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Trichuris trichiura [keywords]
- Helminth Parasites of Rhombomys opimus from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Parasitol 2013 Jan; 8(1):78-84.
The aim of the study was to determine the helminthic species occurring in great gerbil Rhombomys opimus collected from Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, northeast Iran.During 2010-2011, a total of 77 R. opimus were captured from rural areas of Maraveh Tappeh, Golestan Province, using Sherman live traps and examined for infectivity with any larva or adult stages of helminthic parasites.Overall, 63 R. opimus (81.8%) were found infected with different helminthic species. The rate of infectivity with each species was as follows: Trichuris rhombomidis 31.2%, Trichuris muris 32.5%, Trichuris spp. 10.4%, Syphacia muris 2.6%, Dipetalonema viteae (Acanthocheilonema viteae) 37.7%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata 15.6%, Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) nana fraterna 5.2%, and Taenia endothoracicus larva 1.3%.R. opimus is host for several species of cestodes and nematodes in the study area. The high rate of infectivity with D. viteae indicates the susceptibility of these gerbils to this filarial nematode. Synchronous infections occurred up to four species of helminthes in one host.
- A Public Health Response against Strongyloides stercoralis: Time to Look at Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Full. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 May; 7(5):e2165.
Strongyloides stercoralis infections have a worldwide distribution with a global burden in terms of prevalence and morbidity that is largely ignored. A public health response against soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections should broaden the strategy to include S. stercoralis and overcome the epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenges that this parasite poses in comparison to Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms. The relatively poor sensitivity of single stool evaluations, which is further lowered when quantitative techniques aimed at detecting eggs are used, also complicates morbidity evaluations and adequate drug efficacy measurements, since S. stercoralis is eliminated in stools in a larval stage. Specific stool techniques for the detection of larvae of S. stercoralis, like Baermann's and Koga's agar plate, despite superiority over direct techniques are still suboptimal. New serologies using recombinant antigens and molecular-based techniques offer new hopes in those areas. The use of ivermectin rather than benzimidazoles for its treatment and the need to have curative regimens rather than lowering the parasite burden are also unique for S. stercoralis in comparison to the other STH due to its life cycle, which allows reproduction and amplification of the worm burden within the human host. The potential impact on STH of the benzimidazoles/ivermectin combinations, already used for control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis, should be further evaluated in public health settings. While waiting for more effective single-dose drug regimens and new sensitive diagnostics, the evidence and the tools already available warrant the planning of a common platform for STH and S. stercoralis control.
- Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in Al-Madina Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- Trop Biomed 2013 Mar; 30(1):78-88.
Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has one of the largest number of expatriate workers. Most of them are from Sri-Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, India and Bangladesh. These countries are considered as endemic areas for intestinal parasites. A total of 2732 stool samples were screened for intestinal parasites. Positive cases were recorded among 407 stool samples (14.9%). The common parasitic infections were encountered among 20-29 age groups (18.5%) while, the lowest infection rate was among individual ≥ 50 years (11.8%). According to the nationality, the highest infections were recorded among Pakistanis (23.2%), followed by Philippines (22.2%), Sudanese workers (18.7%), and the lowest infection rates were recorded among Bangladeshi individuals. The infected persons were farmers, food handlers and shepherds. The detected intestinal parasites were Giardia lamblia (21.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba coli (17.8%), Trichuris trichiura (16.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.8%), hookworm (13%), Hymenolepis nana (8.9%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.2%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.43%). In conclusion, the high prevalence of parasites among expatriates may produce health problem among the Saudi society due to the nature of the expatriates' work.
- Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran. [Journal Article]
- Trop Biomed 2013 Mar; 30(1):56-61.
Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.
- In vivo anthelmintic activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill & Perr (Combretaceae) against nematodes in naturally infected sheep. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Parasitol Res 2013 May 9.
The identification of new anthelmintic drugs becomes a priority because of the availability of a handful of drugs, cost of treatments, and recent emergence of drug resistance. Medicinal plants are a good source of bioactive compounds for development of drugs. In this study, in vivo efficacy of Anogeissus leiocarpus was assessed in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Fecal examination, serological analyses, and necropsy were carried out to determine the egg and worm-burden reduction. The administration of ethanolic extract (single oral dose of 80 mg/kg) of A. leiocarpus induced a moderate fecal egg reduction (81 %) and adult worm-burden reduction (87 %) against Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (82 %). The plant exhibited high efficacy against adult Strongyloïdes papillosus (100 %), Gaigeria pachyscelis (90 %), Cooperia curticei (100 %), and Oesophagostomum columbianum (95 %) but low efficacy against Trichostrongylus axei (67 %) and Trichuris globulosa (79 %). All these helminthes were sensitive to fenbendazole, except O. columbianum which showed a decrease susceptibility (17 %). The plant extract also improved certain biological parameters by increasing bodyweight from 0.7 ± 2.9 to 3.3 ± 1.9 % and improving hematocrit of 6.9 ± 1.6 % 3-week posttreatment. It emerges from the results that the plant possesses significant effectiveness on diarrhea; all treated animals gave normal feces. This study has shown that A. leiocarpus could find an application in the control of multiparasitism in small ruminants.
- Discovery of Trichuris landak n. sp. by Endang Purwaningsih. [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Apr; 3(4):314.
- New species: Trichuris landak n. sp, what is its medical implication? [Journal Article]
- Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Mar; 3(3):223.
- Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61285.
Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can be used such as RFLP, reverse-line-blot, Sanger sequencing and HRM.
- First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Res Commun 2013 Apr 25.
The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.
- Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Hypotheses 2013 Apr 15.
Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous, severe neurodevelopmental pathologies. The main core symptoms are: dysfunctions in social interactions and communication skills, restricted interests, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Several biochemical processes are associated with ASDs: oxidative stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; decreased methylation capacity; limited production of glutathione; mitochondrial dysfunction; intestinal dysbiosis; increased toxic metal burden; immune dysregulation. Current available treatments for ASDs can be divided into behavioral, nutritional and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Current drugs fail to benefit the ASD core symptoms and can have marked adverse effects, are mainly palliative and only sometimes efficacy in attenuating specific autistic behaviors. Helminthic therapy shows potential for application as anti-inflammatory agent. Several human diseases can be treated by helminths (i.e. inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes). Trichuris suis ova (TSO) show strong immunomodulatory properties. Authors hypothesize that TSO could be useful in addressing ASD immune dysregulations. TSO could be a novel therapeutic option for ASD management.