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Urology AND Polyuria [keywords]
- The PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway Is Overactivated in Primary Aldosteronism. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e62399.
To date, the available non-invasive remedies for primary aldosteronism are not satisfactory in clinical practice. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Ks)/protein kinase B (PKB or AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is essential for tumorigenesis and metastasis in many types of human tumors, including renal cancer, adrenal carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. The possibility that this pathway is also necessary for the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism has not yet been explored. To answer this question, we investigated the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in normal adrenal glands (NAGs), primary aldosteronism (PA) patients and NCI-H295R cells. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between January 2005 and December 2011, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 patients with PA. We compared clinical characteristics (age, gender and biochemical data) and the expression of phospho-AKT (p-AKT), phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR), phospho-S6 (p-S6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting, analyzing 30 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs), 15 idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) tissues and 12 NAGs following nephrectomy for renal tumors (control group). Compared with the control group, most of the PA patients presented with polydipsia, polyuria, resistant hypertension, profound hypokalemia, hyperaldosteronemia and decreased plasma renin activity. Compared with normal zona glomerulosa, the levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-S6 and VEGF were significantly upregulated in APA and IHA. No significant differences were found between APA and IHA in the expression of these proteins. Additionally, positive correlations existed between the plasma aldosterone levels and the expression of p-AKT and p-mTOR. In vitro studies showed that mTOR inhibitor rapamycin could inhibit cell proliferation in NCI-H295R cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, this inhibitor also decreased aldosterone secretion.Our data suggest that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which was overactivated in APA and IHA compared with normal zona glomerulosa, may mediate aldosterone hypersecretion and participate in the development of PA.
- Short-term Effects of a Systematized Bladder Training Program for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder: A Prospective Study. [Journal Article]
- Int Neurourol J 2013 Mar; 17(1):11-7.
This study was to investigate whether a systematized bladder training (BT) program is effective for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB).A prospective study was conducted on 105 patients with OAB from March 2009 to November 2011. We developed a 30 minutes BT program, which consisted of first, refraining from going to the bathroom after feeling an urge to void, second, in order to stop thinking about voiding, ceasing action and thought temporarily, and third, performing pelvic floor exercises 5 to 6 times. Before and after BT, the patients filled out voiding diaries as well as the following questionnaires; International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for overactive bladder (ICIQ-OAB), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q), the short form 36-item health survey (SF-36) questionnaire, the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire, and a patients' perception of treatment benefit (PPTB).A final analysis was performed from on 85 patients (38 male, 47 female) with idiopathic OAB. After the first BT, the results of the ICIQ-OAB showed improvement in frequency, nocturia, and urgency (P<0.05), and all domains of IPSS questionnaires showed significant improvement (P<0.05). Among the SF-36 domains, the role-physical domain showed significant improvement after the first BT, and the general health domain showed significant improvement after the second. The voiding diaries showed statistically significant changes in maximal voided volume after the first BT, and nocturia index and nocturnal polyuria index after the second BT. According to the PPTB questionnaire, the perceived usefulness of BT increased after each session, and almost all of the patients replied that BT improved their symptoms.Our results demonstrated that BT was effective in improving many OAB related symptoms and quality of life in patients with idiopathic OAB. More clinical application of BT could be implemented in the future.
- Diabetic plasticity of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic and P2X-mediated rat bladder contractions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Res Bull 2013 Apr 2.:40-45.
