Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Traveler's diarrhea [keywords]
- Probiotics and Prebiotics in Infants and Children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2013 Jun; 15(3):251-262.
Probiotics and prebiotics have a major influence on gastrointestinal flora composition. This review analyses the relationship between this change in flora composition and health benefits in children. Literature databases were searched for relevant articles. Despite exhaustive research on the subject in different indications, such as prevention and treatment of acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD), traveler's diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Helicobacter pylori, necrotizing enterocolitis, constipation, allergy and atopic dermatitis, colic and extraintestinal infections, reports of clear benefits for the use of prebiotics and probiotics in pediatric disorders remain scarce. The best evidence has been provided for the use of probiotics in acute gastroenteritis and in prevention of AAD. However, AAD in children is in general mild, and only seldom necessitates additional interventions. Overall, the duration of acute infectious diarrhea is reduced by approximately 24 hours. Evidence for clinically relevant benefit in all other indications (inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, allergy) is weak to nonexistent. Selected probiotic strains given during late pregnancy and early infancy decrease atopic dermatitis. Adverse effects have very seldom been reported. Since the risk seems minimal to nonexistent, prebiotics and probiotics may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of some disorders in children, although the evidence for benefit is limited. The best evidence has been accumulated for some lactobacilli strains and for Saccharomyces boulardii in the reduction of the duration of acute diarrhea due to gastroenteritis and prevention of AAD.
- A Quantitative PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of 9 Pathogens Directly From Stools of Travelers with Diarrhea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Apr 29.
Aims:Every year 80 million tourists travelling to tropical and subtropical areas contract traveler's diarrhea (TD). Forty percent to 80% of cases are caused by bacteria, yet clinical diagnostic tests are available to identify only a few of the strains that cause TD. We aimed to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to identify all major pathogens in stool samples.
METHODS:We developed a low-cost, high-throughput, multiplex qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of 9 bacterial pathogens in stool samples: Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, and Vibrio cholerae, as well as Shigella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E coli (EAEC), and enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC). The assay was validated using positive (n=245) and negative (n=243) control strains as well as preselected positive and negative stool samples. In addition, stool samples were collected from 96 returning travelers with TD. The findings were compared with those from routine diagnostic tests.
RESULTS:The assay detected the bacterial strains with 100% sensitivity and specificity, compared with results from the reference tests. Of all stool samples collected from travelers with TD, EPEC was found in 47%, EAEC in 46%, ETEC in 22%, EHEC in 7%, Campylobacter in 6%, Shigella or EIEC in 2%, and Salmonella in 2%. Multiple pathogens were found in 37% of all samples.
CONCLUSIONS:We developed a low-cost, high throughput qPCR assay for use in routine diagnostic analysis and research. It detects the pathogenic bacteria most commonly associated with TD in stool samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity, compared to reference methods. The assay requires 4 hours, whereas current detection methods require 1-7 days. At least 1 TD pathogen was identified in stool samples from 76% of returning travelers, whereas conventional methods found a pathogen in only 17%. The most commonly detected bacteria were EPEC, EAEC, and ETEC.
- Chronic Diarrhea in Travelers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2013 Jun; 15(3):203-210.
As a rule, travelers' diarrhea is a self-limited bacterial infection that affects approximately 40 % of travelers to developing countries. Health-care professionals who see returning travelers have noted that some travelers afflicted with diarrhea do not recover completely but, instead, develop chronic diarrhea or a persistent change in gastrointestinal function. Concurrent with this observation has been the recognition that in many patients with long-standing irritable bowel syndrome, an episode of traveler's diarrhea or gastroenteritis preceded the onset of symptoms. Before a diagnosis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is considered, other diagnostic considerations must be excluded. This review will examine an approach to the patient with chronic diarrhea posttravel.
- Formulation and Development of Extended-Release Micro Particulate Drug Delivery System of Solubilized Rifaximin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2013 Mar 21.
