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- Mapping the Epidemiology of Yaws in the Solomon Islands: A Cluster Randomized Survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Nov 24.
Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiological data to guide control programs remain sparse. The Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide. We conducted a cluster randomized survey of yaws in two provinces of the Solomon Islands. One thousand four hundred and ninety-seven (1,497) children 5-14 years of age were examined. Clinical signs of active yaws were found in 79 children (5.5%), whereas 140 children (9.4%) had evidence of healed yaws lesions. Four hundred and seventy (470) (31.4%) children had a positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Two hundred and eighty-five (285) children (19%) had a positive TPPA and rapid plasma regain assay. Risk of yaws increased with age and was more common in males. The prevalence of yaws at village level was the major risk factor for infection. Our findings suggest the village, not the household, should be the unit of treatment in the World Health Organization (WHO) yaws eradication strategy.
- Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:7174.
Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.
- Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oral Microbiol 2014.:25835.
Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic-anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009-2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5%) were free of coronary artery disease (CAD), 7 (31.8%) had mild and 5 (22.7%) had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra) and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes). Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6%) were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4%) for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035). Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.
- Acute prostatitis probably due to Listeria monocytogenes in an HIV-infected patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J STD AIDS 2014 Nov 18.
We report a unique case of acute bacterial prostatitis probably caused by Listeria monocytogenes in an HIV-infected patient. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of a patient with that association. Our case illustrates the protean clinical presentations that L. monocytogenes infections may adopt, particularly in immunocompromised patients.
- Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Nov 17.
We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ∼59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.
- Characterization of Treponema denticola Mutants Defective in the Major Antigenic Proteins, Msp and TmpC. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(11):e113565.
Treponema denticola, a gram-negative and anaerobic spirochete, is associated with advancing severity of chronic periodontitis. In this study, we confirmed that two major antigenic proteinswere Msp and TmpC, and examined their physiological and pathological roles using gene-deletion mutants. Msp formed a large complex that localized to the outer membrane, while TmpC existed as a monomer and largely localized to the inner membrane. However, TmpC was also detected in the outer membrane fraction, but its cell-surface exposure was not detected. Msp defects increased cell-surface hydrophobicity and secretion of TNF-α from macrophage-like cells, whereas TmpC defects decreased autoagglutination and chymotrypsin-like protease activities. Both mutants adhered to gingival epithelial cells similarly to the wild-type and showed slightly decreased motility. In addition, in Msp-defective mutants, the TDE1072 protein, which is a major membrane protein, was abolished; therefore, phenotypic changes in the mutant can be, at least in part, attributed to the loss of the TDE1072 protein. Thus, the major antigenic proteins, Msp and TmpC, have significant and diverse impacts on the characteristics of T. denticola, especially cell surface properties.
- Periodontal and peri-implant microbiota in patients with healthy and inflamed periodontal and peri-implant tissues. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Oral Implants Res 2014 Nov 14.
To compare the prevalence and levels of six bacterial pathogens within the subgingival/submucosal microbiota at teeth versus implants with various clinical conditions.Twenty-two Chinese were included. Four subgingival/submucosal sites were selected for microbiological sampling within each subject, that is, (1) healthy peri-implant tissues; (2) peri-implantitis [PPD ≥ 5 mm, presence of bleeding on probing (BOP) and confirmed radiographic bone loss]; (3) healthy gingiva; and (4) periodontitis (PPD ≥4 mm). Subgingival/submucosal plaque was sampled using paper points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to quantify six pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.), Treponema denticola (T.d.), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.n.), Prevotella intermedia (P.i.), and Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.). Counts were log10-transformed.The most commonly detected species were S. a. and F. n., while A. a. and. P. i. had the lowest detection frequency. The detection frequencies of diseased tooth or implant sites for each of the six target species were either equal to or higher than the respective frequencies at the corresponding healthy sites. There were no statistically significant differences for any of the species or clinical sites (P > 0.05, Cochran's Q test). No statistically significant differences in the bacterial loads were found among the four clinical sites; with the exception of F. nucleatum. This was more abundant in periodontitis sites (P = 0.023, Friedman's 2-way anova). Both periodontal and peri-implant sites, irrespective of their health status, were revealed to harbor S. aureus cells. The log10-transformed loads of S. aureus were approximately 3.5 within each of the clinical sites (P = 0.232). This was the highest of the six species analyzed.Within the same subjects, putative periodontal pathogens were common to both periodontal and peri-implant sites irrespective of health status. The prevalence and levels of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were significantly associated with periodontitis, but not with peri-implantitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans was associated with both disease conditions, periodontitis and peri-implantitis, but not with either gingival or mucosal health.
- Association between maternal periodontitis and preterm and/or low birth weight infants in normal pregnancies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014 Nov 14.:1-20.
