- Future prospects for new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Infect Dis 2016 Dec 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Major progress is being made in addressing the large global unmet need for STI vaccines. With continued collaboration and support, these critically important vaccines for global sexual and reproductive health can become a reality.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
- Intestinal Bacterial Infection Diagnosed by Histological Examination of Endoscopic Biopsy Specimens. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Gastroenterol 2016 Sep-Dec; 10(3):629-632
- Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3...
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3- to 4 μm-thick (average thickness, 3.4 μm) basophilic fringes or haze in HE-stained endoscopic biopsy specimens. The basophilic fringes were clearly labeled by Treponema pallidum antiserum. Because IS is relatively rare in developed countries, thin basophilic fringes characteristic of IS are readily overlooked. Thus, the recognition of histological characteristics of this disease is important for its diagnosis.
- Origin of modern syphilis and emergence of a pandemic Treponema pallidum cluster. [Journal Article]
- NMNat Microbiol 2016 Dec 05; 2:16245
- The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, d...
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3). Little is known about the genetic patterns in current infections or the evolutionary origins of the disease due to the low quantities of treponemal DNA in clinical samples and difficulties in cultivating the pathogen(4). Here, we used DNA capture and whole-genome sequencing to successfully interrogate genome-wide variation from syphilis patient specimens, combined with laboratory samples of TPA and two other subspecies. Phylogenetic comparisons based on the sequenced genomes indicate that the TPA strains examined share a common ancestor after the fifteenth century, within the early modern era. Moreover, most contemporary strains are azithromycin-resistant and are members of a globally dominant cluster, named here as SS14-Ω. The cluster diversified from a common ancestor in the mid-twentieth century subsequent to the discovery of antibiotics. Its recent phylogenetic divergence and global presence point to the emergence of a pandemic strain cluster.
- Colonic luminal microbiota and bacterial metabolite composition in pregnant Huanjiang mini-pigs: effects of food composition at different times of pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 Dec 05; 6:37224
- The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and ...
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined. We found that the colonic bacteria species richness estimators (Chao1 and ACE) decreased with increased gestational age. The dominant phyla identified were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes; the dominant genera were Lactobacillus, Treponema, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Prevotella. In addition, microbiota displayed spatial and temporal heterogeneity in composition, diversity, and species abundance in different colonic segments from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, the bacterial metabolites also changed according to the diet used and the pregnancy stage. These findings suggest that colonic bacteria richness decreased as gestational age increased, and that the higher nutrient level diet increased the production of metabolites related to nitrogen metabolism. However, although the higher nutrient diet was associated with pregnancy syndrome, causal links remain to be determined.
- Comparative analysis of motility and other properties of Treponema denticola strains. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2016 Nov 30; 102:82-88
- The periodontitis-associated pathogen Treponema denticola is a spirochetal bacterium that swims by rotating its cell body like a corkscrew using periplasmic flagella. We compared physiologic and path...
The periodontitis-associated pathogen Treponema denticola is a spirochetal bacterium that swims by rotating its cell body like a corkscrew using periplasmic flagella. We compared physiologic and pathogenic properties, including motility, in four strains of T. denticola. Phase-contrast microscopy showed differential motility between the strains; ATCC 35404 showed the highest motility, followed by ATCC 33521, and the remaining two strains (ATCC 35405 and ATCC 33520) showed the lowest motility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the low motility strains exhibited extracellular flagellar protrusions resulting from elongated flagella. Treponemal flagellar filaments are composed of three flagellins of FlaB1, FlaB2 and FlaB3. FlaB1 expression was comparable between the strains, whereas FlaB2 expression was lowest in ATCC 35404. FlaB3 expression varied among strains, with ATCC 35405, ATCC 33520, ATCC 33521, and ATCC 35404 showing the highest to lowest expression levels, respectively. Additionally, the low motility strains showed faster electrophoretic mobility of FlaB3, suggesting that posttranslational modifications of these proteins may have varied, because the amino acid sequences of FlaB3 were identical between the strains. These results suggest that inappropriate expression of FlaB2 and FlaB3 caused the unusual elongation of flagella that resulted in decreased motility. Furthermore, the low motility strains grew to higher bacterial density, and showed greater chymotrypsin-like protease activity, and more bacterial cells associated with gingival epithelial cells in comparison with the high motility strains. There may be a relationship between motility and these properties, but the genetic factors underlying this association remain unclear.
- [Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China, in 2011-2015]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Nov 06; 50(11):943-948
- Objective: To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shenzhen. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used to recru...
