Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Urinary frequency [keywords]
- CYP2E1 and NQO1 genotypes and bladder cancer risk in a Lebanese population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2013; 4(4):207-217.
Urinary bladder cancer incidence in Lebanon ranks among the highest in the world. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1), and N-Acetyltransferase1 (NAT1), are drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) involved in the metabolism of carcinogens, such as arylamines and heterocyclic amines, implicated in bladder cancer. The present study attempts to investigate the role of these DMEs genetic polymorphism in bladder cancer risk among Lebanese men. 54 cases and 106 controls were recruited from two hospitals in Beirut. An interview-based questionnaire was administered to assess suspected environmental and occupational risk factors. PCR-RFLP was performed on blood-based DNA samples to determine DMEs genotypes. Associations between bladder cancer and putative risk factors were measured using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results showed CYP2E1 c1/c1, NAT1*14A, and smoking, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. No significant differences in frequency distribution of the NQO1 genotypes were found in cases versus controls. The odds of carrying the CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype were 4 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR=3.97, 95% CI: 0.48-32.7). The odds of carrying at least one NAT1*14A allele were 14 times higher in cases versus controls (OR=14.4, 95% CI: 1.016-204.9). Our study suggests CYP2E1 c1/c1, NAT1*14A, and smoking, as potential risk factors for bladder cancer in Lebanese. Further studies with larger samples must be conducted to confirm these findings.
- Cystitis: antibiotic prescribing, consultation, attitudes and opinions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fam Pract 2013 Dec 7.
Despite stable overall antibiotic use between 2007 and 2011 in The Netherlands, use of nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim increased by 32%. The background of this increased antibiotic use against uropathogens is unknown.To determine whether increased use of urinary tract infection antibiotics is caused by changes in patients' consultation or physicians' prescribing behaviour and to investigate attitudes and opinions of women with respect to cystitis management and antibiotics.Consultation and prescribing for International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes U01 (dysuria), U02 (frequency), U05 (other urination problems), U70 (pyelonephritis) and U71 (cystitis) were determined from 2007 to 2010, using routinely collected primary health care data. Separately, behaviour of women with respect to managing cystitis, consultation and opinions towards (delayed) antibiotic treatment were studied using questionnaires in 2012.Consultation for U02 and U71 significantly increased from 93 to 114/1000 patient-years from 2007 to 2010; proportion of episodes in which an antibiotic was prescribed remained constant. Questionnaires revealed that urination problems and pain were dominant complaints of cystitis; pain medication, however, was not adequately used. One-third of women directly consult upon first symptoms, whereas the majority awaits an average of 4 days. Sixty-six per cent of women report to be willing to postpone antibiotic use.Increased use of urinary tract infection antibiotics may be caused by increased consultation for cystitis in primary care. Future research should focus on the outcomes of adequate pain medication, enhanced diagnostic procedures and of delaying antibiotic use in cystitis management.
- Salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia for local recurrence after radiation therapy failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Strahlenther Onkol 2013 Dec 8.
The aim of the present retrospective study is to evaluate toxicity and early clinical outcomes of interstitial hyperthermia (IHT) combined with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in patients with biopsy-confirmed local recurrence of prostate cancer after previous external beam radiotherapy.Between September 2008 and March 2013, 25 patients with local recurrence of previously irradiated prostate cancer were treated. The main eligibility criteria for salvage prostate HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia were biopsy confirmed local recurrence and absence of nodal and distant metastases. All patients were treated with a dose of 30 Gy in 3 fractions at 21-day intervals. We performed 62 hyperthermia procedures out of 75 planned (83 %). The aim of the hyperthermia treatment was to heat the prostate to 41-43 °C for 60 min. Toxicity for the organs of the genitourinary system and rectum was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, v. 4.03). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure was based on the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/ml).The median age was 71 years (range 62-83 years), the median initial PSA level was 16.3 ng/ml (range 6.37-64 ng/ml), and the median salvage PSA level was 2.8 ng/ml (1.044-25.346 ng/ml). The median follow-up was 13 months (range 4-48 months). The combination of HDR brachytherapy and IHT was well tolerated. The most frequent complications were nocturia, weak urine stream, urinary frequency, hematuria, and urgency. Grade 2 rectal hemorrhage was observed in 1 patient. No grade 3 or higher complications were observed. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after salvage treatment was 74 %. The PSA in 20 patients decreased below the presalvage level, while 11 patients achieved a PSA nadir < 0.5 ng/ml. All patients are still alive. Of the 7 patients who experienced biochemical failure, bone metastases were found in 2 patients.IHT in combination with salvage HDR brachytherapy is a well tolerated and effective treatment.
