- [Analysis on the clinical value of methods used for the detection of treponema pallidum antibody]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jun 10; 37(6):863-7.
To explore the clinical value of five methods commonly used for the detection of clinical syphilis antibody.A total of 160 confirmed syphilis cases were chosen as the experimental group while 200 non-syphilis cases were set as the control group. Serum specimens were detected by methods as Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), chemiluminescent microparticle immune assay (CMIA), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), emulsion method (TP-AD) and toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated on five methods. Titers of syphilis antibody in different stages and pre/post on treatment among syphilis patients were compared and analyzed under the five methods.The sensitivity vs. specificity of TPPA, CMIA, ELISA, TP-AD and TRUST appeared as 100.00% vs. 99.50%, 99.38% vs. 99.00%, 98.12% vs. 99.00%, 94.38% vs. 94.50% and 85.62% vs. 95.50%, respectively. Among the patients at primary or latent stages, the syphilis antibody positive rate detected by TRUST appeared lower than that detected by ELISA, TPPA, CMIA or TP-AD, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). There were no statistical differences in the syphilis antibody positive rate of syphilis patients in the secondary or tertiary stages detected by five methods (P>0.05). In each stage of the syphilis patients, the syphilis antibody positive rate detected by ELISA or of CMIA combined with TRUST both reached 100.00%. Before and after treatment in 121 cases of confirmed syphilis, there was statistically significant difference in the syphilis antibody positive rate detected by TRUST method (P<0.05). There was no statistical significance in the syphilis antibody positive rate detected by other four methods (P>0.05).The sensitivity and specificity of TPPA, CMIA and ELISA methods were better. METHODS as ELISA or as CMIA combined with TRUST both appeared reliable for syphilis screening in every stage of the disease. TRUST was suitable for the determination of active stage syphilis and monitoring the effects after treatment.
- Tracing the origin of Treponema pallidum in China using next-generation sequencing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncotarget 2016 Jun 17.
Syphilis is a systemic sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). The origin and genetic background of Chinese TPA strains remain unclear. We identified a total of 329 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in eight Chinese TPA strains using next-generation sequencing. All of the TPA strains were clustered into three lineages, and Chinese TPA strains were grouped in Lineage 2 based on phylogenetic analysis. The phylogeographical data showed that TPA strains originated earlier than did T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) and T. pallidum ssp. endemicum (TPN) strains and that Chinese TPA strains might be derived from recombination between Lineage 1 and Lineage 3. Moreover, we found through a homology modeling analysis that a nonsynonymous substitution (I415F) in the PBP3 protein might affect the structural flexibility of PBP3 and the binding constant for substrates based on its possible association with penicillin resistance in T. pallidum. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular foundation of the evolutionary origin of TPA and support the development of novel diagnostic/therapeutic technology for syphilis.
- Microbiological Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy as an Adjunct to Non-surgical Periodontal Treatment: A Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- J Lasers Med Sci 2016; 7(2):126-30.
The efficiency of routine scaling and root planning is negatively influenced by the tooth anatomy and residual bacteria all possibly affecting the treatment outcomes in future. The present study compared the microbiologic effectiveness of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjunctive treatment modality for nonsurgical treatment in chronic periodontitis.In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 18 chronic periodontitis patients were selected. Four quadrants were randomly treated by scaling and root planning (SRP), diode laser (810n m wavelength, 1.5 W and 320 μm fiber, contact and sweeping technique), SRP + PDT (with diode laser 808 nm, 0.5 W) and laser + SRP (with diode laser 808 nm, 1 W) in each patient. Presence of periodontal pathogen species in the treated areas were measured before the treatment, at 1 and 3 months afterwards. The identification and reproduction of the specific genes of pathogen bacteria were done by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Presence of oral pathogen bacteria in the treatment groups were analyzed by chi-square test. A semi quantitative analysis was used to measure the intensity of white light in each band. This was calculated by number of pixels in each band.In the qualitative analysis, Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Treponema denticola (Td) species were killed after 1 month in all treatment modalities. PDT had more effects to decrease Prevotella intermedia (Pi) species than SRP while Tannerella forsythensis count (Tf) species increased in all treatments. Furthermore, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) species decreased in all treatments and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) species increased in all treatments after 1 and 3 months.It can be concluded that PDT was more effective as an adjunctive treatment to SRP than SRP alone; however, no distinct differences were found between both treatment modalities regarding reduction of certain pathogen bacteria.
- Vaccine Development for Syphilis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Rev Vaccines 2016 Jun 21.
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide.This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.
- Treponema pallidum pallidum Genotypes and Macrolide Resistance Status in Syphilitic Lesions among Patients at 2 Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics in Lima, Peru. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2016 Jul; 43(7):465-6.
We report the circulating genotypes and the frequency of macrolide-resistance patterns among Treponema pallidum pallidum DNA isolated from syphilitic lesions from patients who attended 2 sexual health clinics in Lima, Peru. We implemented and used a molecular typing scheme to describe local T. pallidum pallidum strains. Among 14 specimens, subtype 14d/f was the most prevalent strain in 7 fully typed T. pallidum DNA specimens obtained from men who have sex with men and transgender women presenting with chancre-like lesions. No macrolide-resistance mutations were found in T. pallidum DNA from 10 lesions.