Objective: To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shenzhen. Methods: A convenience sampling method was used to recruit MSM in Shenzhen from 2011 to 2015. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted on a one-on-one basis. Data were collected, including socio-demographic information, HIV testing history, history of blood donation and drug abuse in the last 2 years, self-reported sexual orientation, role in homosexual behavior, and experience serving as a male sex worker and/or as a client of male sex workers. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken and tested for treponema pallidum and HIV antibodies. The rate of MSM serving as male sex workers among different age groups was analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and multivariate unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among the 3 040 MSM recruited, 341 (11.2%) reported having served as male sex worker. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among all recruited MSM were 18.3% (556/3 040), 9.8% (297/3 040), and 5.1% (154/3 040), respectively. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among those who served as male sex worker were 27.0% (92/341), 16.4% (56/341), and 8.8% (30/341), respectively, and the prevalence rates among MSM with no experience as male sex worker were 17.2% (464/2 699), 8.9% (241/2 699), and 4.6% (124/2 699), respectively. Compared with non-male sex worker MSM, male sex worker had a significantly higher prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection (with χ(2) values of 19.41, 19.28, and 11.12, and P-values of <0.001,<0.001, 0.001, respectively). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicate that>30-year-old MSM or education level of college or above, reside in Shenzhen for 0.5-3.0 years or the living years above 3.0 years are less likely to serve as male sex worker compared with<30-year-old MSM, education level of high school or below, who reside in Shenzhen for less than 0.5 years; the OR (95%CI) values were 0.55 (0.42-0.71), 0.10 (0.06-0.14), 0.46 (0.31-0.68), and 0.23 (0.16-0.33), respectively. MSM having a monthly income of >5 000 yuan, drug abuse history, experience as male sex worker clients, and self-reported insertive and receptive anal sex behaviors were more likely to have experience serving as male sex worker compared with those having a monthly income of <3 000 yuan (OR=2.57, 95%CI: 1.85-3.57), no drug abuse history (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 2.14-4.87), no experience as male sex worker clients (OR =1.50, 95% CI: 1.04-2.15) and who engage in predominantly insertive anal sex behaviors (OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.34-2.35). Conclusion: Age, education level, duration of residence in Shenzhen, monthly income, history of drug abuse, role in homosexual activity, and had experience commercial sex activity were associated with serving as a male sex worker among MSM. These factors need to be considered when designing syphilis/HIV prevention programs for MSM.
- High-risk periodontal pathogens contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. [Review]
- PMPostgrad Med J 2016 Nov 29
- Periodontal disease (PD) is generated by microorganisms. These microbes can enter the general circulation causing a bacteraemia. The result can be adverse systemic effects, which could promote condit...
Periodontal disease (PD) is generated by microorganisms. These microbes can enter the general circulation causing a bacteraemia. The result can be adverse systemic effects, which could promote conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Level A evidence supports that PD is independently associated with arterial disease. PD is a common chronic condition affecting the majority of Americans 30 years of age and older. Atherosclerosis remains the largest cause of death and disability. Studies indicate that the adverse cardiovascular effects from PD are due to a few putative or high-risk bacteria: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola or Fusobacterium nucleatum There are three accepted essential elements in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: lipoprotein serum concentration, endothelial permeability and binding of lipoproteins in the arterial intima. There is scientific evidence that PD caused by the high-risk pathogens can influence the pathogenesis triad in an adverse manner. With this appreciation, it is reasonable to state PD, due to high-risk pathogens, is a contributory cause of atherosclerosis. Distinguishing this type of PD as causal provides a significant opportunity to reduce arterial disease.
- Current Status of Syphilis in Pregnant Women in Japan. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016 Nov 28; :1-13
- We examined the current status of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women, according to the results of syphilis screening and confirmation tests of women who gave birth in Japan between October, 20...
We examined the current status of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women, according to the results of syphilis screening and confirmation tests of women who gave birth in Japan between October, 2015 and March, 2016. We requested 2,458 obstetrical facilities to provide information of syphilis screening tests and 78.1% of them responded. Considering the response rate and the rate of implementation of confirmation tests, the number of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women was estimated to be 250 (1/4,022) per year.
- Treponema pallidum flagellin FlaA2 induces IL-6 secretion in THP-1 cells via the Toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- MIMol Immunol 2016 Nov 23; 81:42-51
- Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the product...
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK. Likewise, FlaA2-induced IL-6 production was found to be attenuated by inhibitors for ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but not by JNK inhibitor. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that flagellin FlaA2 could stimulate the translocation of IκBα from the cytosol to the nucleus, and this phenomenon could be inhibited by the specific inhibitor BAY11-7082. FlaA2-induced IL-6 expression was also proved to be abrogated by transfection with dominant negative (DN) plasmid of MyD88. We further demonstrated that transfection with DN-TLR2 was sufficient to attenuate IL-6 expression and the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and IκBα. These results suggest that flagellin FlaA2 induces IL-6 production via signaling pathways involving TLR2, MyD88, ERK, p38, and NF-κB in monocytes, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of T. pallidum.
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- Prevalence of periodontal pathogens as predictor of the evolution of periodontal status. [Journal Article]
- OOdontology 2016 Nov 25
- The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, its fimA genotypes, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Trepon...
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, its fimA genotypes, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola and the evolution of periodontal health. In a longitudinal prospective study, samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 114 patients (37 with chronic periodontitis, 17 with gingivitis, and 60 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four years later, a second examination and sample collection were performed in 90 of these patients (20 with chronic periodontitis, 12 with gingivitis, and 58 periodontally healthy). T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, and T. denticola are the most prevalent bacteria in patients with chronic periodontitis (78.4%, 62.2 y 56.8%, respectively). The P. gingivalis bacterium and its fimA genotypes I, II, and IV showed the highest correlation between the baseline and follow-up assessments. P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia were associated to a significant degree with unfavourable periodontal evolution. Of the variables studied, P. gingivalis fimA genotype II and T. forsythia increase the risk of an unfavourable evolution of periodontal status.