- A Systematic Review of Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Epidemiological, Prediction and Aetiological Research Literature. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(10):e0163721
- CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an extensive review of the current state of the literature to inform the strategy for future interrogation of existing and newly described biomarkers for T2D. Many biomarkers have been reported to be associated with the risk of developing T2D. The evidence of their value in adding to understanding of causal pathways to disease is very limited so far. The utility of most biomarkers remains largely unknown in clinical prediction. Future research should focus on providing good genetic instruments across consortia for possible biomarkers in Mendelian randomisation, prioritising biomarkers for measurement in large-scale cohort studies and examining predictive utility of biomarkers for a given context.
- Overactive bladder in women. [Journal Article]
- NSNurs Stand 2016 Oct 26; 31(9):52-63
- Overactive bladder in women is a common chronic condition of urinary storage, affecting a significant proportion of the population. It is defined as a symptom diagnosis that indicates lower urinary t...
Overactive bladder in women is a common chronic condition of urinary storage, affecting a significant proportion of the population. It is defined as a symptom diagnosis that indicates lower urinary tract dysfunction, in which patients experience urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia. The diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder are straightforward and systematic in line with national and international guidelines. However, women are required to disclose their bladder symptoms, and be motivated to make changes to their lifestyle to see improvements. This article focuses specifically on idiopathic detrusor overactivity; its diagnosis, treatment and psychological effects on women. Healthcare professionals require an understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment rationale for the condition to ensure appropriate management strategies for patients presenting to primary and secondary care are implemented.
- Urethral catheters and medical malpractice: a legal database review from 1965 to 2015. [Journal Article]
- TATransl Androl Urol 2016; 5(5):762-773
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread usage of UC over a 50-year period, lawsuits centered on UC misuse are rare at the state and federal court levels. Of litigated cases, urologists are commonly involved yet have successful defenses.
- Lynch syndrome and exposure to aristolochic acid in upper-tract urothelial carcinoma: its clinical impact? [Review]
- TATransl Androl Urol 2016; 5(5):648-654
- The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A sys...
The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) using the following keywords: epidemiology, risk factor, AA, Balkan nephropathy (BNe), LS, hereditary cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), mismatch repair genes, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, renal pelvis, ureter, Amsterdam criteria, genetic counselling, mismatch repair genes, genetic instability, microsatellite, and Bethesda guidelines. LS is a specific risk for UTUC, which is the third most frequent cancer (in its tumor spectrum) after colon and uterine lesions. Mutation of the MSH2 gene is the most commonly described cause of UTUC in LS. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and is guided by Bethesda and Amsterdam criteria. It is secondarily confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor and a search for gene mutations. The presence of LS in patients with UTUC is a favorable prognosis factor for survival during follow-ups. AA is a specific environmental risk factor for UTUC and tubulo-interstitial nephropathy. It has been involved in the development of nephropathies in link with the Balkan disease and intake of Chinese herbal medicine. More broadly, the use of traditional plant medicines from the genus Aristolochia has created worldwide public-health concerns. UTUCs share common risk factors with other urothelial carcinomas such as tobacco or occupational exposure. However, these tumors have also specific risk factors such as AA exposure and LS that clinicians should be aware of because of their clinical implication in further management and follow-up.
- Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based urine metabolome study in children for inborn errors of metabolism: An Indian experience. [Journal Article]
- CBClin Biochem 2016 Oct 23
- CONCLUSIONS: GC/MS with one-step metabolomics enables quick detection, accurate identification, and precise quantification of a wide range of urinary markers that may not be discovered using existing newborn screening programs. The technique is effective as a second-tier test to other established screening technologies, as well as one-step primary screening tool for a wide spectrum of IEM.
- Preclinical and Healthy Volunteer Studies of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions between Tenapanor and Phosphate Binders. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2016 Sep 22
- Tenapanor (RDX5791, AZD1722), a first-in-class small molecule with minimal systemic availability, is an inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3. Tenapanor acts locally in the gut where i...
Tenapanor (RDX5791, AZD1722), a first-in-class small molecule with minimal systemic availability, is an inhibitor of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3. Tenapanor acts locally in the gut where it reduces absorption of sodium and phosphate. It is being studied in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis, who are often administered phosphate binders such as sevelamer to help control hyperphosphatemia. We investigated whether co-administration of tenapanor with phosphate binders (sevelamer or calcium-based binders) impacts on the pharmacodynamic effects of tenapanor. In vitro studies suggested a binding interaction between tenapanor and sevelamer, but this did not translate into altered pharmacodynamic effects in rats. An open-label, two-way crossover study was then conducted in healthy volunteers (NCT02346890). This showed that 4 days' treatment with tenapanor hydrochloride (15 mg twice daily) with or without sevelamer carbonate (800 mg three times daily) resulted in comparable 24-hour stool and urinary sodium and phosphorus levels. Stool frequency, consistency, and weight were also comparable between the treatments. These results suggest that the binding between sevelamer and tenapanor observed in vitro does not translate into altered pharmacodynamic effects in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Surgical Outcome after Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty: A Retrospective Study of 475 Transgender Women. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg 2016; 138(5):999-1007
- CONCLUSIONS: Successful vaginal construction without the need for secondary functional reoperations was achieved in the majority of patients. Intraoperative complications are scarce. Postoperative complications occur frequently but are generally minor and easily treated.
- The incidence rate and characteristics of clinically diagnosed defecatory disorders in the community. [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2016; 28(11):1690-1697
- CONCLUSIONS: Among constipated patients, DD are fourfold more common in women than men and often associated with IBS and psychiatric diagnoses.
- Clinical Presentations and Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections. [Journal Article]
- MSMicrobiol Spectr 2016; 4(5)
- Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of sympt...
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs. Differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated UTIs has implications for therapy because the risks of complications or treatment failure are increased for patients with a complicated UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of a positive urine culture collected from a patient without symptoms of a UTI. Concerning the complicated UTI, it is possible to make a differentiation between UTI with systemic symptoms (febrile UTI) and UTI in a host, which carries an increased risk to develop complications of this UTI. Febrile UTIs are urosepsis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis. A complicated host is defined as one that has an increased risk for complications, to which the following groups belong: men, pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or those who have an anatomical or functional abnormality of the urogenital tract (e.g., spinal cord-injury patients, renal stones, urinary catheter).
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- Randomized clinical trial of sacral nerve stimulation for refractory constipation. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Surg 2016 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the recommendation of permanent implantation of a pulse generator in patients with refractory constipation who initially responded to temporary nerve stimulation. Registration number: NCT01629303 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).