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- Tranylcypromine Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Mar 3.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), the drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone modifying enzyme, lysine-specific demethylase-1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, the infection of acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection.
- Electrochemical Detection of Human Cytochrome P450 2A6 Inhibition: A Step toward Reducing Dependence on Smoking. [Journal Article]
- Anal Chem 2014 Mar 4; 86(5):2760-6.
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2A6 has been demonstrated to play an important role in nicotine metabolism and consequent smoking habits. Here, the "molecular Lego" approach was used to achieve the first reported electrochemical signal of human CYP2A6 and to improve its catalytic efficiency on electrode surfaces. The enzyme was fused at the genetic level to flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (FLD) to create the chimeric CYP2A6-FLD. Electrochemical characterization by cyclic voltammetry shows clearly defined redox transitions of the haem domain in both CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Electrocatalysis experiments using coumarin as substrate followed by fluorimetric quantification of the product were performed with immobilized CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Comparison of the kinetic parameters showed that coumarin catalysis was carried out with a higher efficiency by the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, with a calculated kcat value significantly higher (P < 0.005) than that of CYP2A6, whereas the affinity for the substrate (KM) remained unaltered. The chimeric system was also successfully used to demonstrate the inhibition of the electrochemical activity of the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, toward both coumarin and nicotine substrates, by tranylcypromine, a potent and selective CYP2A6 inhibitor. This work shows that CYP2A6 turnover efficiency is improved when the protein is linked to the FLD redox module, and this strategy can be utilized for the development of new clinically relevant biotechnological approaches suitable for deciphering the metabolic implications of CYP2A6 polymorphism and for the screening of CYP2A6 substrates and inhibitors.
- Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 by the acyclic diterpenoid geranylgeranoic acid and its derivatives. [Journal Article]
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Jan 31; 444(1):24-9.
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is upregulated in many cancers, especially neuroblastoma. We set out to explore whether geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) inhibits LSD1 activity by using recombinant human LSD1. GGA inhibited LSD1 activity with IC50 similar to that of the clinically used drug tranylcypromine. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, GGA induced NTRK2 gene expression alongside upregulation of histone H3 with dimethylated lysine-4 in the regulatory regions of the NTRK2 gene. Dihydrogenation of GGA reinforced the LSD1-inhibitory effect in a position-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of dihydro-derivatives of GGA on recombinant LSD1 strongly correlated with the induction of NTRK2 gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells. These data demonstrate for the first time the efficient LSD1-inhibitor activity of GGA and its derivatives, providing a novel prospect of preventing cancer onset by using GGA to regulate epigenetic modification.
- Overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in ovarian endometriomas and its inhibition reduces cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness. [Journal Article]
- Fertil Steril 2014 Mar; 101(3):740-9.
To investigate whether lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is aberrantly expressed in endometriomas and whether treatment with tranylcypromine, an LSD1 inhibitor, has any effect on cell viability, cell cycle, and invasiveness.Laboratory study using human tissues.Academic hospital.Forty-two ectopic endometrial tissue samples, their homologue eutopic endometrial tissue samples, and 70 control endometrial tissue samples.Immunohistochemistry analysis of LSD1 of all human tissue samples, and Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and invasion assay of eutopic and ectopic endometriotic stromal cells and normal endometrial stromal cells.Immunostaining levels of LSD1, gene and protein expression levels, cell viability, cell cycles, and invasiveness.The expression of the LSD1 gene and protein in endometriosis was elevated. Treatment of endometriotic stromal cells with tranylcypromine statistically significantly reduced the cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness.Because DNA and histones are intimately intertwined and work in concert in transcription regulation, conceivably histone demethylation activity of LSD1 could be wide ranging. The inhibition of LSD1 activity by tranylcypromine and the resultant inhibition of proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness suggest that LSD1 may be a candidate therapeutic target for endometriosis.
- Pan-histone demethylase inhibitors simultaneously targeting Jumonji C and lysine-specific demethylases display high anticancer activities. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Med Chem 2014 Jan 9; 57(1):42-55.
