Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Ulcer, leg [keywords]
- Location-dependent depth and undermining formation of pressure ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Tissue Viability 2013 Jun 11.
AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined the location-specific properties of pressure ulcers, focusing on depth and undermining formation, which are often unfavorable factors for ulcer healing.
METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational study of 2 independent databases on pressure ulcers. Databases from a 200-bed hospital (database A) and a 300-bed hospital (database B) were collected during different time periods. Relationships between ulcer location, ulcer depth, and undermining formation were analyzed. All pressure ulcers were accurately diagnosed and classified according to their locations.
RESULTS:A total of 282 pressure ulcers in 189 patients from database A and 232 pressure ulcers in 154 patients from database B were analyzed. It was found that pressure ulcers primarily developed over the sacrum. Ratio of stages III and IV pressure ulcers was high in pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus on the lower leg. Among the deep pressure ulcers, undermining formation was frequently observed on the greater trochanter, ilium, and sacrum. In contrast, pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus did not exhibit undermining formation.
CONCLUSION:Our results revealed marked differences in pressure ulcer properties depending on their location. Factors affecting depth and undermining of pressure ulcers appear to be related to anatomical and physical properties of the bone and subcutaneous tissue.
- [Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: newly developed leg ulcer and history of stroke.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hautarzt 2013 Jun 8.
Antiphospholipid syndrome features not only deep vessel thrombosis but also may have cutaneous manifestations such as Raynaud phenomenon, acral necrosis, livedo reticularis, subcutaneous nodules, and leg ulcers. A 72-year-old man presented with a rapidly progressing leg ulcer. He was already on anticoagulation with warfarin due to atrial fibrillation and disclosed a history of stroke with temporary paresis of the left leg. Histopathology of a biopsy of the edge of the ulcer revealed occlusive arteriosclerosis of medium-sized arteries. Serology showed autoantibodies against cardiolipin, β2- glycoprotein I, and phosphatidylserine which led to the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin, dexamethasone, and azathioprine in combination with stage-adjusted wound care led to complete healing of the ulcer within 5 months.
- Approach to diagnosing lower extremity ulcers. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 May; 26(3):181-6.
Chronic leg ulcers (as differentiated from wound of the foot) are most often due to venous disease, arterial insufficiency (peripheral arterial disease), or a combination of both. Treatment modalities vary depending on the etiology of the ulcer, so it is important to make an appropriate diagnosis of the wound. Like for most medical illnesses, the determination of the etiology of these wounds is based on history, physical examination, and testing.
- Pain and health-related quality of life in people with chronic leg ulcers. [Journal Article]
- Chronic Dis Inj Can 2013 Jun; 33(3):167-74.
Venous leg ulceration is associated with pain and poor health-related quality of life (HRQL). The purpose of this study was to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with pain and decreased HRQL in patients with active venous ulcers.Baseline data were combined from two trials that took place between 2001 and 2007 (n = 564). Pain was measured using the Numeric Pain Scale (NPS), and HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short Form (SF-12), which generates a Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Analyses included logistic and linear regression (for pain and HRQL, respectively).Mean age was 66.5 years; 47% were male. Median NPS score was 2.2 (out of 10) and mean PCS and MCS scores were 38.0 and 50.5, respectively (scores are standardized to a mean of 50 representing average HRQL). Younger age, living with others, and arthritis were associated with pain. Poorer PCS was associated with being female, venous/mixed ulcer etiology, larger ulcers, longer ulcer duration, cardiovascular disease, arthritis and higher pain intensity. Poorer MCS was associated with younger age, longer ulcer duration, comorbidity and higher pain intensity.Research is needed to test strategies to reduce pain and possibly improve HRQL in high risk groups.
- Flavonoids for treating venous leg ulcers. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD006477.
Venous leg ulcers are a major health burden: annually, in the UK alone, they contribute an estimated cost to the NHS of GBP 400 million. Flavonoids are a diverse group of naturally-occurring venotonic compounds that address certain microcirculatory parameters involved in venous leg ulcer pathophysiology.To evaluate the clinical effects of flavonoids on the healing of venous leg ulcers.In February 2013 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. No date or language restrictions were applied. We checked reference lists of included trials, and contacted pharmaceutical companies.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the efficacy of any flavonoid-containing compound on venous leg ulcer healing in adults.Two review authors independently assessed trials for the review and disagreements were referred to a third author. All rejected articles were double-checked by a third author. Assessment of risk of bias and data extraction were performed independently by two authors, discrepancies were resolved by referring to the third author.Of the nine studies (1075 participants): five investigated Micronised Purified Flavonoid Fraction (MPFF), and four investigated hydroxyethylrutosides (HR).Meta-analysis involving 723 participants from five trials - four of which were characterised by poor reporting - showed more venous leg ulcers were healed in the MPFF groups than in the control groups (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.74). However, the most rigorously conducted trial, which was at low risk of bias, did not show any additional benefit of MPFF (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.22). Since this trial was unpublished, the possibility of publication bias in trials involving flavonoids must be acknowledged. Overall, the quality of reporting of trials on HR was also poor. Pooling three trials, all at unclear risk of bias, involving 279 participants showed a statistically significant effect in favour of HR with respect to number of ulcers healed (RR 1.70; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.34).Although the overall estimate of the number of healed ulcers appeared to show a significant effect in favour of flavonoids (both MPFF and HR), this result needs to be interpreted cautiously, as most of these trials were poorly reported, and so had an unclear risk of bias for randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding and methods for addressing incomplete outcome data. There was also a possibility of publication bias.
