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- Performance evaluation of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay for detecting total antibodies to Treponema pallidum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Vaccine Immunol 2014 Oct 29.
Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if it is not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard and diagnosis usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study we evaluate the treponemal Elecsys® Syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples i.e. when syphilis is suspected, or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay was compared head to head with other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and was assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations the Elecsys® Syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis-positive the sensitivity was 99.57-100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false positive samples were identified.
- Isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from hoof lesions in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) in Washington State, USA. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2014 Oct 29.
Since 2008, a large increase in the numbers of cases of lameness have been seen in wild North American elk (Cervus elaphus) from Washington State, USA. The most recent cases manifest as foot lesions similar both clinically and pathologically with those seen in digital dermatitis (DD) in cattle and sheep, a disease with a bacterial aetiopathogenesis. To determine whether the same bacteria considered responsible for DD are associated with elk lameness, lesion samples were subjected to bacterial isolation studies and PCR assays for three phylogroups of relevant DD treponemes. The DD treponemes were isolated from lesional tissues, but not from control feet or other areas of the diseased foot (including coronary band, or interdigital space), suggesting that the bacteria are strongly associated with DD lesions and may therefore be causal. In addition, PCR analysis revealed that all three unique DD treponeme phylotypes were found in elk hoof disease and in 23% of samples, all 3 DD-associated treponemes were present in lesions. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the elk lesion treponemes were phylogenetically almost identical to those isolated from cattle and sheep DD lesions. The isolates were particularly similar to two of the three culturable DD treponeme phylotypes; specifically the Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like and Treponema phagedenis-like DD spirochetes. The third treponeme culturable phylogroup (Treponema pedis), although detected by PCR was not isolated. This is the first report describing isolation of DD treponemes from a wildlife host, suggesting that the disease may be evolving to include a wider spectrum of cloven hoofed animals.
- Serological markers of viral, syphilitic and toxoplasmic infection in children and teenagers with nephrotic syndrome: case series from mato grosso state, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2014 Dec; 56(6):499-504.
Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome.
- Metabolic engineering of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production. [Journal Article]
- Biotechnol Biofuels 2014; 7(1):156.
Butanol is a promising next generation fuel and a bulk chemical precursor. Although clostridia are the primary industrial microbes for the fermentative production of 1-butanol, alternative engineered hosts have the potential to generate 1-butanol from alternative carbon feedstocks via synthetic metabolic pathways. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium, is a model system for assessing the possibility of generating products such as 1-butanol from one-carbon and two-carbon feedstocks. Moreover, the core methylotrophic pathways in M. extorquens AM1 involve unusual coenzyme A (CoA)-derivative metabolites, such as crotonyl-CoA, which is a precursor for the production of 1-butanol.In this work, we engineered a modified CoA-dependent pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to produce 1-butanol. Engineered strains displayed different 1-butanol titers using ethylamine as a substrate. A strain overexpressing Treponema denticola trans-enoyl-CoA reductase, Clostridium acetobutylicum alcohol dehydrogenase, and native crotonase was able to generate the highest 1-butanol titer (15.2 mg l(-1)). In vitro isotopic tracing of metabolic flux and in vivo metabolite analysis showed the accumulation of butyryl-CoA, demonstrating the functionality of the synthetic pathway and identifying targets for future improvement.We demonstrated the feasibility of using metabolic intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in M. extorquens AM1 to generate value-added chemicals, with 1-butanol as the test case. This will not only establish the biotechnological potential of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, but will also introduce M. extorquens AM1 as a potential platform to produce value-added chemicals.
- Effect of postextraction algal residue supplementation on the ruminal microbiome of steers consuming low-quality forage. [Journal Article]
- J Anim Sci 2014 Nov; 92(11):5063-75.
Cattle consuming low-quality forages (LQF) require protein supplementation to increase forage utilization via ruminal fermentation. Biofuel production from algal biomass results in large quantities of postextraction algal residue (PEAR), which has the potential to elicit LQF utilization responses similar to cottonseed meal (CSM); however, its effect on ruminal bacterial communities is unknown. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus steers in a 5 × 5 Latin square had ad libitum access to oat straw diets. Treatments were infused ruminally and consisted of an unsupplemented control; PEAR at 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg BW; and CSM at 100 mg N/kg BW. Ruminal samples were collected 4 h after supplementation on d 14 of each period and separated into solid and liquid fractions. Each sample was extracted for genomic DNA, PCR amplified for the V4 to V6 region of the 16S rRNA, sequenced on the 454 Roche pyrosequencing platform, and analyzed using the QIIME pipeline. Weighted UniFrac analysis and Morisita-Horn index demonstrated different community composition between liquid and solid fractions. Measures of richness including observed operational taxonomic units (OTU) and abundance coverage estimator metric decreased with greater PEAR provision (P ≤ 0.09). There were 42 core microbiome OTU observed in all solid fraction samples while the liquid fraction samples contained 30 core OTU. Bacteroidetes was the predominant phylum followed by Firmicutes in both fractions, which together characterized more than 90% of sequences. Relative abundance of Firmicutes increased with PEAR supplementation in the liquid fraction (linear, P = 0.02). Among Firmicutes, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae families increased in the liquid fraction with greater PEAR supplementation (linear, P ≤ 0.03). Prevotella represented over 25% of sequences in all treatments, and relative abundance decreased in the solid fraction with increasing PEAR provision (linear, P = 0.01). Fibrobacter and Treponema decreased in the liquid fraction with increasing PEAR (linear, P < 0.10). Results suggest PEAR supplementation increased forage utilization by increasing members of Firmicutes within the liquid fraction of the rumen microbiome.
