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- Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on short chain fatty acid levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Periodontal Res 2014 Oct; 49(5):574-83.
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play important roles in periodontal diseases. However, the concentrations of SCFAs in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with aggressive periodontitis are not known. The aim of this intervention study was to investigate the influences of non-surgical periodontal therapy on levels of SCFAs in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP), and analyze the concentrations of SCFAs in sites with or without the detected putative periodontal pathogens.Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected on filter paper strips from patients with G-AgP (n = 20; mean age 24.5 years), before and at 2 wk, 2, 4 and 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected from periodontally healthy controls (n = 20; mean age 26.2 years). Concentrations of formic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and isovaleric acid from the supernatant of gingival crevicular fluid samples were measured by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum from the precipitate of the same pretreatment samples of gingival crevicular fluids were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification.The clinical parameters of patients with G-AgP during the 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment were improved remarkably. The formic acid concentration increased significantly after treatment; the level of formic acid was lower in the P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with the negative sites. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid reduced significantly after treatment and reached the lowest level at 2 wk post-treatment, although showed a tendency to increase after 2 mo post-treatment, and the three SCFA levels were significantly higher in P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with those in the negative sites.Non-surgical periodontal treatment resulted in a significant decrease of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid levels and increase of formic acid level in gingival crevicular fluids in patients with G-AgP, accompanied by improvement in clinical parameters. A marked lower level of formic acid, as well as higher levels of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with G-AgP was consistent with periodontal pathogen infection.
- Evaluation of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo assay at a rural health center in Southwestern Uganda. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Res Notes 2014 Oct 22; 7(1):746.
Point-of-care tests have the capacity to improve healthcare delivery by reducing costs and delay associated with care. A novel point-of-care immunochromatographic test for dual diagnosis of both HIV and syphilis by detecting IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies to HIV, and specific and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens has recently been developed, but has not been evaluated in rural field settings. We evaluated the performance of the SD Bioline Syphilis/HIV Duo (Duo) assay at a healthcare center in rural Uganda.A convenience sample of pregnant women attending Kinoni Health Centre IV from March to May, 2013 was enrolled. Venous blood was collected and centrifuged for plasma isolation. Samples were tested with the Duo assay and compared with the Treponema pallidum hemaglutination assay and paired HIV rapid antibody tests as the reference standards. The ease of use and time required for the Duo assay were also assessed by laboratory technicians.Two hundred twenty women were enrolled with a mean age of 25.00 years (SD 5.41). The sensitivity and specificity of the Duo assay were 100% (95%CI 79.0 - 100%) and 100% (95%CI 97.6 - 100.0) respectively, for syphilis, and, 100% (75.9 - 100%) and 99.5% (96.8 - 99.9%) respectively, for HIV. The duo kit was found to be faster and easier to use than the current HIV and syphilis testing techniques.The sensitivity and specificity of the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo test were excellent in a field setting in Uganda. The Duo assay should be further evaluated in alternate populations and with point-of-care specimens (e.g. whole blood from finger stick specimens), but shows promise as a tool for improved HIV and syphilis surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment in field settings.
- Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens. [REVIEW]
- Nat Rev Urol 2014 Oct 21.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.
- Microbial Diversity Similarities in Periodontal Pockets and Atheromatous Plaques of Cardiovascular Disease Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109761.
The immune and infectious alterations occurring in periodontitis have been shown to alter the development and severity of cardiovascular disease. One of these relationships is the translocation of oral bacteria to atheroma plaques, thereby promoting plaque development. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess, by 16s cloning and sequencing, the microbial diversity of the subgingival environment and atheroma plaques of patients concomitantly suffering from periodontitis and obstructive coronary artery atherosclerosis (OCAA).Subgingival biofilm and coronary balloons used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were collected from 18 subjects presenting with generalized moderate to severe periodontitis and OCAA. DNA was extracted and the gene 16S was amplified, cloned and sequenced.Significant differences in microbial diversity were observed between both environments. While subgingival samples mostly contained the phylum Firmicutes, in coronary balloons, Proteobacteria (p<0.05) was predominant. In addition, the most commonly detected genera in coronary balloons were Acinetobacter, Alloprevotella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingomonas and Moraxella, while in subgingival samples Porphyromonas, Filifactor, Veillonella, Aggregatibacter and Treponema (p<0.05) were found. Interestingly, 17 identical phylotypes were found in atheroma and subgingival samples, indicating possible bacterial translocation between periodontal pockets and coronary arteries.Periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques of cardiovascular disease patients can present similarities in the microbial diversity.
