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Urology AND Cancer, testicular [keywords]
- Can Testis-Sparing Surgery for Small Testicular Masses Be Considered a Valid Alternative to Radical Orchiectomy? A Prospective Single-Center Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Genitourin Cancer 2013 Jun 10.
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in small testicular masses (STMs) treated with testis-sparing surgery (TSS) with intraoperative frozen section analysis and to assess the safety of this surgical procedure.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:From January 2009 to January 2013, 15 consecutive patients underwent TSS for STMs in a third-referral academic institution. Every patient was preoperatively evaluated with clinical examination and scrotal ultrasonography (US) performed by the same radiologist. Tumor markers were assessed in all cases. All the procedures were performed through inguinal access; the small mass was identified by straight palpation of the testis or with intraoperative ultrasonography (IUS). Frozen-section examination (FSE) was performed in all patients in association with multiple biopsies of the surrounding tissue. Follow-up was carried out in all patients with an ultrasonographic exploration at 6 and 12 months.
RESULTS:Preoperative tumor markers were normal in all patients. The mean operative time was 90 ± 31 minutes. The warm ischemia time was 18 ± 3 minutes. The mean size on US was 9.5 ± 4.4 mm. FSE results were confirmed by the final pathologic analysis in 14 patients. At final pathologic analysis, 6 patients (40%) were found not to have tumors, another 7 patients (46.7%) had benign neoplasms, and malignant tumor was found in only 2 patients (13.3%). There was no disease recurrence after a mean follow-up of 19.2 ± 11.5 months.
CONCLUSION:Our experience shows that TSS performed for STMs may represent a safe procedure with optimal results in terms of functional and oncologic end points.
- [A suspected case of extra-gonadal germ cell tumor complicated with choriocarcinoma syndrome]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hinyokika Kiyo 2013 May; 59(5):309-14.
Our patient was a 31-year-old man who presented with right flank pain. Computed tomography revealed multiple tumors in the liver and lungs, with marked elevation of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. In addition, no testicular abnormalities were detected by palpation or ultrasonography. On the bases of these results, the patient was diagnosed with extragonadal germ cell tumor and was therefore started on chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the result of a subsequent blood test showed marked pancytopenia at the initial stage of treatment. We speculated that the cause of anemia was not only bone marrow suppression but also intratumoral hemorrhage, collectively termed choriocarcinoma syndrome. After conservative treatment involving blood transfusion and administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, he recovered. After several chemotherapy sessions, the levels of all tumor markers returned to normal. Finally, the patient underwent hepatectomy for residual tumors ; but, the resected specimen showed no viable cancer cells. Currently, the patient is free from disease since the last chemotherapy session, administered 5 months ago.
- Undescended testis: The underlying mechanisms and the effects on germ cells that cause infertility and cancer. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Surg 2013 May; 48(5):903-8.
Testicular descent is a complex morphological process that occurs in at least 2 stages, with different hormonal control. Insl3 controls the first step of gubernacular enlargement, although the abnormality long gubernacular cord in persistent Műllerian duct syndrome remains unexplained. Androgens control inguinoscrotal migration, which may be triggered by local signalling from the mammary line, and which requires the genitofemoral nerve. However, there is still much to learn about this phase, which when abnormal frequently leads to cryptorchidism. Orchidopexy is being recommended in the first year of age, because increasing research suggests that the stem cells for spermatogenesis form between 3 and 9 months, with surgery aiming to permit this normally, although this is not yet proven. Acquired cryptorchidism is now becoming accepted and is likely to be caused by inadequate elongation of the postnatal spermatic cord. It is not yet known whether orchidopexy is always needed, as this remains controversial.
- Testicular cancer: what the radiologist needs to know. [Journal Article]
- AJR Am J Roentgenol 2013 Jun; 200(6):1215-25.
OBJECTIVE.The purpose of this article is to review current imaging techniques and evolving technologies that are being used for detection and management of testicular cancer.
CONCLUSION.The primary goal of cancer imaging is accurate disease characterization at diagnosis and through all stages of management. Knowledge of the disease and diagnostic performance characteristics of each technique is critical to identify the appropriate modality for staging disease and to monitor for treatment response and recurrence that may dictate further intervention.
- Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens in diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- J Transl Med 2013.:123.
Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare and lethal disease. The most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, the development of novel forms of therapy is urgently required. Specific immunotherapy generating immune responses directed against antigen predominantly expressed by cancer cells such as cancer-testis antigens (CTA) may provide a valid alternative treatment for patients bearing PTL, alone or in combination with current therapies.Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 77B recognizing MAGE-A1, 57B recognizing an epitope shared by multiple MAGE-A CTA (multi-MAGE-A specific) and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 were used for immunohistochemical staining of 27 PTL, including 24 DLBCL.Expression of MAGE-A1 was infrequently detectable in DLBCL specimens (12.50%), whereas multi-MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific reagents stained the cytoplasms of tumor cells in DLBCL specimens with higher frequencies (54.17% and 37.50%, respectively) with different expression levels.These results suggest that MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1, possibly in combination with other CTA, might be used as targets for specific immunotherapy in DLBCL.