We investigated the plasticity effects of diabetes mellitus and diuresis on the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) and purinergic (P2X-type) contractile responses in longitudinal rat bladder strips. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received streptozotocin to induce diabetes, or sucrose in water to induce diuresis as a control condition for polyuria. Experiments were carried out at four weeks after treatments, using bladders from non-treated rats as control. Urinary bladder strips were electrically stimulated throughout the experiments to generate neurally evoked contractions (NEC). In all cases, P2X-mediated purinergic contractions were evaluated at the beginning and end of the stimulations with α,β-methylene-adenosine triphosphate (α,βMeATP). The NANC responses were assessed by using two independent protocols. First, cholinergic receptors were activated with carbachol (CCh), followed by inhibition of the muscarinic component with atropine. In the second protocol, the application order for CCh and atropine was reversed. The NANC response, unmasked with the application of atropine, and the P2X purinergic contractions were analyzed. NANC contractions in diabetic bladder strips are more resistant to the desensitizing effects caused by activation of cholinergic receptors. In early stages of experimental diabetes, NANC responses in diabetic strips are less sensitive to functional inhibition mediated by the cholinergic activation. However, P2X-mediated purinergic contractions are more sensitive to desensitization in diabetic or diuretic bladders. For instance preventing muscarinic receptor activation with atropine does not counteract the desensitization of purinergic contractions in either diabetic or diuretic strips. We suggest that diabetes may induce a plasticity of the NANC and P2X-mediated bladder contractile responses. The first one may be associated with diabetic neuropathic damage to bladder nerves, while impaired P2X purinergic contractions might be associated with detrusor hypertrophy observed in diabetic and diuretic strips.
- Influence of type of nocturia and lower urinary tract symptoms on therapeutic outcome in women treated with desmopressin. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Urol 2013 Feb; 54(2):95-9.
To investigate the type of nocturia and concomitant voiding dysfunction (VD) and the effect of desmopressin treatment on nocturia in women.We reviewed 84 women who experienced more than 2 nocturia episodes as recorded on a pretreatment frequency volume chart and who were treated with desmopressin. All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, urinalysis, International Prostate Symptom Score assessment, completion of a urinary sensation scale, and completion of a 3 day frequency volume chart. Nocturia was divided into nocturnal polyuria (NP), reduced nocturnal bladder capacity (RNBC), and mixed type. After treatment with desmopressin, a reduction in nocturia of over 50% compared with baseline was regarded as effective.Among 84 women, the most common concomitant VD was overactive bladder (OAB, 60.7%). NP was observed in 70.2% (59/84) of the women, RNBC in 7.1% (6/84), and mixed type in 22.6% (19/84). After medication with desmopressin, 73 women (86.9%) showed a significantly reduced number of nocturia episodes (1.4±1.5) compared with baseline (3.7±1.3, p<0.05). Eleven women (13.1%) did not show improvement. Of the 73 women who showed improvement, 41 women showed a reduction of more than 50% over baseline, and these women had a lower baseline urgency grade.In the majority of women, nocturia coexisted with other VD such as OAB. Treatment with desmopressin effectively reduced the nocturia. However, other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as urgency may reduce the effect of desmopressin. Therefore, consideration of concomitant LUTS seems to be necessary to increase the treatment effect of desmopressin on nocturia in women.
- EAU Guidelines on the Treatment and Follow-up of Non-neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Including Benign Prostatic Obstruction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Urol 2013 Mar 13.
OBJECTIVE:To present a summary of the 2013 version of the European Association of Urology guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a literature search in computer databases for relevant articles published between 1966 and 31 October 2012. The Oxford classification system (2001) was used to determine the level of evidence for each article and to assign the grade of recommendation for each treatment modality. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Men with mild symptoms are suitable for watchful waiting. All men with bothersome LUTS should be offered lifestyle advice prior to or concurrent with any treatment. Men with bothersome moderate-to-severe LUTS quickly benefit from α1-blockers. Men with enlarged prostates, especially those >40ml, profit from 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) that slowly reduce LUTS and the probability of urinary retention or the need for surgery. Antimuscarinics might be considered for patients who have predominant bladder storage symptoms. The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil can quickly reduce LUTS to a similar extent as α1-blockers, and it also improves erectile dysfunction. Desmopressin can be used in men with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Treatment with an α1-blocker and 5-ARI (in men with enlarged prostates) or antimuscarinics (with persistent storage symptoms) combines the positive effects of either drug class to achieve greater efficacy. Prostate surgery is indicated in men with absolute indications or drug treatment-resistant LUTS due to benign prostatic obstruction. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current standard operation for men with prostates 30-80ml, whereas open surgery or transurethral holmium laser enucleation is appropriate for men with prostates >80ml. Alternatives for monopolar TURP include bipolar TURP and transurethral incision of the prostate (for glands <30ml) and laser treatments. Transurethral microwave therapy and transurethral needle ablation are effective minimally invasive treatments with higher retreatment rates compared with TURP. Prostate stents are an alternative to catheterisation for men unfit for surgery. Ethanol or botulinum toxin injections into the prostate are still experimental.
