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Urinary frequency [keywords]
- Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012. [Journal Article]
- Pan Afr Med J 2014.:15.
According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making.We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ≥ 105 colony forming units/ml of urine.Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli.We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications.
- [Clinical and bacteriological characteristic of infectious purulent complications in patients after related renal transplantation.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2014; (8):37-42.
We investigated the frequency and characteristics of infectious purulent and non-infectious complications in living related renal transplant recipients in early postoperative period. It was identified the prevalent microorganisms in urinary tract infections and its antibiotic sensitivity: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans. 182 strains of bacteria and Candida were isolated from urine of renal graft patients in early postoperative period (from 2 days to 3 months). The prevention and treatment schemes, antimicrobial drugs dosing regimen were developed. It leads to decrease the infectious complications rate.
- The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Health-Related Quality of Life Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurourol Urodyn 2014 Oct 18.
Lower urinary tract symptoms are commonly experienced among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), however, their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been well characterized. Herein the incremental impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on HRQOL among patients with MS has been evaluated.A cross-sectional online survey was administered to US residents with a self-reported MS diagnosis. Data pertaining to demographics, disease history, urinary symptoms, and HRQOL, including the Short Form 36, version 2 (SF-36v2), were collected. Patients were stratified into four urinary symptom groups: no/minimal urinary symptoms, urinary urgency (UU), urinary urgency incontinence (UUI), and other lower urinary tract symptoms. Multiple linear regression models evaluated the impact of these symptoms.Out of the 1,052 respondents, mean age was 47.8 ± 10.6 years; mean time since MS diagnosis was 8.5 ± 7.8 years. UUI and UU subgroups showed the greatest adjusted HRQOL decrement compared with the no/minimal urinary symptoms group, scoring 2.8 (SE ± 0.7, UUI) and 3.5 (SE ± 0.8, UU) points lower on SF-36v2 Physical Component Summary, respectively, and 3.7 (SE ± 1.0, UUI) and 5.0 (SE ± 1.2, UU) points lower on SF-36v2 Mental Component Summary (P < 0.001 for all), respectively.Both UU and UUI symptoms contribute to a decrement in HRQOL among patients with MS. Neurourol. Urodynam. ©The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Methylation Efficiency, and Birth Outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) Pregnancy Cohort in Mexico. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Health Perspect 2014 Oct 17.
Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) from drinking water is a global public health problem yet much remains unknown about the extent of exposure in susceptible populations.To establish the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) prospective pregnancy cohort in Gómez Palacio, Mexico, to better understand the effects of iAs exposure on pregnant women and their children.Two hundred pregnant women were recruited for this study. Concentrations of iAs in drinking water (DW-iAs) and maternal urinary concentrations of iAs and its monomethylated and dimethylated metabolites (MMAs and DMAs, respectively) were determined. Birth outcomes were analyzed for their relationship to DW-iAs and to the concentrations and proportions of maternal urinary arsenicals.DW-iAs for the study subjects ranged from <0.5 to 236 μg As/L. More than half of the women (53%) had DW-iAs that exceeded the World Health Organization's recommended guideline of 10 μg As/L. DW-iAs was significantly associated with the sum of the urinary arsenicals (U-tAs). Maternal urinary concentrations of MMAs were negatively associated with newborn birth weight and gestational age. Maternal urinary concentrations of iAs were associated with lower mean gestational age and newborn length.Biomonitoring results demonstrate that pregnant women in Gómez Palacio are exposed to potentially harmful levels of DW-iAs. The data support a relationship between iAs metabolism in pregnant women and adverse birth outcomes. The results underscore the risks associated with iAs exposure in vulnerable populations.
- A Prospective Study of Growth and Biomarkers of Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin during Early Childhood in Tanzania. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Health Perspect 2014 Oct 17.