In prostate cancer, two different types of histone lysine demethylases (KDM), LSD1/KDM1 and JMJD2/KDM4, are coexpressed and colocalize with the androgen receptor. We designed and synthesized hybrid LSD1/JmjC or "pan-KDM" inhibitors 1-6 by coupling the skeleton of tranylcypromine 7, a known LSD1 inhibitor, with 4-carboxy-4'-carbomethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine 8 or 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline 9, two 2-oxoglutarate competitive templates developed for JmjC inhibition. Hybrid compounds 1-6 are able to simultaneously target both KDM families and have been validated as potential antitumor agents in cells. Among them, 2 and 3 increase H3K4 and H3K9 methylation levels in cells and cause growth arrest and substantial apoptosis in LNCaP prostate and HCT116 colon cancer cells. When tested in noncancer mesenchymal progenitor (MePR) cells, 2 and 3 induced little and no apoptosis, respectively, thus showing cancer-selective inhibiting action.
- Effects of antidepressant drugs on synaptic protein levels and dendritic outgrowth in hippocampal neuronal cultures. [Journal Article]
- Neuropharmacology 2014 Apr.:222-33.
The alteration of hippocampal plasticity has been proposed to play a critical role in both the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. In this study, the ability of different classes of antidepressant drugs (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, imipramine, tranylcypromine, and tianeptine) to mediate the expression of synaptic proteins and dendritic outgrowth in rat hippocampal neurons was investigated under toxic conditions induced by B27 deprivation, which causes hippocampal cell death. Postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synaptophysin (SYP) levels were evaluated using Western blot analyses. Additionally, dendritic outgrowth was examined to determine whether antidepressant drugs affect the dendritic morphology of hippocampal neurons in B27-deprived cultures. Escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, imipramine, tranylcypromine, and tianeptine significantly prevented B27 deprivation-induced decreases in levels of PSD-95, BDNF, and SYP. Moreover, the independent application of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline significantly increased levels of BDNF under normal conditions. All antidepressant drugs significantly increased the total outgrowth of hippocampal dendrites under B27 deprivation. Specific inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), KN-93, protein kinase A (PKA), H-89, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, significantly decreased the effects of antidepressant drugs on dendritic outgrowth, whereas this effect was observed only with tianeptine for the PI3K inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that certain antidepressant drugs can enhance synaptic protein levels and encourage dendritic outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, effects on dendritic outgrowth likely require CaMKII, PKA, or PI3K signaling pathways. The observed effects may be may be due to chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs.
- Antidepressant treatment with MAO-inhibitors during general and regional anesthesia: a review and case report of spinal anesthesia for lower extremity surgery without discontinuation of tranylcypromine. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2013 Oct; 51(10):763-70.
Monoamine oxidase-(MAO)-inhibitors are a treatment of last resort in treatment resistant depression, which is regarded as a condition of increased psychiatric risk. General and regional anesthesia for elective surgery during use of long-term MAO-inhibitors remains a matter of debate because of an increased risk of drug interactions and decreased sympathetic stability. A series of case reports and new comparative studies reveal the safety of anesthesia/analgesia in non-cardiac surgery without discontinuation of the MAO-inhibitor if best effort is made for maintenance of sympathetic homeostasis and if known drug interactions are avoided. Very few reports with severe adverse incidents have been noted. Severe cardiovascular morbidity, a contraindication of MAO-inhibitors, probably contributed to peri- and postoperative complications. According to new studies, the risk of pharmacokinetic drug interactions is lower for tranylcypromine than for phenelzine. In the present case, a 66-year-old psychiatric patient on permanent treatment with 20 mg/day tranylcypromine was admitted for forefoot surgery. Anesthetic premedication consisted of 7.5 mg oral midazolam. Intravenous midazolam (0.5 mg) was dispensed for intraoperative sedation. After local anesthesia of the puncture site with 30 mg isobar prilocaine, spinal anesthesia was achieved by a single shot of 13.5 mg hyperbar bupivacaine (0.5%) intrathecally. Postoperative regional and general analgesia were accomplished by a peripheral nerve block with 50 mg isobar bupivacaine as well as oral etoricoxib and oxycodone. No peri- or postoperative complications were encountered. It is concluded that general or regional anesthesia for noncardiac surgery without discontinuation of MAO-inhibitor treatment may be a safe intervention after careful evaluation of an individual's perioperative and psychiatric risk. The increased psychiatric risk in patients treated with MAO-inhibitors outweighs the increased, however manageable, perioperative risk from continuing treatment during surgery.