Rifaximin (RFX), a semi-synthetic antibiotic belonging to BCS class IV category, has been used in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. An attempt has been made to improve aqueous solubility of RFX in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and control its release in the gut by enteric coating. The stoichiometric proportion of RFX and complexing agent's β-CD and HP-β-CD were determined by phase solubility studies. RFX-β-CD and RFX-HP-β-CD were prepared in 1:2 ratio by solvent evaporation technique using rota-evaporator with yield of 78% and 84% respectively followed by their evaluation using different techniques such as saturation solubility, Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimeter, powder X-ray diffractometer, in vitro antimicrobial activity. The saturation solubility of RFX had improved from 0.0736 mg/ml to 0.2354 mg/ml and 0.5681 mg/ml in presence of β-CD and HP-β-CD respectively resulting in an increased zone of inhibition in the later complex during antimicrobial studies. The RFX-HP-β-CD complex particles were coated with eudragit L 100 (EL 100) by spray drying technique. The 3(2) factorial design was applied to formulate the micro particles. All formulations exhibited pH dependant drug release. The % EE was 69% and the release of RFX was retarded by enteric coating in the optimized batch FB2. Therefore, it can be concluded that solubility of some BCS class IV drugs can be improved by β-CD complexation and release of such inclusion complexes can be retarded to increase the residence time of RFX in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Prevention of fecal-orally transmitted diseases in travelers through an oral anticholeric vaccine (WC/rBS). [Journal Article]
- J Prev Med Hyg 2012 Dec; 53(4):199-203.
Estimate the efficacy of oral anticholeric vaccine Dukoral in subjects travelling to high-risk areas for traveler's diarrhoea and cholera.The study involved subjects of both genders who planned to travel to high-risk areas for traveler's diarrhoea and cholera. Immunization with oral anticholeric vaccine Dukoral was offered to each one of them. Upon returning, all the participants in the study were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 40 close-ended questions mainly concerning: personal and health data, characteristics (length, destination, reason) of the travel, onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, data relating to the assumption of anticholeric vaccine and possible adverse reactions.296 questionnaires have been collected. Mean age was 38.2 years (55.4% males and 44.6% females). Mean travel length was 22.2 days. Reasons for the travel: 66.8% tourism and 33.2% work-cooperation. Most frequent destination was Africa (48.1%), followed by Asia (32.1%) and central South-America (17.8%). 199 subjects (67.2%) properly executed vaccination with Dukoral. The diarrhoea affected 14.1% of vaccinated subjects and 20.6% of non vaccinated ones. The following cohorts showed statistically significant differences in incidence of diarrhoea: <35 years old age (13.7% vs. 27.1%), travel for work-cooperation (14.1% vs. 35%) and travel length >28 days (12.1% vs. 40%). No serious adverse events were reported following vaccination.Oral Anticholeric vaccine proved to be effective and safe in preventing fecal-oral diseases in travelers exposed to high risk conditions.
- Nutritional basis for colonization resistance by human commensal Escherichia coli strains HS and Nissle 1917 against E. coli O157:H7 in the mouse intestine. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e53957.
Escherichia coli is a single species consisting of many biotypes, some of which are commensal colonizers of mammals and others that cause disease. Humans are colonized on average with five commensal biotypes, and it is widely thought that the commensals serve as a barrier to infection by pathogens. Previous studies showed that a combination of three pre-colonized commensal E. coli strains prevents colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in a mouse model (Leatham, et al., 2010, Infect Immun 77: 2876-7886). The commensal biotypes included E. coli HS, which is known to successfully colonize humans at high doses with no adverse effects, and E. coli Nissle 1917, a human commensal strain that is used in Europe as a preventative of traveler's diarrhea. We hypothesized that commensal biotypes could exert colonization resistance by consuming nutrients needed by E. coli O157:H7 to colonize, thus preventing this first step in infection. Here we report that to colonize streptomycin-treated mice E. coli HS consumes six of the twelve sugars tested and E. coli Nissle 1917 uses a complementary yet divergent set of seven sugars to colonize, thus establishing a nutritional basis for the ability of E. coli HS and Nissle 1917 to occupy distinct niches in the mouse intestine. Together these two commensals use the five sugars previously determined to be most important for colonization of E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. As predicted, the two commensals prevented E. coli EDL933 colonization. The results support a model in which invading pathogenic E. coli must compete with the gut microbiota to obtain the nutrients needed to colonize and establish infection; accordingly, the outcome of the challenge is determined by the aggregate capacity of the native microbiota to consume the nutrients required by the pathogen.