- [Effect of maggot therapy on minimally necrotic tissues: characterization of larval enzymatic excretion/secretion]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Biomedica 2012 Sep; 32(3):312-20.
Introduction.Chronic leg ulcers are a burden for the health system and impact quality of life. The infections, the necrotic tissue and the difficult treatment affects the prognosis and healing time. Maggot therapy is presented as an acceptable alternative for the debridement and treatment of this pathology.
Objective.The larval therapy was assessed on chronic leg ulcers with little necrotic tissue. Larval excretion and secretion (E/S) was characterized with respect to hemolymph (HL) enzymatic content. Materials and methods. Three patients with chronic leg ulcers and low necrotic tissue were treated with larval therapy and were assessed with the PUSH (pressure ulcer scale for healing) and Wound Bed Score. E/S and HL content was evaluated by SDS PAGE and zymogram.
Results.The clinical aspect of the wounds showed improvement, and the scores demonstrated an average decrease of 2.3 for the PUSH and an average increase of 2.7 for the Wound Bed Score. A wide diversity of enzymatic activity in the E/S was demontrated with major activity belonging to serine protease family.
Conclusions.Maggot therapy proved an effective treatment in cases with minimal tissue necrosis and can be considered a viable treatment option.
- The pernicious cycle of VLUs in Brazil: epidemiology, pathogeny and auxiliary healing methods. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2013 Apr; 22(4):186-8, 190, 192-3.
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) represent the most advanced stage of chronic venous insufficiency. Despite the large body of knowledge available regarding the risk factors and aetiopathogeny of the condition, patients referred to public health care systems in developing countries often do not receive adequate diagnosis or early treatment, leading to clinical evolution and disease recurrence. This review collates updated information about the epidemiology, risk factors, aetiopathogeny, diagnosis, ulcer healing methods and determinant factors of the pernicious cycle of VLUs in developing countries, with a focus on the Brazilian setting.
- Different oxygen treatment pressures alter inflammatory gene expression in human endothelial cells. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Undersea Hyperb Med 2013 Mar-Apr; 40(2):115-23.
Hyperbaric oxygen has proven to be a useful treatment for chronic wounds. However, therapeutic conditions vary between treatment centers, and we wished to investigate the effects of different treatment pressures on cells under inflammatory conditions. Endothelial cells were exposed to a chronic wound model comprising hypoxia (2% O2 at 1 atmosphere absolute (atm abs); PO2 approximately 2 kPa) in the presence of 0.5 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide and 1 ng/ml TNF-alpha for 24 hours, then treated with normobaric oxygen (NBO2; 95%O2/5%CO2 at 1.0 atm abs; PO2 approximately 96.3 kPa), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at 1.5 atm abs (1.5HBO2; 96.7%O2/3.3%CO2 at 1.5 atm abs; PO2 approximately 147 kPa), and HBO2 at 2.4 atm abs (2.4HBO2; 97.9%O2/2.1%CO2 at 2.4 atm abs; PO2 approximately 238 kPa). The mRNA expression of 92 inflammatory genes was then analyzed, and we identified changes in genes involved in adhesion molecule expression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, intracellular signaling, and cellular oxygen responses and redox signaling. We noted differences in expression between different treatment pressures, highlighting the need for further research into the use of different therapeutic protocols in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as chronic wounds.
- Venous leg ulcer healing in primary care. [Letter]
- J Wound Care 2013 Feb; 22(2):98-9.
- A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Pain and Activity in Persons With and Without Injection-Related Venous Ulcers. [Journal Article]
- Ostomy Wound Manage 2013 May; 59(5):14-23.
Persons with leg ulcers, including venous ulcers, often report pain. A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 61 patients receiving care in an urban clinic (31 with and 30 without a venous ulcer, mean age 54 years [range 40 to 65 years], 93% African American) to examine pain and its relation to activity and walking in persons with injectionrelated venous ulcers. The questionnaire included items about pain and its treatment, as well as activity and walking (ie, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI] Short Form, Self-Treatment of Pain, Pain and Narcotic Use, Difficulty with Activities, and Walking Scale questionnaires). Among those with a venous ulcer (VU+), worst pain significantly related to total interference (r = 0.65, P <0.0001) and total difficulty (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) BPI scores. The common pain sites for those VU+ involved the legs (24, 36.4%), wound sites (13, 19.7%), back (eight, 12.1%), general body (five, 7.6%), shoulder and knee (four, 6.1% each), and other (eight, 12.1%). Persons VU+ were more likely than those without a venous ulcer (VU-) to have received a prescription for narcotics in the past year (96% versus 41%, X2 = 21.3, P <0.0001). Persons VU+ versus VU- were significantly (X2 = 8.89, P = 0.003) more likely to resort to street drug use and relapse to addiction if pain was not adequately treated. They were also twice as likely to have decreased walking over the past 5 years (67% versus 33%, X2 = 5.93, P <0.02). Among those VU+, venous ulcers added to chronic pain and decreased walking. These findings highlight the negative effects of injection-related venous ulcers on pain, activity, and walking, as well as the propensity of this groupto resort to illicit drug use for pain control. Persons VU+ should have pain assessed and treated.