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- Microbial Diversity Similarities in Periodontal Pockets and Atheromatous Plaques of Cardiovascular Disease Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109761.
The immune and infectious alterations occurring in periodontitis have been shown to alter the development and severity of cardiovascular disease. One of these relationships is the translocation of oral bacteria to atheroma plaques, thereby promoting plaque development. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess, by 16s cloning and sequencing, the microbial diversity of the subgingival environment and atheroma plaques of patients concomitantly suffering from periodontitis and obstructive coronary artery atherosclerosis (OCAA).Subgingival biofilm and coronary balloons used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were collected from 18 subjects presenting with generalized moderate to severe periodontitis and OCAA. DNA was extracted and the gene 16S was amplified, cloned and sequenced.Significant differences in microbial diversity were observed between both environments. While subgingival samples mostly contained the phylum Firmicutes, in coronary balloons, Proteobacteria (p<0.05) was predominant. In addition, the most commonly detected genera in coronary balloons were Acinetobacter, Alloprevotella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingomonas and Moraxella, while in subgingival samples Porphyromonas, Filifactor, Veillonella, Aggregatibacter and Treponema (p<0.05) were found. Interestingly, 17 identical phylotypes were found in atheroma and subgingival samples, indicating possible bacterial translocation between periodontal pockets and coronary arteries.Periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques of cardiovascular disease patients can present similarities in the microbial diversity.
- Association between the presence of Treponema denticola and reduced levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein in periodontitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Quintessence Int 2014 Oct 16.
Objective: Dyslipidemia, a disorder in the levels of cholesterol or lipoproteins in the plasma, is a feature of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Tanerella forsythia and Treponema denticola are related to reduced levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL). Method and Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 108 patients were invited to participate. The diagnosis of chronic periodontitis and the diagnosis of adipose tissue disorders were made based on criteria previously defined. The presence of T forsythia and T denticola was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 61 women and 19 men with chronic periodontitis, and 18 women and 10 men without periodontitis were studied. The serum levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein were similar in both groups. Inversely, the levels of triglycerides (TG) were higher in periodontitis patients compared to subjects without periodontitis (178 mg/dL vs 165 mg/dL; P < .05), and the levels of HDL were lower (44 mg/dL vs 50 mg/dL; P < .05), respectively. The presence of T denticola was associated with low levels of HDL in periodontitis patients after adjustment for possible confounders (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.2-7.2). Conclusion: Higher levels of TG and lower levels of HDL were associated with the presence of T denticola in chronic periodontitis. These results may suggest that the presence of T denticola could reduce the antiatherogenic potency of HDL and may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic periodontitis.
- L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL): a putative target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial compounds. [Journal Article]
- Front Microbiol 2014.:509.
Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP)/lysine (lys) anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP) is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira, and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds.
- Intraindividual variation in core microbiota in peri-implantitis and periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6602.
The oral microbiota change dramatically with each part of the oral cavity, even within the same mouth. Nevertheless, the microbiota associated with peri-implantitis and periodontitis have been considered the same. To improve our knowledge of the different communities of complex oral microbiota, we compared the microbial features between peri-implantitis and periodontitis in 20 patients with both diseases. Although the clinical symptoms of peri-implantitis were similar to those of periodontitis, the core microbiota of the diseases differed. Correlation analysis revealed the specific microbial co-occurrence patterns and found some of the species were associated with the clinical parameters in a disease-specific manner. The proportion of Prevotella nigrescens was significantly higher in peri-implantitis than in periodontitis, while the proportions of Peptostreptococcaceae sp. and Desulfomicrobium orale were significantly higher in periodontitis than in peri-implantitis. The severity of the peri-implantitis was also species-associated, including with an uncultured Treponema sp. that correlated to 4 clinical parameters. These results indicate that peri-implantitis and periodontitis are both polymicrobial infections with different causative pathogens. Our study provides a framework for the ecologically different bacterial communities between peri-implantitis and periodontitis, and it will be useful for further studies to understand the complex microbiota and pathogenic mechanisms of oral polymicrobial diseases.
- Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Oct 8.
Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis.
- Vitros 5600 Syphilis TPA Assay: Evaluation of an Automated Chemiluminescence Assay for Detection of Treponema pallidum Antibodies in a High Prevalence Setting. [Journal Article]
- Sex Transm Dis 2014 Nov; 41(11):680-3.
