeranoic acid and its derivatives. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Jan 31; 444(1):24-9.
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is upregulated in many cancers, especially neuroblastoma. We set out to explore whether geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) inhibits LSD1 activity by using recombinant human LSD1. GGA inhibited LSD1 activity with IC50 similar to that of the clinically used drug tranylcypromine. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, GGA induced NTRK2 gene expression alongside upregulation of histone H3 with dimethylated lysine-4 in the regulatory regions of the NTRK2 gene. Dihydrogenation of GGA reinforced the LSD1-inhibitory effect in a position-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of dihydro-derivatives of GGA on recombinant LSD1 strongly correlated with the induction of NTRK2 gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells. These data demonstrate for the first time the efficient LSD1-inhibitor activity of GGA and its derivatives, providing a novel prospect of preventing cancer onset by using GGA to regulate epigenetic modification.
- Overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in ovarian endometriomas and its inhibition reduces cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Fertil Steril 2014 Mar; 101(3):740-9.
To investigate whether lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is aberrantly expressed in endometriomas and whether treatment with tranylcypromine, an LSD1 inhibitor, has any effect on cell viability, cell cycle, and invasiveness.Laboratory study using human tissues.Academic hospital.Forty-two ectopic endometrial tissue samples, their homologue eutopic endometrial tissue samples, and 70 control endometrial tissue samples.Immunohistochemistry analysis of LSD1 of all human tissue samples, and Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and invasion assay of eutopic and ectopic endometriotic stromal cells and normal endometrial stromal cells.Immunostaining levels of LSD1, gene and protein expression levels, cell viability, cell cycles, and invasiveness.The expression of the LSD1 gene and protein in endometriosis was elevated. Treatment of endometriotic stromal cells with tranylcypromine statistically significantly reduced the cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness.Because DNA and histones are intimately intertwined and work in concert in transcription regulation, conceivably histone demethylation activity of LSD1 could be wide ranging. The inhibition of LSD1 activity by tranylcypromine and the resultant inhibition of proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness suggest that LSD1 may be a candidate therapeutic target for endometriosis.
- Pan-histone demethylase inhibitors simultaneously targeting Jumonji C and lysine-specific demethylases display high anticancer activities. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Med Chem 2014 Jan 9; 57(1):42-55.
In prostate cancer, two different types of histone lysine demethylases (KDM), LSD1/KDM1 and JMJD2/KDM4, are coexpressed and colocalize with the androgen receptor. We designed and synthesized hybrid LSD1/JmjC or "pan-KDM" inhibitors 1-6 by coupling the skeleton of tranylcypromine 7, a known LSD1 inhibitor, with 4-carboxy-4'-carbomethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine 8 or 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline 9, two 2-oxoglutarate competitive templates developed for JmjC inhibition. Hybrid compounds 1-6 are able to simultaneously target both KDM families and have been validated as potential antitumor agents in cells. Among them, 2 and 3 increase H3K4 and H3K9 methylation levels in cells and cause growth arrest and substantial apoptosis in LNCaP prostate and HCT116 colon cancer cells. When tested in noncancer mesenchymal progenitor (MePR) cells, 2 and 3 induced little and no apoptosis, respectively, thus showing cancer-selective inhibiting action.
- Effects of antidepressant drugs on synaptic protein levels and dendritic outgrowth in hippocampal neuronal cultures. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Neuropharmacology 2014 Apr.:222-33.
The alteration of hippocampal plasticity has been proposed to play a critical role in both the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. In this study, the ability of different classes of antidepressant drugs (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, imipramine, tranylcypromine, and tianeptine) to mediate the expression of synaptic proteins and dendritic outgrowth in rat hippocampal neurons was investigated under toxic conditions induced by B27 deprivation, which causes hippocampal cell death. Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synaptophysin (SYP) levels were evaluated using Western blot analyses. Additionally, dendritic outgrowth was examined to determine whether antidepressant drugs affect the dendritic morphology of hippocampal neurons in B27-deprived cultures. Escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, imipramine, tranylcypromine, and tianeptine significantly prevented B27 deprivation-induced decreases in levels of PSD-95, BDNF, and SYP. Moreover, the independent application of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline significantly increased levels of BDNF under normal conditions. All antidepressant drugs significantly increased the total outgrowth of hippocampal dendrites under B27 deprivation. Specific inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), KN-93, protein kinase A (PKA), H-89, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, significantly decreased the effects of antidepressant drugs on dendritic outgrowth, whereas this effect was observed only with tianeptine for the PI3K inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that certain antidepressant drugs can enhance synaptic protein levels and encourage dendritic outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, effects on dendritic outgrowth likely require CaMKII, PKA, or PI3K signaling pathways. The observed effects may be may be due to chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs.
- Antidepressant treatment with MAO-inhibitors during general and regional anesthesia: a review and case report of spinal anesthesia for lower extremity surgery without discontinuation of tranylcypromine. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2013 Oct; 51(10):763-70.
Monoamine oxidase-(MAO)-inhibitors are a treatment of last resort in treatment resistant depression, which is regarded as a condition of increased psychiatric risk. General and regional anesthesia for elective surgery during use of long-term MAO-inhibitors remains a matter of debate because of an increased risk of drug interactions and decreased sympathetic stability. A series of case reports and new comparative studies reveal the safety of anesthesia/analgesia in non-cardiac surgery without discontinuation of the MAO-inhibitor if best effort is made for maintenance of sympathetic homeostasis and if known drug interactions are avoided. Very few reports with severe adverse incidents have been noted. Severe cardiovascular morbidity, a contraindication of MAO-inhibitors, probably contributed to peri- and postoperative complications. According to new studies, the risk of pharmacokinetic drug interactions is lower for tranylcypromine than for phenelzine. In the present case, a 66-year-old psychiatric patient on permanent treatment with 20 mg/day tranylcypromine was admitted for forefoot surgery. Anesthetic premedication consisted of 7.5 mg oral midazolam. Intravenous midazolam (0.5 mg) was dispensed for intraoperative sedation. After local anesthesia of the puncture site with 30 mg isobar prilocaine, spinal anesthesia was achieved by a single shot of 13.5 mg hyperbar bupivacaine (0.5%) intrathecally. Postoperative regional and general analgesia were accomplished by a peripheral nerve block with 50 mg isobar bupivacaine as well as oral etoricoxib and oxycodone. No peri- or postoperative complications were encountered. It is concluded that general or regional anesthesia for noncardiac surgery without discontinuation of MAO-inhibitor treatment may be a safe intervention after careful evaluation of an individual's perioperative and psychiatric risk. The increased psychiatric risk in patients treated with MAO-inhibitors outweighs the increased, however manageable, perioperative risk from continuing treatment during surgery.
- Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Epigenetics 2013 Nov; 8(11):1133-40.
Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.