- Overactive Bladder and Mental Health Symptoms in Recently Deployed Women Veterans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Urol 2013 Dec 5.
Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of current overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in recently-deployed women veterans, and to determine if OAB symptoms were associated with problems commonly reported after deployment, including mental health symptoms and prior sexual assault.Baseline data were analyzed from a nationwide cohort study of urogenital symptoms in women veterans. Women returning from Iraq or Afghanistan deployment in the prior two years and ending military service were eligible. Self-reported data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. OAB and mental health conditions were identified using standardized definitions and validated urinary and mental health instruments. Associations between OAB and depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and sexual assault were assessed in separate logistic regression models using propensity scores to adjust for confounding.The 1702 participants had mean (SD) age of 31.1 (8.4) years and were racially/ethnically diverse. Three hundred seventy-five (22%, 95% CI (20.1%, 24.1%)) reported OAB. Mental health outcomes included PTSD (19%), anxiety (21%), depression (10%), and prior sexual assault (27%); all were associated with OAB (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 2.7 [2.0, 3.6], 2.7 [2.0, 3.5], 2.5 [1.5, 4.3], and 1.4 [1.1, 1.9] respectively).OAB symptoms occurred in 22% of recently-deployed women veterans and were associated with self-reported mental health symptoms and traumatic events, including prior sexual assault. Screening and evaluation for bothersome urinary symptoms and mental health problems in women veterans presenting for primary and urologic care after deployment appears warranted.
- [Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: A multicentric retrospective study of 30 French cases and follow-up of the renal function.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Med Interne 2013 Dec 5.
Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is an inflammatory disorder, affecting the aorta and the surrounding vessels and tissues. The prognosis is mainly driven by the risks of chronic kidney disease and relapse. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease at follow-up.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed for IRF in Seine-Saint-Denis (France) between 1987 and 2011. We collected informations about presentation, radiologic findings and follow-up. Diagnosis of IRF was confirmed when all the following criteria were met: infiltration of the infrarenal aorta or iliac vessels, absence of aneurysmal dilation, lack of clinical suspicion of malignancy.Thirty patients were identified, with a male/female ratio of 4.9. Mean age was 55±13 years old. The mean creatinine clearance was 66 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and the mean CRP was 45±36 mg/L. In 24 (80%) patients, the location of IRF was periaortic and periiliac. Eleven patients (37%) underwent a diagnostic biopsy, and 14 (47%) required an ureteral procedure. A mean follow-up of 63 months was available for 29 patients: 69% relapsed, 7 developed chronic renal disease (24%), and one died of urinary sepsis. Older age (P=0.023), diabetes (P=0.007), and initial renal insufficiency (P=0.05) were associated with a risk of chronic renal insufficiency.The high frequency of relapses and chronic renal disease emphasizes the need of close follow-up in patients diagnosed with IRF.