Aflatoxin and fumonisin are toxic food contaminants. Knowledge about effects of their exposure and co-exposure on child growth is inadequate.To investigate the association between child growth and aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Tanzania.A total of 166 children were recruited at 6 to 14 months of age and studied at recruitment, and at the sixth and twelfth month following recruitment. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for plasma aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb) using ELISA, and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) using LC-MS, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken and growth index Z-scores were computed.AF-alb geometric mean concentrations (95% confidence intervals) were 4.7 (3.9, 5.6), 12.9 (9.9, 16.7) and 23.5 (19.9, 27.7) pg/mg albumin at recruitment, six months, and 12 months from recruitment, respectively. At these respective sampling times, geometric mean UFB1 concentrations (95% CI) were 313.9 (257.4, 382.9), 167.3 (135.4, 206.7) and 569.5 (464.5, 698.2) pg/mL urine, and the prevalence of stunted children were 44%, 55% and 56%, respectively. UFB1 concentrations at recruitment were negatively associated with length for age Z-scores (LAZ) at six months (p = 0.016) and at 12 months from recruitment (p = 0.014). The mean UFB1 of the three sampling times (at recruitment, at six and 12 months from recruitment) in each child was negatively associated with LAZ (p < 0.001) and length velocity (p = 0.004) at 12 months from recruitment. The negative association between AF-alb and child growth did not reach statistical significance, however the joint effect of mean AF-alb and mean UFB1 of the three sampling times on LAZ at 12 months from recruitment was significant (p = 0.005).Exposure to fumonisin alone, or co-exposure with aflatoxins may contribute to child growth impairment.
- Prospective Blinded Study of BRAFV600E Mutation Detection in Cell-Free DNA of Patients with Systemic Histiocytic Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Discov 2014 Oct 16.
Patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) and Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) have a high frequency of BRAFV600E mutations and respond to RAF inhibitors. However, detection of mutations in tissue biopsies is particularly challenging in histiocytoses due to low tumor content and stromal contamination. We applied a droplet-digitial PCR assay for quantitative detection of the BRAFV600E mutation in plasma and urine cell-free (cf)DNA and performed a prospective, blinded study in 30 ECD/LCH patients. There was 100% concordance between tissue and urinary cfDNA genotype in treatment naïve samples. cfDNA analysis facilitated identification of previously undescribed KRASG12S mutant ECD and dynamically tracked disease burden in patients treated with a variety of therapies. These results indicate that cfDNA BRAFV600E mutational analysis in plasma and urine provides a convenient and reliable method of detecting mutational status and can serve as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor response to therapy in LCH and ECD.
- Nickel exposure is associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Epidemiol 2014 Oct 15.
Nickel exposure can induce hyperglycaemia in rodents, but little is known about its association with abnormal glucose metabolism in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of nickel exposure with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults.A total of 2115 non-institutionalized men and women aged 55 to 76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included, and urinary nickel concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was compared across urinary nickel quartiles. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein and glycated haemoglobin A1c, as well as urinary albumin and creatinine were measured.The median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.63 µg/l (interquartile range: 2.29-5.89 µg/l), and the prevalence of diabetes was 35.3% (747 cases/2115 persons). Elevated levels of urinary nickel were associated with higher fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin A1c, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (all P < 0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes across the increasing urinary nickel quartiles were 1.27 (0.97-1.67), 1.78 (1.36-2.32) and 1.68 (1.29-2.20), respectively (referencing to 1.00), after multivariate adjustment including lifestyle factors, body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend <0.001). The association remained unchanged after further controlling for urinary creatinine and C-reactive protein (P for trend <0.001).Increased urinary nickel concentration is associated with elevated prevalence of type 2 diabetes in humans.
- Complications of ovariohysterectomy procedures performed in 1880 dogs. [Journal Article]
- Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2014 Oct 17; 42(5):297-302.
