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Ultrasound Liver and Biliary System [keywords]
- ACR Appropriateness Criteria Jaundice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Coll Radiol 2013 Apr 27.
A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
- Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis due to Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Gastroenterol 2013 Jan; 7(1):134-9.
Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease defined by both inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the biliary tract leading to diffuse stricture formation. This entity exists in both a primary and secondary form. Here we present a rare case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to direct metastasis from a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. A 55-year-old morbidly obese male presented electively with a 2-week history of low back pain and scleral icterus for 2 days. He also described severe epigastric pain that worsened postprandially and a 13 kg weight loss over the previous month. The patient denied any personal or familial history of malignancy or prior liver disease. Laboratory evaluation revealed mild elevation of transaminases with moderately elevated alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Imaging included ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showing multiple large gallstones and a large tissue density mass within the fundus of the gallbladder. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound was performed revealing celiac and portal lymphadenopathy with fine needle aspirations demonstrating adenocarcinoma. Over the next 15 days, bilirubin progressively increased. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was unremarkable. Liver biopsy, performed to exclude other etiologies of liver failure, demonstrated biliary cholestasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was then performed and an occlusion cholangiogram revealed diffuse multifocal stricturing of the intrahepatic bile ducts and moderate stenosis of the common bile duct without proximal ductal dilatation. Thus secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.
- Imaging techniques for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease: Joint ECCO and ESGAR evidence-based consensus guidelines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Crohns Colitis 2013 Apr 11.
The management of patients with IBD requires evaluation with objective tools, both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease, to determine the location, extension, activity and severity of inflammatory lesions, as well as, the potential existence of complications. Whereas endoscopy is a well-established and uniformly performed diagnostic examination, the implementation of radiologic techniques for assessment of IBD is still heterogeneous; variations in technical aspects and the degrees of experience and preferences exist across countries in Europe. ECCO and ESGAR scientific societies jointly elaborated a consensus to establish standards for imaging in IBD using magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, and including also other radiologic procedures such as conventional radiology or nuclear medicine examinations for different clinical situations that include general principles, upper GI tract, colon and rectum, perineum, liver and biliary tract, emergency situation, and the postoperative setting. The statements and general recommendations of this consensus are based on the highest level of evidence available, but significant gaps remain in certain areas such as the comparison of diagnostic accuracy between different techniques, the value for therapeutic monitoring, and the prognostic implications of particular findings.
- Endoscopic approach to the patient with congenital anomalies of the biliary tract. [Journal Article]
- Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2013 Apr; 23(2):505-18.
Congenital biliary tract anomalies typically present with neonatal cholestasis. In children and adults, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound are used to evaluate and treat choledochal cysts. Contrarily, endoscopy has traditionally played a minor role in the diagnosis of the cholestatic infant. Recent studies support the incorporation of ERCP into the diagnostic algorithm for biliary atresia and neonatal cholestasis. But at present, most pediatric liver centers do not consider its use essential. This article reviews the congenital biliary tract anomalies in which endoscopy has been shown to contribute to the evaluation of the cholestatic infant.
- Pre-ERCP imaging of the bile duct and gallbladder. [Journal Article]
- Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2013 Apr; 23(2):185-97.
Advances in biliary imaging have improved making accurate diagnoses of the presence and causes of biliary obstruction. Abdominal ultrasound is a useful screening tool because it is highly specific for choledocholithiasis. New developments in CT and MRI have also been useful in the diagnosis of biliary disease. Although diagnosis of biliary disease can be achieved in a noninvasive manner, there are limitations to modern MRI and CT cholangiographic techniques; their use may not be necessary or cost effective. MRI and CT imaging of the biliary tract provides opportunities for less-invasive diagnostic techniques but should be used judiciously before interventional endoscopy.
- Diagnostic value of ultrasound in detection of biliary tract complications after liver transplantation. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Jan; 13(1):e6003.
Biliary complications are significant source of morbidity after liver transplantation (LT). Cholangiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and specification of biliary complications.Detailed analyses of ultrasound (US) as a safe imaging method in this regard are still lacking. Therefore we analyzed systematically the diagnostic value of US in these patients.Retrospectively, 128 liver graft recipients and their clinical data were analyzed. All patients had a standardized US examination. The findings of US were compared to cholangiographic results in 42 patients. Following statistical analyses were performed: descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV).42 patients had 54 different biliary complications (Anastomotic stenosis (AS) n = 33, ischemic type biliary lesions (ITBL) n = 18 and leakage n = 3). US detected n = 22/42 (52%) patients with biliary complications. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of US were: 61%, 100%, 100%, 79% (95CI, 36-86%) for ITBL and 24%, 100, 100%, 31% (95CI, 9-46 %) for AS, respectively.US examination had no false positive rate. Therefore, it may be helpful as a first screening modality. But for the direct diagnosis of the biliary complication US is not sensitive enough.
- Filling Defect on ERCP: Biliary Cystadenoma, a Rare Tumor. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Gastroenterol 2013 Jan; 7(1):7-13.
