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Ulcer and eschar [keywords]
- Scrub typhus: surveillance, clinical profile and diagnostic issues in Shandong, China. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 Dec; 87(6):1099-104.
To elucidate the epidemic status, clinical profile, and current diagnostic issues of scrub typhus in Shandong Province, we analyzed the surveillance data of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2011 and conducted a hospital-based disease survey in 2010. Scrub typhus was clustered in mountainous and coastal areas in Shandong Province, with an epidemic period from September to November. The most common manifestations were fever (100%), eschar or skin ulcer (86.3%), fatigue (71.6%), anorexia (71.6%), and rash (68.6%). Predominant complications included bronchopneumonia, toxic hepatitis, and acute cholecystitis in 21.6%, 3.9%, and 2.9% of the cases, respectively. Severe complications including toxic myocarditis, heart failure, pneumonedema, pleural effusion, and emphysema were first reported in Shandong. Missed and delayed diagnosis of scrub typhus was common in local medical institutions. Alarm should be raised for changes of clinical features and current diagnostic issues of scrub typhus in newly developed endemic areas.
- Recent outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in Bangladesh: clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of cases attended at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital. [Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2012.:464.
Human cutaneous anthrax results from skin exposure to B. anthracis, primarily due to occupational exposure. Bangladesh has experienced a number of outbreaks of cutaneous anthrax in recent years. The last episode occurred from April to August, 2011 and created mass havoc due to its dreadful clinical outcome and socio-cultural consequences. We report here the clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of 15 cutaneous anthrax cases attended at the Dermatology Outpatient Department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh between April and August, 2011 with an aim to create awareness for early case detection and management.Anthrax was suspected primarily based on cutaneous manifestations of typical non-tender ulcer with black eschar, with or without oedema, and a history of butchering, or dressing/washing of cattle/goat or their meat. Diagnosis was established by demonstration of large gram-positive rods, typically resembling B. anthracis under light microscope where possible and also by ascertaining therapeutic success. The mean age of cases was 21.4 years (ranging from 3 to 46 years), 7 (46.7%) being males and 8 (53.3%) females. The majority of cases were from lower middle socioeconomic status. Types of exposures included butchering (20%), contact with raw meat (46.7%), and live animals (33.3%). Malignant pustule was present in upper extremity, both extremities, face, and trunk at frequencies of 11 (73.3%), 2 (13.3%), 1 (6.7%) and 1 (6.7%) respectively. Eight (53.3%) patients presented with fever, 7 (46.7%) had localized oedema and 5 (33.3%) had regional lymphadenopathy. Anthrax was confirmed in 13 (86.7%) cases by demonstration of gram-positive rods. All cases were cured with 2 months oral ciprofloxacin combined with flucoxacillin for 2 weeks.We present the findings from this series of cases to reinforce the criteria for clinical diagnosis and to urge prompt therapeutic measures to treat cutaneous anthrax successfully to eliminate the unnecessary panic of anthrax.
- Blow fly Lucilia sericata nuclease digests DNA associated with wound slough/eschar and with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. [Journal Article]
- Med Vet Entomol 2012 Dec; 26(4):432-9.
In chronic wounds, it may be clinically important to remove extracellular bacterial and patient DNA as its presence may impede wound healing and promote bacterial survival in biofilm, in which extracellular DNA forms part of the biofilm architecture. As medicinal maggots, larvae of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) have been shown to efficiently debride wounds it became of interest to investigate their excretions/secretions (ES) for the presence of a deoxyribonuclease (DNAse) activity. Excretions/secretions products were shown to contain a DNAse, with magnesium, sodium and calcium metal ion dependency, and a native molecular mass following affinity purification of approximately 45 kDa. The affinity purified DNAse degraded genomic bacterial DNA per se, DNA from the slough/eschar of a venous leg ulcer, and extracellular bacterial DNA in biofilms pre-formed from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The latter finding highlights an important attribute of the DNAse, given the frequency of P. aeruginosa infection in non-healing wounds and the fact that P. aeruginosa virulence factors can be toxic to maggots. Maggot DNAse is thus a competent enzyme derived from a rational source, with the potential to assist in clinical wound debridement by removing extracellular DNA from tissue and biofilm, and promoting tissue viability, while liberating proteinaceous slough/eschar for debridement by the suite of proteinases secreted by L. sericata.
- Wound debridement potential of glycosidases of the wound-healing maggot, Lucilia sericata. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Med Vet Entomol 2012 Sep; 26(3):291-9.
The wound-healing maggot, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), degrades extracellular matrix components by releasing enzymes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profiles of wound slough/eschar from chronic venous leg ulcers and the complementary presence of glycosidase activities in first-instar excretions/secretions (ES1) and to define their specificities. The predominant carbohydrate moieties present in wound slough/eschar were determined by probing one-dimensional Western blots with conjugated lectins of known specificities. The presence of specific glycosidase activities in ES1 was determined using chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates. The removal of carbohydrate moieties from slough/eschar proteins by glycosidases in ES1 was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis and Emerald 300 glycoprotein staining. α-D-glucosyl, α-D-mannosyl and N-acetylglucosamine residues were detected on slough/eschar-derived proteins. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the treatment of slough/eschar with ES1 significantly reduced uptake of the carbohydrate-specific stain. Subsequently, α-D-glucosidase, α-D-mannosidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities were identified in ES1. Specific chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates and gel filtration chromatography showed that these activities result from distinct enzymes. These activities were mirrored in the removal of α-D-glucosyl, α-D-mannosyl and N-acetylglucosamine residues from proteins of slough/eschar from maggot-treated wounds. These data suggest that maggot glycosidases remove sugars from slough/eschar proteins. This may contribute to debridement, which is ultimately accomplished by a suite of biochemically distinct enzymes present in ES1.