Canine ovariohysterectomy (OVH) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in companion animal practice. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and types of complications related to OVH.The clinical records of all street dogs admitted to the public dog shelters of the Veneto Region (Italy) between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed for dogs that had undergone OVH. Specific comparison was made between anaesthesia time, body weight of the patients and intra- and postoperative complications (occurring up to 4 weeks postoperatively). The data were statistically analyzed.Complications were recorded in 141 of 1880 bitches corresponding to an overall complication rate of 7.5%. Mean ±standard deviation (SD) weight of the bitches was 25.7±6.7 kg and mean ± SD anaesthesia time was 42.8 ±8.6 minutes. Distinct types of complications included significant ovarian artery haemorrhage, haemorrhage from the surgical wound, wound healing complications, urinary incontinence, ovarian remnant syndrome. Twenty-one patients had intraoperative complications and 120 patients had postoperative complications. Analy- sis of the grouped data showed a significant association between body weight and the incidence of complications. There was also a significant association between anaesthesia time and the incidence of complications. The results of this study indicate that patient weight is related to the incidence of complications and the odds of a complication occurring increase by a factor of 1.03 for every one kilogram of increase in patient weight. The period of general anaesthesia also appears to be related to the incidence of complications and the odds of a complication occurring increase by approximately 2% for each additional minute in anaesthesia time.Increasing patient weight and duration of anaesthesia time were found to be risk factors for the incidence of complications of OVH in the bitch.
- Increased risk of urinary calculi in patients with migraine: A nationwide cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cephalalgia 2014 Oct 15.
Whether migraine is associated with urinary calculi is an unresolved issue, although topiramate, a migraine-preventive agent, is known to contribute to this complication. This study investigates the association between migraine and the risk of urinary calculi.We identified a total of 147,399 patients aged ≥18 years with migraine diagnoses recorded in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2005 and 2009. Each patient was randomly matched with one individual without headache using propensity scores. All participants were followed from the date of enrollment until urinary calculi development, death, or the end of 2010.The risk of urinary calculi was greater in the migraine than the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.52-1.63; p < 0.001, irrespective of the influence of topiramate. The risk was higher in younger and female patients. The magnitude of the risk was proportional to the annual frequency of clinic visits for headache (≥6 vs. <3, aHR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17; p = 0.002), but did not differ between migraine patients with and without aura.Our study showed migraine was associated with an increased risk of urinary calculi, independent of topiramate use. A higher frequency of clinic visits was associated with a greater risk.
- Constitutive PKA activity is essential for maintaining the excitability and contractility in guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle: Role of the BK channel. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014 Oct 15.:ajpcell.00167.2014.
The elevation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity activates the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels in urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) cells, and consequently attenuates spontaneous phasic contractions of UBSM. However, the role of constitutive PKA activity in UBSM function has not been studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that constitutive PKA activity is essential for controlling the excitability and contractility of UBSM. We used patch-clamp electrophysiology, line-scanning confocal and ratiometric fluorescence microscopy on freshly-isolated guinea pig UBSM cells, and isometric tension recordings on freshly-isolated UBSM strips. Pharmacological inhibition of the constitutive PKA activity with H-89 or PKI 14-22 significantly reduced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient BK channel currents (TBKCs) in UBSM cells. Confocal and ratiometric fluorescence microscopy studies revealed that inhibition of constitutive PKA activity with H-89 reduced the frequency and amplitude of the localized Ca(2+) sparks, but increased global Ca(2+) levels and the magnitude of Ca(2+) oscillations in UBSM cells. H-89 abolished the spontaneous transient membrane hyperpolarizations and depolarized the membrane potential in UBSM cells. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 or KT-5720 also increased the amplitude and muscle force of UBSM spontaneous phasic contractions. This study reveals the novel concept that constitutive PKA activity is essential for controlling localized Ca(2+) signals generated by intracellular Ca2+ stores and cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Further, constitutive PKA activity is critical for mediating the spontaneous TBKCs in UBSM cells where it plays a key role in regulating spontaneous phasic contractions in UBSM.