CONCLUSIONS:These symptom-oriented guidelines provide practical guidance for the management of men experiencing LUTS. The full version is available online (www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/12_Male_LUTS.pdf).
- Antidiuretic effect of antimuscarinic agents in rat model depends on C-fibre afferent nerves in the bladder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJU Int 2013 Feb 22.
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Antichollnergic agents are anticipated to diminish storage symptoms, as well as nocturia. Nevertheless, the effect of this treatment on polyuria related to nocturia is not clear. By subgroup analysis of the data set from a phase III clinical trial of antimuscarinic agent for OAB patients in Japan, imidafenacin was found to improve nocturia with a reduction in nocturnal polyuria. This study adds the effects and underlying mechanism of antimuscarinic agents decreasing urine production through inhibition of C-fibre in the bladder of water-leaded rats.
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of antimuscarinic agents used to decrease in urine production in water-loaded rats.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Urine production was measured using a cystostomy catheter in female Sprague-Dawley rats every 2 h. The effect of the antimuscarinic agents atropine, tolterodine and imidafenacin on urine production was investigated under water-loaded conditions, which were induced by i.p. injection of 15 mL saline. Blood samples were collected to determine the levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone (ALD), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) before, and 2 and 8 h after, antimuscarinic agent administration. To induce desensitization of C-fibre afferent nerves, resiniferatoxin (RTX)was injected s.c. or intravesically 2 days before experiments.
RESULTS:Urine production increased and reached its maximum 2 h after 15 mL saline injection. Imidafenacin and tolterodine decreased urine production in water-loaded rats, but ADH, ALD, ANP and BNP levels were not different between imidafenacin-treated and vehicle-treated rats. The inhibitory effect on urine production was not found in RTX-treated rats. Atropine did not reduce urine production.
CONCLUSION:These results suggest that antimuscarinic agents decrease urine volume through C-fibres in the bladder; thus, antimuscarinics with inhibitory effects on C-fibres could be beneficial for nocturia with nocturnal polyuria.
- Desmopressin Add-On Therapy for Refractory Nocturia in Men Receiving α-Blockers for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Urol 2013 Jan 25.
PURPOSE:Alpha-blockers improve lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic obstruction. Nocturia, a storage symptom, is a common complaint in men. However, it does not fully respond to α-blocker therapy, likely due to its multifactorial pathophysiology. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of desmopressin as add-on therapy for refractory nocturia in men previously treated with an α-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eligible patients were men 50 years old or older with lower urinary tract symptoms and persistent nocturia despite α-blocker treatment for a minimum of 4 weeks. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 4-week dose titration period and this dose was maintained for 24 weeks. Flow volume charts, International Prostate Symptom Score and total subscores, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine volume were assessed.
RESULTS:A total of 216 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these patients there were 158 (76%) with nocturnal polyuria, 15 (7.2%) with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and 35 (16.8%) with nocturia due to both causes. The number of nocturnal voids significantly decreased from a baseline mean of 7.0 to 5.7 episodes for 3 days at the 24-week visit. The average International Prostate Symptom Score total and subscore significantly decreased by 4 weeks and were maintained at 24 weeks. In patients younger than 65 years, International Prostate Symptom Score voiding subscores were significantly improved at 24 weeks compared to those age 65 years or older.