- Effectiveness of the WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine in the prevention of traveler's diarrhea: A prospective cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Vaccin Immunother 2013 Jan 16; 9(3)
Objective:Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most frequent disease among people from industrialized countries who travel to less developed ones, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and South America. The most common bacteria causing TD is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The WC/rBS cholera vaccine (Dukoral®) has been shown to induce cross-protection against ETEC by means of the B subunit of the cholera toxin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the WC/rBS cholera vaccine in preventing TD. Methods Between May 1 and September 30 (2007), people seeking pre-travel advice in ten Spanish international vaccination centers were included in a prospective cohort study of travelers to cholera risk countries. The incidence rates of TD were adjusted for variables whose frequencies were statistically different (entry point 0.10) between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated cohorts. Findings The vaccinated cohort (n = 544 travelers) included people vaccinated with the WC/rBS cholera vaccine, and the non-vaccinated cohort (n = 530 travelers) by people not vaccinated. The cumulative incidence rate of TD was 1.69 in vaccinated and 2.14 in non-vaccinated subjects. The adjusted relative risk of TD in vaccinated travelers was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.58-0.88) and the adjusted vaccination effectiveness was 28% (95% CI: 12-42). Conclusions The WC/rBS cholera vaccine prevents TD in 2 out of 7 travelers (preventive fraction: 28%). The number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent 1 case of TD is 10.
- Genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains causing traveler's diarrhea. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Microbiol 2013 Feb; 51(2):633-5.
This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present.
- Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2013 Mar 15; 152(1-2):57-67.
Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham mice as the immunized mice induced insufficient intestinal anti-LT antibody to neutralize the activity of the enterotoxin. These results show that our ETEC vaccine induced serum and mucosal antibody responses to CFA/I and LT after mucosal administration which then acted to protect the immunized mice against lung and intestinal colonization, as well as, intestinal fluid accumulation.
- Characterization of an actin-targeting ADP-ribosyltransferase from Aeromonas hydrophila. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Biol Chem 2012 Oct 26; 287(44):37030-41.
The mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) toxins are contributing factors to a number of human diseases, including cholera, diphtheria, traveler's diarrhea, and whooping cough. VahC is a cytotoxic, actin-targeting mART from Aeromonas hydrophila PPD134/91. This bacterium is implicated primarily in diseases among freshwater fish species but also contributes to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. VahC was shown to ADP-ribosylate Arg-177 of actin, and the kinetic parameters were K(m)(NAD(+)) = 6 μM, K(m)(actin) = 24 μM, and k(cat) = 22 s(-1). VahC activity caused depolymerization of actin filaments, which induced caspase-mediated apoptosis in HeLa Tet-Off cells. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of predicted catalytic residues showed the predicted loss of in vitro mART activity and cytotoxicity. Bioinformatic and kinetic analysis also identified three residues in the active site loop that were critical for the catalytic mechanism. A 1.9 Å crystal structure supported the proposed roles of these residues and their conserved nature among toxin homologues. Several small molecules were characterized as inhibitors of in vitro VahC mART activity and suramin was the best inhibitor (IC(50) = 20 μM). Inhibitor activity was also characterized against two other actin-targeting mART toxins. Notably, these inhibitors represent the first report of broad spectrum inhibition of actin-targeting mART toxins.