- Prevalence of Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries From 2010 to 2015: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2016 Jul; 43(7):450-8.
Current literature comparing the prevalence rates of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnant women in various global regions is limited. As a result, antenatal screening practices for curable STIs in pregnant women, specifically Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) vary around the world, differing by country and particular STI.We conducted a systematic review of publications on STI prevalence among pregnant women in 30 different low- and middle-income countries. We searched PubMed for studies reporting prevalence of syphilis, CT, NG, and TV in pregnant women. English language studies published between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2015, were included. The adjusted mean STI prevalence by region was calculated via multivariable linear regression adjusting for health care setting, women's mean age, study sample size, and sensitivity of diagnostic test.We identified 75 studies that met inclusion criteria, providing 116 point prevalence estimates for curable STIs among 3,489,621 pregnant women. Adjusted mean prevalence for NG ranged from 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.3) in Latin America to 4.6% (95% CI, 4.0-5.2) in Southern Africa; syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5-1.6) in Asia to 6.5% (95% CI, 4.7-6.3) in Southern Africa; CT ranged from 0.8% (95% CI, 0.4-1.1) in Asia to 11.2% (95% CI, 6.0-16.4) in Latin America; and TV ranged from 3.9% (95% CI, 2.2-5.6) in Latin America to 24.6% (95% CI, 17.9-31.4) in Southern Africa.Although we observed a wide variation in STI burden in pregnancy after adjusting for age, test, and health care setting, further valid comparison may depend on adjustment for access to care and screening practices.
- Ovine footrot: new insights into bacterial colonisation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Rec 2016 Jun 17.
Ovine footrot is characterised by interdigital dermatitis (ID) and by the separation of the skin and hoof horn (under-running footrot). Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential pathogen causing footrot; the role of other microorganisms in this disease remains unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the colonisation of D nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Treponema species in biopsies from the ovine interdigital skin of healthy, ID and footrot-affected feet and (ii) to characterise the virulence of D nodosus strains in those biopsies. Postslaughter biopsy samples (n=241) were collected and analysed by real-time PCR to determine prevalence and load of the different bacterial species. The highest prevalence and load of D nodosus were found on feet with ID. The vast majority of samples contained virulent D nodosus and some samples contained both virulent and benign D nodosus Notably, the more pathogenic subspecies of F necrophorum was found in samples from UK sheep. Our findings provide further insights into the role bacterial colonisation may play in the early stage of ID and in the progression towards footrot.
- Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Alzheimers Dis 2016 Jun 13.
It has long been known that spirochetes form clumps or micro colonies in vitro and in vivo. Cortical spirochetal colonies in syphilitic dementia were considered as reproductive centers for spirochetes. Historic and recent data demonstrate that senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are made up by spirochetes. Spirochetes, including Borrelia burgdorferi, are able to form biofilm in vitro. Senile plaques are also reported to contain elements of biofilm constituents. We expected that AβPP and Aβ (the main components of senile plaques) also occur in pure spirochetal biofilms, and bacterial DNA (an important component of biofilm) is also present in senile plaques. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques and the TUNEL assay were used to answer these questions. The results obtained demonstrate that Aβ and DNA are key components of both pure spirochetal biofilms and senile plaques in AD and confirm the biofilm nature of senile plaques. These observations validate previous observations that AβPP and/or an AβPP-like amyloidogenic protein are an integral part of spirochetes, and indicate that bacterial amyloid is a constituent of senile plaques. DNA fragmentation in senile plaques further confirms their bacterial nature and provides biochemical evidence for spirochetal cell death. Spirochetes evade host defenses, locate intracellularly, form more resistant atypical forms and notably biofilms, which contribute to and sustain chronic infection and inflammation and explain the slowly progressive course of dementia in AD. To consider co-infecting microorganisms is equally important, as multi-species biofilms may result in a higher resistance to treatments and a more severe dementia.
- Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults. [Journal Article]
- Front Microbiol 2016.:840.
In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important pathogen in adult periodontal disease, represents 8.08% of the 19 bacteria analyzed. P. gingivalis was detected in 19% of healthy subjects and represents 0.02% of the interdental biofilm. T. forsythensis and T. denticola (0.02 and 0.04% of the interdental biofilm) were detected in 93 and 49% of healthy subjects, respectively. The effective presence of periodontal pathogens is a strong indicator of the need to develop new methods for disrupting interdental biofilm in daily oral hygiene.
- Uveitis is predominantly of infectious origin in a high HIV and TB prevalence setting in rural South Africa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2016 Jun 15.
To determine the burden of disease in a unique sample of patients with uveitis from a rural South African setting.Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with uveitis (n=103) at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and laboratory analysis of aqueous humour, serological evaluation and routine diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) were performed.Sixty-six (64%) participants were HIV infected. Uveitis was predominantly of infectious origin (72%) followed by idiopathic (16%) and autoimmune (12%). Infectious uveitis was attributed to herpes virus (51%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (24%) and Treponema pallidum (7%) infection. HIV-infected individuals were more likely to have infectious aetiology of uveitis compared with HIV-uninfected individuals (83% vs 51%; p=0.001).Microbial aetiology of uveitis is common in areas where HIV and TB are endemic. In these settings, a high index of suspicion for infectious origin of uveitis is warranted.