- Association between the presence of Treponema denticola and reduced levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein in periodontitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Quintessence Int 2014 Oct 16.
Objective: Dyslipidemia, a disorder in the levels of cholesterol or lipoproteins in the plasma, is a feature of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Tanerella forsythia and Treponema denticola are related to reduced levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL). Method and Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 108 patients were invited to participate. The diagnosis of chronic periodontitis and the diagnosis of adipose tissue disorders were made based on criteria previously defined. The presence of T forsythia and T denticola was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 61 women and 19 men with chronic periodontitis, and 18 women and 10 men without periodontitis were studied. The serum levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein were similar in both groups. Inversely, the levels of triglycerides (TG) were higher in periodontitis patients compared to subjects without periodontitis (178 mg/dL vs 165 mg/dL; P < .05), and the levels of HDL were lower (44 mg/dL vs 50 mg/dL; P < .05), respectively. The presence of T denticola was associated with low levels of HDL in periodontitis patients after adjustment for possible confounders (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.2-7.2). Conclusion: Higher levels of TG and lower levels of HDL were associated with the presence of T denticola in chronic periodontitis. These results may suggest that the presence of T denticola could reduce the antiatherogenic potency of HDL and may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic periodontitis.
- L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL): a putative target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial compounds. [Journal Article]
- Front Microbiol 2014.:509.
Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP)/lysine (lys) anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP) is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira, and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.
- Intraindividual variation in core microbiota in peri-implantitis and periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6602.
The oral microbiota change dramatically with each part of the oral cavity, even within the same mouth. Nevertheless, the microbiota associated with peri-implantitis and periodontitis have been considered the same. To improve our knowledge of the different communities of complex oral microbiota, we compared the microbial features between peri-implantitis and periodontitis in 20 patients with both diseases. Although the clinical symptoms of peri-implantitis were similar to those of periodontitis, the core microbiota of the diseases differed. Correlation analysis revealed the specific microbial co-occurrence patterns and found some of the species were associated with the clinical parameters in a disease-specific manner. The proportion of Prevotella nigrescens was significantly higher in peri-implantitis than in periodontitis, while the proportions of Peptostreptococcaceae sp. and Desulfomicrobium orale were significantly higher in periodontitis than in peri-implantitis. The severity of the peri-implantitis was also species-associated, including with an uncultured Treponema sp. that correlated to 4 clinical parameters. These results indicate that peri-implantitis and periodontitis are both polymicrobial infections with different causative pathogens. Our study provides a framework for the ecologically different bacterial communities between peri-implantitis and periodontitis, and it will be useful for further studies to understand the complex microbiota and pathogenic mechanisms of oral polymicrobial diseases.
- Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Oct 8.
Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis.
- Vitros 5600 Syphilis TPA Assay: Evaluation of an Automated Chemiluminescence Assay for Detection of Treponema pallidum Antibodies in a High Prevalence Setting. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2014 Nov; 41(11):680-3.
The performance of the Syphilis TPA assay (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) on Vitros 5600 Integrated System was evaluated and demonstrated excellent results. Our data support the use of this assay for test confirmation in the traditional algorithm and for screening for syphilis in a routine automated laboratory setting when using the reverse algorithm.
- LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DUAL DETETION OF HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM ANTIBODIES. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2014 Oct 8.
The performance of three research use only, dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was evaluated for 150 patient serum samples, as compared to reference HIV and Treponema pallidum antibody detection methods. RDTs performed comparably, with sensitivity of 93-99% and specificity of 97-100%. Kappa statistic between the RDTs was 0.95.