- [Association between urinary cadmium and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2013 Aug; 35(8):632-5.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between urinary cadmium and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer.The clinicopathological characteristics of 240 patients with breast cancer were obtained and urine specimens were collected from October 2009 to July 2010. The concentration of urinary cadmium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). χ(2) test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyze whether urinary cadmium is associated with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer.The median concentration of urine cadmium of 240 patients was 1.99 µg/g (25th percentile, 1.32 µg/g; 75th percentile, 2.88 µg/g). HER-2 positive rate, regional/distant metastasis rate, and advanced stage rate in patients with the highest tertile of cadmium concentration were significantly higher than those in the patients with second and lowest Cd tertiles (P = 0.042, P = 0.028 and P = 0.017, respectively), and 28.2% vs. 16.5% for HER-2 and 47.2% vs. 32.0% for regional/distant metastasis, respectively. There were still significant associations between urinary cadmium levels and these clinicopathological parameters after being adjusted in age by unconditional logistic regression model, respectively (P < 0.05).The results of this study suggest that urinary cadmium levels are associated with the HER-2 status, regional/distant metastasis status and stages of breast cancer, respectively. Cadmium may induce highly aggressive breast cancer in humans.
- Generalization of Associations of Kidney-Related Genetic Loci to American Indians. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013 Dec 5.
CKD disproportionally affects American Indians, who similar to other populations, show genetic susceptibility to kidney outcomes. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with kidney traits, but their relevance in American Indians is unknown.This study used data from a large, family-based genetic study of American Indians (the Strong Heart Family Study), which includes 94 multigenerational families enrolled from communities located in Oklahoma, the Dakotas, and Arizona. Individuals were recruited from the Strong Heart Study, a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. This study selected 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 loci identified from recently published kidney-related genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry to evaluate their associations with kidney function (estimated GFR; individuals 18 years or older, up to 3282 individuals) and albuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; n=3552) in the Strong Heart Family Study. This study also examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOL1 region with estimated GFR in 1121 Strong Heart Family Study participants. GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation. Additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex were used.This study identified significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with estimated GFR in or nearby PRKAG2, SLC6A13, UBE2Q2, PIP5K1B, and WDR72 (P<2.1 × 10(-3) to account for multiple testing). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci explained 2.2% of the estimated GFR total variance and 2.9% of its heritability. An intronic variant of BCAS3 was significantly associated with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. APOL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with estimated GFR in a single variant test or haplotype analyses, and the at-risk variants identified in individuals with African ancestry were not detected in DNA sequencing of American Indians.This study extends the genetic associations of loci affecting kidney function to American Indians, a population at high risk of kidney disease, and provides additional support for a potential biologic relevance of these loci across ancestries.
- Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Dec 6.:CD009130.
This is an update of the Cochrane review "Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12).More than 80% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a relapsing-remitting disease course. Approximately 10 years after disease onset, an estimated 50% of individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) convert to secondary progressive MS. MS causes a major socioeconomic burden for the individual patient and for society. Effective treatment that reduces relapse frequency and prevents progression could impact both costs and quality of life and help to reduce the socioeconomic burden of MS. Alternative and more effective MS treatments with new modes of action and good safety are needed to expand the current treatment repertoire. It has been shown that B lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of MS and rituximab lyses B-cells via complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Current clinical trials are evaluating the role of rituximab as a B-cell depletion therapy in the treatment of RRMS.The safety and effectiveness of rituximab, as monotherapy or combination therapy, versus placebo or approved disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) (interferon-β (IFN-β), glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, alemtuzumab) to reduce disease activity for people with RRMS were assessed.The Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Specialised Register (9 August 2013). We checked the references in identified trials and manually searched the reports (2004 to August 2013) from neurological associations and MS societies in Europe and America. We also communicated with researchers who were participating in trials on rituximab and contacted Genentech, BiogenIdec and Roche.All randomised, double-blind, controlled parallel group clinical trials with