- Epigenetic developmental programs and adipogenesis: implications for psychotropic induced obesity. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Epigenetics 2013 Nov; 8(11):1133-40.
Psychotropic agents are notorious for their ability to increase fat mass in psychiatric patients. The two determinants of fat mass are the production of newly differentiated adipocytes (adipogenesis), and the volume of lipid accumulation. Epigenetic programs have a prominent role in cell fate commitments and differentiation required for adipogenesis. In parallel, epigenetic effects on energy metabolism are well supported by several genetic models. Consequently, a variety of psychotropics, often prescribed in combinations and for long periods, may utilize a common epigenetic effector path causing an increase in adipogenesis or reduction in energy metabolism. In particular, the recent discovery that G protein coupled signaling cascades can directly modify epigenetic regulatory enzymes implicates surface receptor activity by psychotropic medications. The potential therapeutic implications are also suggested by the effects of the clinically approved antidepressant tranylcypromine, also a histone demethylase inhibitor, which has impressive therapeutic effects on metabolism in the obese phenotype.
- Current place of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in the treatment of depression. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- CNS Drugs 2013 Oct; 27(10):789-97.
This paper reviews the discovery and history of the use of irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (MAOIs) such as phenelzine, tranylcypromine and isocarboxazid, as well as the second generation selective and reversible MAOIs such as the MAO-A inhibitor, moclobemide and the MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline. Data for review were identified from a literature search of OvidSP Medline and PsycInfo performed in July 2012, using the subject terms and keywords of 'monoamine oxidase inhibitors', 'major depression', 'depressive disorder' and 'depression (emotion)'. The search was limited to papers published in the English language and from 2007 onward only. Irreversible MAOIs have the potential to treat the most challenging mood disorder patients including those with treatment-resistant depression, atypical depression and bipolar depression. Unfortunately, the use of irreversible MAOIs has been declining sharply due to lack of marketing and the excessive fears of clinicians. Moreover, few clinicians now have any experience, let alone comfort, in prescribing this class of antidepressants. The newer MAOIs are available as another option for the treatment of major depression but have not replaced the irreversible MAOIs for the specific sub-types of depression for which they are now recommended in most consensus guidelines and treatment algorithms. The pharmacology, drug interactions and dietary recommendations associated with the use of MAOIs are reviewed. With the appropriate dietary restrictions and attention to potential drug interactions with serotonin and noradrenaline agents this class of drugs can be used effectively and safely. The MAOIs still represent an important element in our therapeutic armamentarium. Despite recommendations by opinion leaders and consensus guidelines for the use of MAOIs in specific sub-types of depression, the prescription rate of MAOIs is far less than expected and is decreasing. The "bad reputation" and the lack of industry support for this class of agents (especially the irreversible MAOIs) must be overcome in order to continue to provide a potentially useful treatment for a very vulnerable yet substantial sub-population of mood disorder patients.
- Rines E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates MAO-A levels and emotional responses. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Neurosci 2013 Aug 7; 33(32):12940-53.
Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), the catabolic enzyme of norepinephrine and serotonin, plays a critical role in emotional and social behavior. However, the control and impact of endogenous MAO-A levels in the brain remains unknown. Here we show that the RING finger-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Rines/RNF180 regulates brain MAO-A subset, monoamine levels, and emotional behavior. Rines interacted with MAO-A and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. Rines knock-out mice displayed impaired stress responses, enhanced anxiety, and affiliative behavior. Norepinephrine and serotonin levels were altered in the locus ceruleus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in either stressed or resting conditions, and MAO-A enzymatic activity was enhanced in the locus ceruleus in Rines knock-out mice. Treatment of Rines knock-out mice with MAO inhibitors showed genotype-specific effects on some of the abnormal affective behaviors. These results indicated that the control of emotional behavior by Rines is partly due to the regulation of MAO-A levels. These findings verify that Rines is a critical regulator of the monoaminergic system and emotional behavior and identify a promising candidate drug target for treating diseases associated with emotion.