The performance of the Syphilis TPA assay (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) on Vitros 5600 Integrated System was evaluated and demonstrated excellent results. Our data support the use of this assay for test confirmation in the traditional algorithm and for screening for syphilis in a routine automated laboratory setting when using the reverse algorithm.
- LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THREE RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR THE DUAL DETETION OF HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM ANTIBODIES. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2014 Oct 8.
The performance of three research use only, dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was evaluated for 150 patient serum samples, as compared to reference HIV and Treponema pallidum antibody detection methods. RDTs performed comparably, with sensitivity of 93-99% and specificity of 97-100%. Kappa statistic between the RDTs was 0.95.
- Insights into the potential function and membrane organization of the TP0435 (Tp17) lipoprotein from Treponema pallidum derived from structural and biophysical analyses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Protein Sci 2014 Oct 6.
The sexually transmitted disease syphilis is caused by the bacterial spirochete Treponema pallidum. This microorganism is genetically intractable, accounting for the large number of putative and under-characterized members of the pathogen's proteome. In an effort to ascribe a function(s) to the TP0435 (Tp17) lipoprotein, we engineered a soluble variant of the protein (rTP0435) and determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.42 Å. The structure is characterized by an eight-stranded β-barrel protein with a shallow "basin" at one end of the barrel and an α-helix stacked on the opposite end. Furthermore, there is a disulfide-linked dimer of the protein in the asymmetric unit of the crystals. Solution hydrodynamic experiments established that purified rTP0435 is monomeric, but specifically forms the disulfide-stabilized dimer observed in the crystal structure. The data herein, when considered with previous work on TP0435, imply plausible roles for the protein in either ligand binding, treponemal membrane architecture, and/or pathogenesis.
- Influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy on the subgingival biofilm in HIV-infected patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Investig Clin Dent 2014 Oct 6.
Highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with alterations in subgingival biofilm and periodontal disease. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between different HAART regimens and the prevalence of periodontal pathogens in HIV-infected patients with chronic periodontitis.Subgingival periodontal pathogens were determined by a DNA chip microarray in a case series in 14 HIV-infected patients receiving HAART with different drug combinations: protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART. A statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether specific HAART regimens were associated with 10 periodontal pathogens using odds ratios (OR).At baseline and after treatment, the patients did not show significant clinical and immunological differences. In general, the highest OR for the prevalence of periodontal pathogens were found in the PI HAART group for Actinomyces viscosus (A. viscosus) (OR: 303), Campylobacter rectus (OR: 90), and Treponema denticola (OR: 25). In the NNRTI HAART group, higher OR were documented for Fusobacterium nucleatum (OR: 56) and Eikenella corrodens (OR: 25). The association between A. viscosus and PI HAART was statistically significant (P = 0.03).The results demonstrated statistical associations between subgingival bacteria and antiretroviral drug therapies. Further investigation on the clinical significance and underlying mechanisms are needed to support these findings.
- Establishment and Evaluation of a One-Step Microplate Chemiluminescence Immunoassay to Detect IgG Antibody Against Treponema Pallidum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Lab Anal 2014 Oct 2.
The serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum is of particular importance in the diagnosis of syphilis. The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) has been widely used for clinical diagnosis because they remit no radical waste products, cause no enzyme precipitation, and exhibit an excellent sensitivity.A one-step CLIA was established to detect T. pallidum IgG antibody based on microplate coated with a mixture of recombinant T. pallidum antigens TpN15, TpN17, and TpN47. The Chinese national reference substances standard panel for T. pallidum diagnosis was applied to test the accuracy, stability, interference, and cross-reactivity of the established CLIA. The validation of efficacy for clinical application was performed by comparing the established method with the marketed T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) kit and the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System.The established method met the requirement of the Chinese national reference substances standard for T. pallidum diagnosis. When compared with TPPA (n = 1,052), the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 99.7%, 99.0%, and 98.8% respectively, showing a great agreement with a kappa value of 0.81. When compared with the Abbott ARCHITEC Auto System (n = 352), the results showed that the specificity, sensitivity, and overall concordance were 98.6.0%, 96.6% and 98.6% respectively, and a high-degree agreement was observed (kappa value = 0.95).The established rapid, specific, sensitive, and stable microplate CLIA method to detect IgG antibody against T pallidum will provide an efficient alternative to the treponemal tests and wide application in clinical laboratory.