- Recurrent urinary tract infections in psychotic mood disorders. [Letter]
- SRSchizophr Res 2016 Nov 28
- Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess human exposure to pyrethroid pesticides. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2016 Nov 28
- Pesticides are active substances with potentially adverse effects on human health, and therefore great effort is addressed to study the relation between their widespread use and the effects on humans...
Pesticides are active substances with potentially adverse effects on human health, and therefore great effort is addressed to study the relation between their widespread use and the effects on humans. To track human exposure to pesticides, novel approaches are needed to give additional information on exposure at population level. In this study, a novel application of Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) was developed to measure the intake of pyrethroid pesticides in a population. Three human urinary metabolites of pyrethroids were selected and validated as biomarkers of exposure by evaluating their sources and stability in wastewater. They were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in raw urban wastewater collected from the wastewater treatment plants of six Italian cities. Their concentrations were used as biomarkers to back-calculate the intake of pyrethroid pesticides in the population. WBE results were in line with the urinary biomarker levels of biomonitoring studies considering dilution in wastewater. Significant differences in the metabolites levels were observed among different cities. Seasonal variations in human intake of pyrethroids were also seen, as expected, with higher intakes during spring/summer. Intakes in the six cities were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and it was concluded that some of the populations examined might face significant health risks. Results confirm that this method can provide supplementary information to biomonitoring studies and can be a valuable tool for obtaining objective, direct information on the real levels of exposure to pyrethroids of different populations.
- Monitoring the prevalence of thyroid disorders in the adult population of Northeast Germany. [Journal Article]
- PHPopul Health Metr 2016 Nov 08; 14(1):39
- CONCLUSIONS: The decreased prevalence of iodine-deficient disorders and a stable prevalence of markers of autoimmune thyroid disorders argue for an improved iodine supply of the adult population in Northeast Germany. In contrast, the prevalence of diagnosed thyroid disorders and the intake of thyroid medication increased, although this might be related to inappropriate therapeutic decisions.
- Urinary Cadmium and Mammographic Density. [Journal Article]
- EEpidemiology 2017; 28(1):e6-e7
- Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) among uropathogenic infections in Mexico City. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2016 Nov 07
- Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) causes urinary tract and other extraintestinal infections in humans. CGA is an important cause of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)-resistance in extraintestin...
Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) causes urinary tract and other extraintestinal infections in humans. CGA is an important cause of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)-resistance in extraintestinal pathogens. We examined the extent to which resistance in this area is related to CGA dissemination of E. coli from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Mexico City. The virulence backgrounds of the isolates were also characterized. In this study, the frequency of resistance to SXT used for UTI treatment was high (56-65%) and CGA isolates accounted for 9 of the 78 SXT-resistant isolates (11.5%). Although all of the CGA isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR), none of them were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms. The prevalence of CGA among the 45 MDR isolates that we identified was 20%, indicating that this clonal group moderately contributes to the antibiotic resistance of UPEC isolates in this region. Most of the 9 CGA isolates carried transferable large-size plasmids of approximately 80-100 kb, which were able to transfer antimicrobial resistance to E. coli J53 in mating assays. CGA isolates mainly belonged to phylogenetic groups F and D. We found no association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes: the median virulence scores of CGA isolates were slightly higher (4.6) than those of non-CGA isolates whether they were susceptible (3.7) or resistant (3.5) to SXT. Our results indicate that CGA is not a major contributor to the high level of resistance to SXT in this region, but instead seems to be an important constituent of MDR isolates from UTIs.
- Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2016 Nov 30
- In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptor...
In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.65.
- Drug treatment of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms after ureteric JJ-stent insertion: A contemporary, comparative, prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study, single-centre experience. [Journal Article]
- AJArab J Urol 2016; 14(4):262-268
- CONCLUSIONS: In symptomatic patients following JJ-stent insertion, anti-muscarinic medication, namely solifenacin 5 mg or trospium chloride 20 mg, was the best. The advantage of trospium over solifenacin is in the control of frequency rather than the other symptoms. Addition of an α-blocker (alfuzosin 10 mg) is valuable when nocturia is the predominant symptom.
- Peritoneal Dialysis Access Revision in Children: Causes, Interventions, and Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Nov 29
- CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal dialysis catheter revisions are common in pediatric patients on peritoneal dialysis and complicate provision of chronic peritoneal dialysis. Attention to potentially modifiable risk factors by pediatric nephrologists and pediatric surgeons should be encouraged.
- PRISM II: an open-label study to assess effectiveness of dextromethorphan/quinidine for pseudobulbar affect in patients with dementia, stroke or traumatic brain injury. [Journal Article]
- BNBMC Neurol 2016 Jun 9; 16:89
- CONCLUSIONS: DM/Q was shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for PBA secondary to dementia, stroke, or TBI. The magnitude of PBA improvement was similar to that reported in patients with PBA secondary to ALS or MS, and the adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of DM/Q.
New Search Next
- Virulence Genes Profile of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Children with UTIs. [Journal Article]
- AMActa Med Iran 2016; 54(3):201-10
- Virulent and resistant strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most important cause of UTIs in pediatrics. The present study was carried to investigate the frequency of virulence...
Virulent and resistant strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most important cause of UTIs in pediatrics. The present study was carried to investigate the frequency of virulence factors in the multi-drug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from pediatrics hospitalized due to the UTIs. One-hundred and forty three urine samples were collected from pediatric patients suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured and those that were P. aeruginosa positive were analyzed for the presence of putative virulence genes. Seventy one out of 143 samples (49.65%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. Monthly, sex and age-dependent prevalence were seen for P. aeruginosa. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (95.77%), gentamicin (92.95%) and ciprofloxacin (81.69%). Of 71 P. aeruginosa isolates, 12 strains were resistant to more than 9 antibiotics (16.90%). The most commonly detected virulence factors in the cases of urethral infections were exoU and plcH while those of pyelonephritis and cystitis were were exoS and lasB. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized pediatrics with UTIs in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of UTIs. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.