- 2014 European guideline on the management of syphilis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014 Oct 27.
Syphilis remains a major public health problem in Europe (both in Eastern Europe since the 1990's and in Western Europe since the re-emergence of the disease in the late 1990's-early 2000's).This guideline is an update of the IUSTI: 2008 European guideline on the management of syphilis and is produced by the European Guideline Editorial Board (http://www.iusti.org/regions/Europe/pdf/2013/Editorial_Board.pdf) and EDF Guideline Committee.It provides recommendations concerning the diagnosis and management of syphilis in Europe. Major advances include (1) broader use of PCR, immunohistochemistry, subtyping of the etiological agent Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, new treponemal tests, and rapid-point-of-care (POC) tests detecting both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies, (2) more flexible options for screening (TT-treponemal test- first or NTT -non treponemal test- first or both TT and NTT), and (3) procaine penicillin is no longer the first line therapy option in any phase of the disease, i.e. long acting penicillin G (i.e. benzathine penicillin G-BPG) is the only first line therapy regimen in early syphilis and in late latent syphilis.Syphilis is a disease that is relatively easy to detect by appropriate serological tests, however, all laboratory results should be considered together with clinical data and sexual risk anamnesis. Syphilis is also easy to treat with BPG. A major concern about the supply of BPG in many European countries could threaten the efficacy of the policies of eradication of the disease in Europe.
- The Evolution of Untreated Acute Syphilitic Posterior Placoid Chorioretinitis Captured by Multimodal Retinal Imaging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2014 Oct 31.:1-4.
Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis (ASPPC) is a rare manifestation of syphilis. Most cases respond to systemic treatment of the underlying Treponema pallidum infection. The authors illustrate the natural progression of untreated ASPPC with multimodal retinal imaging. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014; 45:xxx-xxx].
- A New OCT Finding in Tuberculous Serpiginous-like Choroidopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2014 Oct 24.:1-6.
Abstract Purpose: To present a case of tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis (SLC) with previously unreported choroidal findings on enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT). Design: Case report. Methods: A 60-year-old female presented with decreased vision. Serpiginous choroidopathy was diagnosed. Laboratory workup revealed an infectious etiology. EDI-OCT revealed previously unreported choroidal findings. Results: Laboratory workup revealed nonreactive Treponema pallidum antibodies and positive QuantiFERON Gold. CT chest showed scars of prior granulomatous disease. OCT with EDI of active lesions demonstrated infiltration of the choroid, elevation of the RPE-Bruch's membrane complex and focal increase of choroidal thickness. Conclusions: Choroidal infiltration with elevation of the RPE was demonstrated on EDI-OCT in active areas of tuberculous serpiginous-like choroiditis in this patient. This finding has not been described in imaging of patients with noninfectious serpiginous choroidopathy and may be a useful tool to differentiate serpiginous choroidopathy (SC) from serpiginous-like choroiditis (SLC). EDI-OCT may provide characterization of choroidal involvement.
- Complete Genome Sequence of the Oral Spirochete Bacterium Treponema putidum Strain OMZ 758T (ATCC 700334T). [Journal Article]
- Genome Announc 2014; 2(5)
The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema putidum inhabits human periodontal niches. The complete genome sequence of the OMZ 758(T) (ATCC 700334(T)) strain of this species was determined, revealing a 2,796,913-bp chromosome, with a G+C content of 37.30% and a single plasmid (pTPu1; 3,649 bp) identical to pTS1 from Treponema denticola.
- Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on short chain fatty acid levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Periodontal Res 2014 Oct; 49(5):574-83.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play important roles in periodontal diseases. However, the concentrations of SCFAs in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with aggressive periodontitis are not known. The aim of this intervention study was to investigate the influences of non-surgical periodontal therapy on levels of SCFAs in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP), and analyze the concentrations of SCFAs in sites with or without the detected putative periodontal pathogens.Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected on filter paper strips from patients with G-AgP (n = 20; mean age 24.5 years), before and at 2 wk, 2, 4 and 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected from periodontally healthy controls (n = 20; mean age 26.2 years). Concentrations of formic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and isovaleric acid from the supernatant of gingival crevicular fluid samples were measured by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum from the precipitate of the same pretreatment samples of gingival crevicular fluids were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification.The clinical parameters of patients with G-AgP during the 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment were improved remarkably. The formic acid concentration increased significantly after treatment; the level of formic acid was lower in the P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with the negative sites. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid reduced significantly after treatment and reached the lowest level at 2 wk post-treatment, although showed a tendency to increase after 2 mo post-treatment, and the three SCFA levels were significantly higher in P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with those in the negative sites.Non-surgical periodontal treatment resulted in a significant decrease of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid levels and increase of formic acid level in gingival crevicular fluids in patients with G-AgP, accompanied by improvement in clinical parameters. A marked lower level of formic acid, as well as higher levels of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with G-AgP was consistent with periodontal pathogen infection.