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Urinary frequency [keywords]
- Efficacy and Tolerability of Anticholinergics in Korean Children with Overactive Bladder: A Multicenter Retrospective Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Korean Med Sci 2014 Nov; 29(11):1550-1554.
We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children.
- Does skin care frequency affect the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis in critically ill patients? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nursing 2014 Dec; 44(12):27-32.
Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a potentially serious skin injury that can lead to pressure ulcers (PUs). Multiple studies have indicated the need for evidence to find the most effective skin care protocol to reduce the incidence and severity of IAD in critically ill patients.To compare the incidence and severity of IAD in two groups on a progressive care unit (PCU) using a defined skin care protocol: cleaning with a gentle cleanser and moisturizer, then applying a skin protectant/barrier. The control group received the skin care protocol every 12 hours and the interventional group received the protocol every 6 hours; both groups also received it as needed.A 9-month randomized prospective study was conducted on 99 patients (N = 55 in the intervention group and N = 44 in the control group) who were incontinent of urine, stool, or both, or had a fecal diversion device or urinary catheter for more than 2 days.The dermatitis score in the intervention group on discharge was significantly less (7.1%; P ≤ 0.001) in the moderate IAD group than in the control group (10.9%). The dermatitis score means and P values of each group were compared using a paired t test.The researchers studied a defined skin care protocol using a cleanser with aloe vera and a cleansing lotion, followed by application of either a moisture barrier with silicone or skin protectant with zinc oxide and menthol, undertaken at two different frequencies. Data revealed the incidence of moderate IAD was decreased in the experimental group (receiving the skin protocol every 6 hours and p.r.n.).
- Simultaneous vs staged treatment of urolithiasis in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. [Journal Article]
- World J Clin Cases 2014 Nov 16; 2(11):698-704.
To assess the outcomes of men treated for urolithiasis at the time of radical prostatectomy.From 1991 to 2010, 22 patients were retrospectively identified who were treated simultaneously (n = 10) at radical prostatectomy, or (n = 12) within 120 d prior to prostatectomy, for urolithiasis. Clinical characteristics were reviewed including: type of prostatectomy and stone surgery, location and amount of stone burden, perioperative change in hemoglobin and creatinine, stent frequency, total hospital d, stone-free rates, additional stone procedures and complications. Long-term functional outcomes including stress urinary incontinence and bladder neck contracture were reported. Differences between cohorts (simultaneous vs staged treatment) were assessed.Among men undergoing radical prostatectomy, primary stone procedures included 12 ureteroscopy, 6 shock wave lithotripsy, 2 open nephrolithotomy and 2 percutaneous nephrolithotomy. In staged shock wave lithotripsy there were 4 complications and 3 additional procedures vs 1 (P = 0.5) and 0 (P = 0.2) in the simultaneous cohort. Meanwhile in staged ureteroscopy there were 5 complications and 1 additional procedure vs 1 (P = 0.2) and 1 (P = 0.9) in the simultaneous cohort. Additional procedures for residual stones was greater among patients with asymptomatic upper tract calculi 3 (60%) relative to patients with symptomatic stones 2 (13%; P = 0.02). Likewise, patients with proximal or multiple calculi had a greater total hospital days 5.5 vs 4.1 (P = 0.04), additional procedures 6 vs 0 (P = 0.04) and lower stone-free rates 39% vs 89% (P = 0.02) relative to men with distal stones. Finally, there was no difference in the incidence of bladder neck contracture (P = 0.4) or stress urinary incontinence (P = 0.7) between cohorts.Ureteroscopic treatment of symptomatic distal urolithiasis at radical prostatectomy appears to be safe and efficacious with a low rate of adverse postoperative outcomes.
- Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Child Health 2014 Mar; 9(1):5-99.
Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families.To assess outcomes for women and babies of different home-visiting schedules during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits, the duration (when visits ended) and intensity, and on different types of home-visiting interventions.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-RCTs) comparing different types of home-visiting interventions enrolling participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth). We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period) and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups. (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems).Study eligibility was assessed by at least two review authors. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias were carried out independently by at least two review authors. Data were entered into Review Manager software.We included data from 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, and in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge. The interventions and control conditions varied considerably across studies with trials focusing on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus fewer postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules involving different models of care (three studies), and home versus hospital clinic postnatal check-ups (four studies). In all but two of the included studies, postnatal care at home was delivered by healthcare professionals. The aim of all interventions was broadly to assess the wellbeing of mothers and babies, and to provide education and support, although some interventions had more specific aims such as to encourage breastfeeding, or to provide practical support. For most of our outcomes only one or two studies provided data, and overall results were inconsistent. There was no evidence that home visits were associated with improvements in maternal and neonatal mortality, and no strong evidence that more postnatal visits at home were associated with improvements in maternal health. More intensive schedules of home visits did not appear to improve maternal psychological health and results from two studies suggested that women receiving more visits had higher mean depression scores. The reason for this finding was not clear. There was some evidence that postnatal care at home may reduce infant health service utilisation in the weeks following the birth, and that more home visits may encourage more women to exclusively breastfeed their babies. There was some evidence that home visits are associated with increased maternal satisfaction with postnatal care.Overall, findings were inconsistent. Postnatal home visits may promote infant health and maternal satisfaction. However, the frequency, timing, duration and intensity of such postnatal care visits should be based upon local needs. Further well designed RCTs evaluating this complex intervention will be required to formulate the optimal package.Home visits in the early period after the birth of a baby Health problems for mothers and babies commonly occur or become apparent in the weeks following the birth. For the mothers these include postpartum haemorrhage, fever and infection, abdominal and back pain, abnormal discharge, thromboembolism, and urinary tract complications, as well as psychological and mental health problems such as postnatal depression. Mothers may also need support to establish breastfeeding. Babies are at risk of death related to infections, asphyxia, and preterm birth. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the early postpartum period may prevent health problems from becoming long-term, with effects on women, their babies, and their families. This review looked at different home-visiting schedules in the weeks following the birth. We included 12 randomised trials with data for more than 11,000 women. Some trials focused on physical checks of the mother and newborn, while others provided support for breastfeeding, and one included the provision of practical support with housework and childcare. They were carried out in both high-resource countries and low-resource settings where women receiving usual care may not have received additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge. The trials focused on three broad types of comparisons: schedules involving more versus less postnatal home visits (five studies), schedules involving different models of care (three studies), and home versus hospital clinic postnatal check-ups (four studies). In all but two of the included studies postnatal care at home was delivered by healthcare professionals. For most of our outcomes only one or two studies provided data and overall results were inconsistent. There was no evidence that home visits were associated with reduced newborn deaths or serious health problems for the mothers. Women's physical and psychological health were not improved with more intensive schedules of home visits. Overall, babies were less likely to have emergency medical care if their mothers received more postnatal home visits. More home visits may have encouraged more women to exclusively breastfeed their babies. The different outcomes reported in different studies, how the outcomes were measured, and the considerable variation in the interventions and control conditions across studies were limitations of this review. The studies were of mixed quality as regards risk of bias. More research is needed before any particular schedule of postnatal care can be recommended.
- Botulinum toxin A injection for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to spinal cord injury: Multi-institutional experience in Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Urol 2014 Nov 18.