a length of follow-up equal to or greater than one year evaluating rituximab, as monotherapy or combination therapy, versus placebo or approved DMDs for patients with RRMS without restrictions regarding dosage, administration frequency and duration of treatment.We used the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus among the review authors. Principal investigators of included studies were contacted for additional data or confirmation of data.One trial involving 104 adult RRMS patients with an entry score ≤ 5.0 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and at least one relapse during the preceding year was included. This trial evaluated rituximab as monotherapy versus placebo, with a single course of 1000 mg intravenous rituximab (on day 1 and day 15). A significant attrition bias was found at week 48 (24.0%). Patients receiving rituximab had a significant reduction in total number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions at week 24 (mean number 0.5 versus 5.5; relative reduction 91%) and in annualised rate of relapse at week 24 (0.37 versus 0.84) but not at week 48 (0.37 versus 0.72). Disability progression was not included as an outcome in this trial. More patients in the rituximab group had adverse events within the 24 hours after the first infusion (78.3% versus 40.0%), such as chills, headache, nausea, pyrexia, pruritus, fatigue, throat irritation, pharyngolaryngeal pain, and most were mild-to-moderate events (92.6%). The most common infection-associated adverse events (> 10% in the rituximab group) were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and sinusitis. Among them, only urinary tract infections (14.5% versus 8.6%) and sinusitis (13.0% versus 8.6%) were more common in the rituximab group. One ongoing trial was identified.There is not sufficient evidence to support the use of rituximab as a disease-modifying therapy for RRMS because only one RCT was included. The quality of the study was limited due to high attrition bias, the small number of participants, and short follow-up. The beneficial effects of rituximab for RRMS remain inconclusive. However, short-term treatment with a single course of rituximab was safe for most patients with RRMS. Mild-to-moderate infusion-associated adverse events were common, as well as nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and sinusitis. The potential benefits of rituximab for treating RRMS need to be evaluated in large-scale studies that are of high quality along with long-term safety.
- Total antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress after a 10-week dietary intervention program in obese children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pediatr 2013 Dec 6.
Dietary and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) are considered appropriate tools for investigating the potential health effects of dietary antioxidants consumed in mixed diets. The aim was to analyze the impact of a dietary intervention on macronutrient intakes and to evaluate the improvement on oxidative status after weight loss (WL) by measuring dietary and serum TAC, and urinary F2-isoprostane levels as markers of oxidative stress. Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5 years) were enrolled to undergo a 10-week WL program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after intervention. Subjects were prescribed with a fixed full-day meal diet, calculated according to their basal metabolic rate and physical activity levels. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to retrospectively calculate TAC and daily nutrient intake. The HR subjects were able to reduce anthropometric indices and to improve lipid and glucose profile. They also significantly diminished fat intake (p = 0.013). Moreover, baseline serum TAC values did significantly predict the reduction in urinary F2 isoprostane (B = -0.236 (-0.393 to -0.078); p = 0.014) in the HR group after the WL program. Notably, changes in dietary TAC after the treatment were associated with a decrease in body weight after the 10-week intervention (B = -2.815 (-5.313 to -0.318), p = 0.029) in the HR group. The -ΔSerumTAC/ΔDietaryTAC and the -ΔF2Isoprostane/ΔDietaryTAC ratios revealed that the relationships between oxidative markers and antioxidants dietary intake were more favorable in the HR than in the LR group. Conclusion: Our study showed that a 10-week WL program was able to reduce adiposity indices in obese children. Moreover, after the intervention changes in dietary TAC and WL were significantly associated. Our result suggests that specific food with a high TAC content (such as fruits, vegetables, and legumes) could be recommended to improve WL.
- Family history and the risk of cancer: genetic factors influencing multiple cancer sites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2013 Dec 2.
A number of co-aggregations of cancers at different sites has been reported, including recognized syndromes (e.g., Li-Fraumeni), and aggregations between cancers at breast, stomach and ovary, between cancers at prostate, urinary tract and other sites, as well as between several tobacco-related neoplasms. In a network of case-control studies from Italy and Switzerland, including more than 12,000 cases of 13 different cancers, after controlling for multiple testing, significant associations emerged between oral and pharyngeal cancer and family history of laryngeal cancer (relative risk (RR): 3.3); esophageal cancer and family history of oral and pharyngeal cancer RR: 4.1; breast cancer and family history of colorectal cancer (RR: 1.5) and of hemolymphopoietic cancers (RR: 1.7); ovarian cancer and family history of breast cancer (RR: 2.3); and prostate cancer and family history of bladder cancer (RR: 3.4). Shared exposures to environmental factors within families account for some of the observed aggregations, together with heritable, and hence, genetic factors.