Biliary cystadenomas are rare tumors of the bile ducts most commonly presenting as large right liver lobe lesions. These are usually slow-growing and mostly benign. They commonly present with abdominal pain. On physical exam an abdominal mass can be identified occasionally. Walls of biliary cystadenomas appear thicker than simple cysts, with soft tissue nodules and enhancing septations on CT or MRI. Radiographic images can vary with the amount of protein content in the fluid on CT or MRI. Due to the risk of malignant transformation, complete surgical resection is advised. Hereby, we describe a 37-year-old lady who presented to the outpatient clinic with bloating and abdominal discomfort with intermittent elevated liver enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts followed by CT scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts. It was seen as a filling defect of the intra- and extrahepatic ducts (common hepatic duct) on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Involvement of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts simultaneously is a rare presentation of this tumor. She later on underwent exploratory laparotomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection, left hepatic lobe resection and reconstruction with hepaticojejunostomy. Pathology confirmed the presence of biliary cystadenoma with ovarian-like stroma. She had recovered uneventfully from the surgery when seen 2 weeks later in the clinic. Biliary cystadenoma is a rare, mostly benign neoplasm of the biliary tract that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the biliary tract.
- Combined use of intraoperative ultrasound and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging to detect liver metastases from colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- HPB (Oxford) 2013 Feb 20.
OBJECTIVES:Surgical excision is the standard strategy for managing liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma. The achievement of negative (R0) margins is a major determinant of disease-free survival in these patients. Current imaging techniques are of limited value in achieving this goal. A new approach to the intraoperative detection of colorectal liver metastatic tissue based on the emission of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence was evaluated.
METHODS:A total of 25 consecutive patients with liver metastases from primary colorectal cancers who were eligible for liver resection received a bolus of ICG (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before surgery. During surgery, ICG fluorescence, which accumulates around lesions as a result of defective biliary clearance, was detected with a near-infrared camera system, the Photodynamic Eye (PDE). Numbers of lesions detected by, respectively, PDE + ICG, intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) and preoperative computed tomography (CT) were recorded.
RESULTS:The near-infrared camera plus ICG revealed a total of 77 metastatic liver nodules. Preoperative CT demonstrated 45 (58.4%) and IOUS showed 55 (71.4%). Preoperative CT and IOUS alone were inferior to the combined use of PDE + ICG and IOUS in the detection of lesions of ≤3 mm in size.
CONCLUSIONS:This experience suggests that PDE + ICG, combined with IOUS, may represent a safe and effective tool for ensuring the complete surgical eradication of liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
- Ultrasound and infections on the Tibetan Plateau(). [Journal Article]
- J Ultrasound 2012 Jun; 15(2):83-92.
The authors report on an ultrasound (US) outreach program for the nomadic people living in Yushu, a remote area of Qinghai, Tibet, People's Republic of China (PRC) about 4800 m above sea level. The program was carried out in cooperation with ROKPA INTERNATIONAL, a non-profit organization (NGO) that aims at helping the poorest peoples living in remote regions of the world.A hand-held US scanner (Sonosite 180 Plus, Sonosite Inc., Bothell, WA, USA) equipped with a 3.5-5 MHz convex probe was used at a local clinic for 21 days in 2007 and for 32 days in 2009.A total of 1128 US examinations were performed (578 in 2007 and 550 in 2009). The main diagnoses were: Echinococcal cysts (66 cases; 6.23%) - Biliary tract and intrahepatic gallstones (10% of patients examined) - Ascariasis - Acute and chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, abdominal masses - Abdominal tuberculosis - Miscellaneous (trophoblastic tumor, megacalicosis, splenomegaly in acute leukemia). After the first experience in 2007, collaboration with the local hospital was established for the treatment of patients affected by active echinococcal cysts using albendazole and puncture, aspiration and injection of scolicidal agent and re-aspiration (PAIR) and subsequent follow-up.US scanning was well accepted by the local population and allowed diagnosis, classification and choice of treatment of the echinococcal cysts according to recent criteria based on a stage-specific approach. Percutaneous treatment was also introduced, but more training of local healthcare providers is needed to secure continuation of this practice. Further experience may help improve the standard of health care services offered to the nomadic populations in this remote area.
- Challenge in differential diagnosis of a liver mass histologically defined as a metastatic lesion from an occult primary intestinal tumour. The importance of clinical findings and the limitations of histology and molecular profiles. A case report. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pathologica 2012 Aug; 104(4):177-81.
Differential diagnosis of liver lesion in the absence of proven primary tumor is still a challenge. We experienced a case of an asymptomatic 14 cm lesion of right hemiliver in a 67 year-old man submitted to right hepatectomy in December 2010. One year before the patient underwent to endoscopic removal of a tubular adenoma of the right colon. Preoperative diagnosis was supported by ultrasound, CT scan, PET and liver biopsy. The patient received 6 cycles of preoperative chemotherapy (FOLFOX) with down-staging of the lesion diameter. Immunohistochemistry on the surgical specimen showed positivity for cytokeratins 19 and 20, CEA, MUC-2, negativity for cytokeratin 7 and a-fetoprotein. Moreover, the neoplastic cells showed a focal positivity with lower intensity for MUC-1 and MUC-5AC. The immunohistochemical profile suggested the possibility of a metastatic tumour from the large bowel, without excluding a primitive mucinous cholangiocarcinoma with intestinal phenotype. At 6 months after intervention, the patient was submitted to chemotherapy (FOLFOX). At present he is in good condition, without radiological signs of recurrence. Oncologists must evaluate the possible benefits of further adjuvant treatments based on the differential diagnosis between a primitive or metastatic liver tumour. In conclusion, correct diagnosis of liver masses is mandatory and remains a challenge that can differentiate either follow-up or surgical and adjuvant treatment. Histology and immunohistochemistry must be related to clinical findings as they may not always be sufficient to reach a correct final diagnosis, and can even be confusing. At present, molecular biology cannot be considered a helpful for diagnosis in these cases.