- Fusarium skin infection: a case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Dermatol Online J 2012; 18(4):6.
A 65-year-old man presented with an irregular ulcer with a black eschar on his forehead associated with severe headache. A subcutaneous nodule with a necrotic center was present on the left knee. The diagnosis of Fusarium infection was made and confirmed by biopsy and culture. The patient had a history of bronchial asthma for which he was on inhalational steroids for 5 years. It is unclear if this treatment was related to the disseminated Fusarium infection. The patient received oral itraconazole for 3 months with good improvement but met with an unexpected sudden death.
- Effect of foam sclerotherapy on healing and long-term recurrence in chronic venous leg ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phlebology 2012 Mar 15.
INTRODUCTION:The ESCHAR trial showed that superficial venous surgery and compression in chronic venous ulceration achieved a 24-week healing rate of 65% and 12-month recurrence rate of 12%. Foam sclerotherapy treatment is an alternative to surgery. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of foam sclerotherapy on ulcer healing and recurrence in chronic venous leg ulcers.
METHODS:Chronic venous leg ulcers (CEAP [clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements] 5 and CEAP 6) with superficial venous reflux were treated between March 2006 and June 2011 with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy and compression. Venous duplex was performed on all legs before and after treatment. Twenty-four-week ulcer healing and one- and four-year ulcer recurrence rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
RESULTS:Two hundred legs (186 patients) with chronic venous ulcers (CEAP 5: n = 163 and CEAP 6: n = 37) were treated with foam sclerotherapy. Complete occlusion was achieved in 185/200 (92.5%) limbs, short segment occlusion in 14/200 (7%) limbs and one leg segment failed to occlude. One patient suffered an asymptomatic non-occlusive deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed on duplex scan at one week and one presented with an occlusive DVT three weeks following a normal scan at one week. One patient developed an asymptomatic occlusive DVT at two weeks following a non-occlusive DVT diagnosed on initial one-week scan. Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up (3 moved away and 15 died of unrelated causes). The 24-week healing rate was 71.1% and one- and four-year recurrence rates were 4.7% and 28.1%, respectively.
CONCLUSION:Foam sclerotherapy is effective in abolition of superficial venous reflux and may contribute to similar ulcer healing and long-term recurrence rates to superficial venous surgery. Foam sclerotherapy is an attractive alternative to surgery in this group of patients.
- Expression of a cGMP compatible Lucilia sericata insect serine proteinase debridement enzyme. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Biotechnol Prog 2012 Mar-Apr; 28(2):567-72.
Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a research grade recombinant chymotrypsin, derived from the larvae of Lucilia sericata, in "debriding" slough/eschar from venous leg ulcers ex vivo. Furthermore, we were able to formulate this enzyme for successful delivery to in vitro wound healing assays, from a prototype hydrogel wound dressing, and showed that enzyme delivered in this way could degrade wound tissue ex vivo. Recently, to progress biotechnological development of the enzyme as a potential therapeutic product, we explored expression using current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines, and now report that a recombinant chymotrypsin I zymogen from L. sericata can be expressed in the cGMP acceptable strain of Escherichia coli (BLR-DE3). In addition, the conditions required for purification, refolding and activation of the chymotrypsinogen have been determined. The activated enzyme was stable, and effective in digesting wound slough/eschar tissue. To summarise, we have successfully initiated the production and characterisation of a novel cGMP compatible product for use in future clinical trials.
- Scrub typhus-induced serious gastric ulcer bleeding. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2011; 50(21):2675-7.
A 67-year-old woman presented with melena and general weakness. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy revealed multiple ulcers and projectile bleeding in the stomach. She also complained of a 10-day history of a fever and was diagnosed with scrub typhus based on a positive result of the eschar polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. She fully recovered with endoscopic hemostasis, and administration of minocycline and omeprazole. In a patient with GI manifestations, scrub typhus, a condition with pathologically systemic vasculitis, should be considered in the possible background in endemic areas. The eschar PCR testing is a rapid and useful diagnostic tool to identify a specific strain.
- Endemic scrub typhus-like illness, Chile. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Emerg Infect Dis 2011 Sep; 17(9):1659-63.
We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient's leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus-like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia.
- Burn from car seat heater in a man with paraplegia: case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article, Review]
- J Spinal Cord Med 2011 May; 34(3):332-4.
Heated car seats are a common feature in newer automobiles. They are increasingly being recognized as potential hazards as there have been multiple reports of significant burns to its users. The potential for harm is considerably increased in those with impaired sensation with the possibility of a devastating injury.Case report and literature review.A 26-year-old male with a T8 ASIA A paraplegia presented to the outpatient clinic for management of a hip burn. Two weeks prior to his visit he was driving a 2004 Jeep Cherokee for approximately 30 minutes. He was unaware that the driver's side seat warmer was set on high. He denied that his seat belt was in direct contact with the skin of his right hip. He presented to an acute care hospital that evening with a hip burn where he was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and instructed to apply it until his scheduled follow-up clinic visit. In clinic, the hip wound was unstageable with approximately 95% eschar. A dressing of bismuth tribromophenate in petrolatum was applied to the wound and he was instructed to change the dressing daily. This was later changed to an antimicrobial alginate dressing. The ulcer eventually healed.This case illustrates the significant risk of car seat heaters in individuals with spinal cord injuries or neurological impairment who have decreased sensation. Additionally, it highlights an atypical area of potential for burn. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need for a heightened awareness for this unique and dangerous situation.