Abstract Objective: to relate the periodontal condition with the presence of periodontal bacteria in pregnant that had babies with preterm delivery or/and low weight at birth (PTLBW). Methods: We recruited 134 pregnant women without systemic diseases attending at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Room, from Maternal Provincial Hospital, Córdoba, Argentine. Pregnant were grouped according to the International Classification for a System of Periodontal Disease. A sample from periodontal pocket was extracted to identify Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Agreggatibacter actinomycemcomitans (Aa). Results: We identified 7 (5%) cases of children born underweight or preterm of mothers diagnosed with Gingivitis, 6 (4%) in Mild Periodontitis and 4 (3%) in Moderate Periodontitis. We estimated that when Pi and/or Aa were not detected in the periodontal pockets of mothers, the infants had a more than 129% chance of having normal birth weights (OR 3.47 for Pi and OR for Aa 2.29). The average age of the mothers who has PTLBW was 21 ± 3.5. The age showed an association with PTLBW (p <0.0008). Conclusions: The presences of periodontal pathogens in periodontal pockets from pregnant with different periodontal status, would associate with PTLBW infants when the mothers are young, and the normal term and normal birth weight infant it associated with the absence of periodonto bacteria like Pi y Aa.
- Predictors of lack of serological response to syphilis treatment in HIV-infected subjects. [Journal Article]
- J Int AIDS Soc 2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19654.
The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with lack of serological response (LSR) to treatment of syphilis among HIV-infected subjects.Retrospective, longitudinal study on HIV-infected subjects diagnosed and treated for syphilis and with an assessable serological response between 1 January 2004 and 15 September 2013. LSR was defined as a <4-fold decline of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer or a failed reversion to nonreactive (if RPR ≤1:4 at diagnosis) after one year since treatment. Diagnoses of syphilis were staged in early syphilis (primary, secondary and early latent) or late syphilis (tertiary and late latent) according to clinical examination and patient's history. Syphilis was classified in new infections [NI: positive RPR and TPHA (Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination assay) titers in subjects without previous history of syphilis] or re-infections [ReI: a ≥4-fold increase of RPR titer in subjects previously successfully treated for syphilis]. Syphilis treatment was prescribed according to CDC guidelines. The crude incidence rates (IRs) of LSR were calculated per 1000-person months of follow-up (PMFU) as the total number of LSR episodes divided by the cumulative time contributed by all subjects (interval time since each syphilis diagnosis and the date of ascertainment of response). RESULTS are described as median (IQR) or frequency (%).565 diagnoses of syphilis with an assessable serological response in 421 patients; 458 (81%) were early syphilis, 189 (33%) were NI, 376 (67%) were ReI. At first, diagnosis of syphilis median age was 41 (36-47) years, 419 (99.5%) males, 391 (93%) MSM, HIV-infected since 7.7 (3.5-12.9) years, 75 (18%) HCV or HBV co-infected, 56 (13%) with a previous AIDS diagnosis, 82 (19%) antiretroviral treatment naïve, 102 (24%) with HIV-RNA ≥50 cp/mL, CD4+=576 (437-749) cells/mm(3), nadir CD4+=308 (194-406) cells/mm(3). LSRs were observed in 70/565 (12.4%) treated syphilis. Incidence of LSR decreased over time [2004-2008 IR=25.1 (17.2-33.1)/1000 PMFU; 2009-2010 IR=21.1 (12.3-29.9)/1000 PMFU; 2011-2013 IR=10.6 (5.1-18.2)/1000 PMFU; Poisson regression: p=0.001]. RESULTS of univariate and multivariate analysis on the risk of LSR are reported in Table 1.In HIV-infected subjects we observed 12% of LSR to treatment of syphilis. LSR was associated with an older age, late syphilis, lower nadir CD4+ and detectable HIV viral load.
- Prevalence of six periodontal pathogens in subgingival samples of Italian patients with chronic periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- New Microbiol 2014 Oct; 37(4):517-24.
The aim of this study was to investigate the subgingival prevalence of six periodontal pathogens in 352 Italian patients with chronic periodontitis. Possible correlations with clinical parameters, age, gender and smoking status were also investigated. At first visit a pooled subgingival plaque sample was obtained for each subject by using the paper-point method. The samples were processed and analysed according to a commercially available quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assay (Meridol® Perio Diagnostics, GABA International, Switzerland). Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Treponema denticola (Td), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) were investigated. Fn resulted the most frequently detected (95%) while Tf showed the highest load (12x105 cells/plaque sample). Aa was the less represented bacteria for load and presence. Bacterial load of Pg, Td, Tf and Fn showed a direct correlation to Bleeding On Probing (BOP) and presence of suppuration (p=0.0001). The bacterial load was always directly correlated to Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) (p=0.0001). Among the investigated variables, PPD resulted the most important risk indicator for periodontal pathogens. BOP appeared as a risk indicator for Td, Tf, Pg detection. Few studies have described the microbiological pattern of chronic periodontal disease in the Italian population. Considering the different forms of periodontitis, similar investigations in other countries are needed to disclose any microbiological differences among populations, which may lead to more specific approaches to prevention and therapy.