To examine the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) injection into the bladder wall for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity secondary to spinal cord injury in Japanese patients.We enrolled Japanese spinal cord injury patients with cystometrically confirmed neurogenic detrusor overactivity who experienced urinary incontinence at least once a week either because they were refractory to anticholinergics or had to discontinue treatment because of adverse events. Patients received 200 units of onabotulinumtoxinA injected into the bladder wall after a 2-week washout of anticholinergics, and urodynamic variables were assessed before and 1 month after injection. Catheterization and urinary incontinence data, as well as International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form scores, were assessed before injection and every month thereafter until the cessation of treatment effects.The study enrolled 19 patients (13 men, six women, age range 22-67 years). One month after injection, the mean number of urinary incontinence episodes decreased from 4.3 to 1.5 times/day (P = 0.004), and the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 100 mL to 296 mL (P = 0.0004). The rate of effective cases whose daily urinary incontinence frequency was decreased to less than 50% was 74%. The duration of efficacy without anticholinergic medication ranged from 3 to 12 months (median 8.5 months). Clinically significant adverse events were not observed.The present findings show the efficacy and tolerability of onabotulinumtoxinA injection for the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity in Japanese spinal cord injury patients.
- A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Solifenacin Succinate in Patients with Urinary Frequency with or without Urgency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(11):e112063.
Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency.This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), OAB Symptom Score (OABSS), and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW) questionnaire.Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9%) completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125). Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of -2.49±0.35 (mean ± standard error) and -2.63±0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was -1.14, which is smaller than the -0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well.It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472.
- Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(11):e111949.
Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population.We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time.Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass.Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.
- [Clinical observation on laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation assisted enucleation for the renal epithelial angimyolipoma]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Aug 13; 94(30):2359-62.
To explore the clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial angiomyolipoma (EAML) and examine the clinical efficacy and prognosis of laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted enucleation.The clinicopathological data of 7 patients with renal EAML undergoing laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted enucleation were reviewed from April 2009 to June 2012. And the clinical efficacy and prognosis of laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted enucleation were analyzed.Laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted enucleation was successfully performed in all cases without postoperative bleeding, ureteral obstruction, chronic renal insufficiency or urinary leakage. The mean operative duration was 110 min. Renal pedicles were blocked in 4 patients with a mean blockage time of 9 min. The mean intraoperative bleeding was 90 ml. No blood transfusion was required. The absolute bedrest time was 1-3 days and the drainage tube implanted for 3.8 days. Postoperative pathology showed that all cases were EAML. Immunohistochemistry showed HMB-45(+) and small muscle action(+) and creatine kinase(-) in epithelioid cells. During a mean follow-up period of 1.8 years, none of them had local tumor recurrence, chronic renal insufficiency or other complications.Renal EAML is a rare subtype of angiomyolipoma without specific clinical and imaging features. And its definite confirmation depends on pathology. Laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted enucleation is both safe and effective in the treatment of renal EAML with pseudocapsule.
- Angiotensin Blockade in Late Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- N Engl J Med 2014 Nov 15.
Background Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. Results There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril-telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. Conclusions Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline in the estimated GFR. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study B] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01885559 .).
- Acupuncture for overactive bladder in female adult: a randomized controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Urol 2014 Nov 16.
To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating female adult with overactive bladder.After we excluded other causes for storage symptoms, a total of 240 consecutive female patients with overactive bladder were enrolled and completed all aspects of this prospective randomized controlled trial, of which 118 cases were randomly assigned to receive a weekly acupuncture treatment (intervention group), while the other 122 cases were given a pharmacological treatment of oral tolterodine tartrate 2 mg twice daily (control group) for 4 weeks. Data on urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency, nocturia episodes and voided volume were collected and statistically analyzed before and after 4 weekly acupuncture treatments or 4 weeks' pharmacological treatment using a 3-day micturition diary.The two groups of female patients with overactive bladder were given treatment with weekly acupuncture (n = 118), oral tolterodine tartrate (n = 122) for 4 weeks respectively. At weeks 4, subjects in both intervention and control groups had significant decreases in number of urinary urgency episodes, incontinence episodes, daytime frequency, nocturia episodes and increase in volume voided per micturition without a significant difference in the changes of overactive bladder symptoms between the groups. There were no serious adverse events during the study.This randomized controlled trial demonstrates that acupuncture is safe with significant improvements in patient assessment of overactive bladder symptoms and may be considered a clinically alternative treatment for overactive bladder in female adult.