- Disappearance of a major thrombus in the brachiocephalic vein without anticoagulant therapy in a patient with seminoma: A case report. [Journal Article]
- Can Urol Assoc J 2013 Mar; 7(3-4):E241-3.
This is the first case report describing brachiocephalic vein thrombosis without compression by a metastatic tumour during chemotherapy for testicular cancer. According to previous reports of testicular cancer patients with a major thrombus, anticoagulant therapy was required to resolve all cases. However, in the present case, a major thrombus in the brachiocephalic vein disappeared without anticoagulant therapy. This 42-year-old man was diagnosed with testicular seminoma and multiple metastases to the para-aortic lymph nodes. After 3 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) therapy, a major thrombus in the right brachiocephalic vein was recognized on a computed tomography (CT) scan. Although no anticoagulant therapy was undertaken, the thrombus in the right brachiocephalic vein was no longer visible on CT after the fourth cycle of PEB therapy.
- Clinical significance of amyloid precursor protein in patients with testicular germ cell tumor. [Journal Article]
- Adv Urol 2013.:348438.
Introduction.The biological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not well understood, especially in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity (IR) and expression of APP in TGCTs and evaluated its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods. We performed an analysis of immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of APP in 64 testicular specimens and 21 snap-frozen samples obtained from 1985 to 2004. We then evaluated the association between APP expression and clinicopathological status in TGCTs.
Results.Positive APP IR was observed in 9.8% (4/41) of seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCTs) and 39.1% (9/23) of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NGCTs). NGCTs showed significantly more cases of positive IR (P = 0.00870) and a higher mRNA expression level compared with those of SGCTs (P = 0.0140). Positive APP IR was also significantly associated with α -fetoprotein ( α FP) elevation (P = 0.00870) and venous invasion (P = 0.0414).
Conclusion.We observed an elevated APP expression in TGCTs, especially in NGCTs. APP may be associated with a more aggressive cancer in TGCTs.
- Multiple intratesticular cysts. [Journal Article]
- World J Mens Health 2013 Apr; 31(1):79-82.
Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected.
- Interferon-α Treatment for Growing Teratoma Syndrome of the Testis. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013 Jan; 3(1):40-5.
A 23-year-old man with a right scrotal mass and back pain was referred for further treatment after right radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer. CT scans brought by the patient showed extensive metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes with no lung involvement. α-Fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were elevated preoperatively (384 ng/ml and 112 mIU/ml, respectively). Confirmation of the histopathologic examination revealed a mixed germ cell tumor (95% immature teratoma and 5% embryonal carcinoma). We started the patient on chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). After a single course, tumor markers began to normalize, but there was radiologic evidence of continued growth of the retroperitoneal mass and new metastases in the lung. The patient was given 2 courses of salvage chemotherapy with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (VIP). However, the mass and lung metastases continued to progress, and the patient was growing rapidly intolerant of the side effects of treatment (i.e., nausea, appetite loss, and pancytopenia). After thorough discussion with the patient and his family, we decided to start the patient on interferon (IFN)-α therapy. Natural, nonrecombinant IFN-α (OIF, Otsuka, Japan) 5,000,000 IU was administered twice weekly with approval of the ethics committee of our institution. The patient responded moderately with marked deceleration of tumor growth and stabilization of the lung metastases. He is alive and well at 16 months on IFN-α therapy.
- Tumor in undescended intrapelvic testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy: a case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2013.:166.
Testicular cancer is a rare disease. The incidence of testicular cancer in undescended testicles is of 3 to 48 times greater than in the general population. In the developed countries, the existence of undescended testicles in the adult population is rare, due to systematic practice of elective orchidopexy before the second year of life and orchiectomy in post adolescent males with undescended testicles. Despite these prevention measures, there are still some isolated cases of intra-abdominal testicular tumors in adults. We report a case of testicular cancer in cryptorchid testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy.We report a case of a 46 year old fertile man with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism who presented with a palpable left supraclavicular mass and absence of the right testicle. On investigations an intrapelvic testis tumor was diagnosed. Laparotomy and complete excision was carried out. The possible association between the undescended testis and cancer transformations is briefly discussed.Testicular cancer in undescended testicles should not be ignored. Only early diagnosis and lower of testis in scrotumprevent such clinical forms.