CONCLUSIONS:Desmopressin add-on therapy for refractory nocturia in men previously treated with an α-blocker for lower urinary tract symptoms improved voiding symptoms as well as nocturia, storage symptoms.
- Prevalence, incidence, and resolution of nocturnal polyuria in a longitudinal community-based study in older men: the Krimpen study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Eur Urol 2013 Mar; 63(3):542-7.
Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is common in older men and can lead to nocturia. However, no longitudinal data are available on the natural history of NP.To determine prevalence, incidence, and resolution rates of NP.A longitudinal, community-based study was conducted among 1688 men aged 50-78 yr in Krimpen aan den IJssel, The Netherlands (reference date: 1995), with planned follow-up rounds at 2, 4, and 6 yr. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: NP was determined with frequency-volume charts. Two definitions of NP were used: (1) a nocturnal urine production (NUP) of >90 ml/h (NUP90) and (2) the nocturnal voided volume plus first morning void being >33% of the 24-h voided volume (NUV33). Nocturia was defined as two or more voids per night. We determined the prevalence of NP at each study round. At first follow-up, we determined the incidence in men without baseline NP and the resolution in men with baseline NP. Prevalence of NP in men with or without nocturia was also determined.At baseline, the prevalence of NUP90 was 15.0% and increased to 21.7% after 6.5 yr, whereas the prevalence of NUV33 was 77.8% at baseline and 80.5% after 6.5 yr. At 2.1 yr of follow-up, the incidences of NUP90 and NUV33 were 13.6% and 60.3%, respectively, and the resolution rates were 57.0% and 17.8%, respectively. Because of this fluctuation in NP, no reliable long-term incidences could be calculated. At baseline, NUP90 was prevalent in 27.7% of men with nocturia and in 8.0% of those without nocturia. At baseline, NUV33 was prevalent in 91.9% of men with nocturia and in 70.1% of men without nocturia.Due to the fluctuation of NP, it is advisable to first determine its chronicity and cause before starting treatment. Because of the high prevalence of NP in men without nocturia, NUV33 should be reconsidered as a discriminative definition of NP.
- Roles of polyuria and hyperglycemia in bladder dysfunction in diabetes. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Urol 2013 Mar; 189(3):1130-6.
Diabetes mellitus causes diabetic bladder dysfunction. We identified the pathogenic roles of polyuria and hyperglycemia in diabetic bladder dysfunction in rats.A total of 72 female Sprague-Dawley® rats were divided into 6 groups, including age matched controls, and rats with sham urinary diversion, urinary diversion, streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus after sham urinary diversion, streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus after urinary diversion and 5% sucrose induced diuresis after sham urinary diversion. Urinary diversion was performed by ureterovaginostomy 10 days before diabetes mellitus induction. Animals were evaluated 20 weeks after diabetes mellitus or diuresis induction. We measured 24-hour drinking and voiding volumes, and cystometry. Bladders were harvested to quantify smooth muscle, urothelium and collagen. We measured nitrotyrosine and Mn superoxide dismutase in the bladder.Diabetes and diuresis caused increases in drinking and voiding volume, and bladder weight. Bladder weight decreased in the urinary diversion group and the urinary diversion plus diabetes group. The intercontractile interval, voided volume and compliance increased in the diuresis and diabetes groups, decreased in the urinary diversion group and further decreased in the urinary diversion plus diabetes group. Total cross-sectional tissue, smooth muscle and urothelium areas increased in the diuresis and diabetes groups, and decreased in the urinary diversion and urinary diversion plus diabetes groups. As a percent of total tissue area, collagen decreased in the diuresis and diabetes groups, and increased in the urinary diversion and urinary diversion plus diabetes groups. Smooth muscle and urothelium decreased in the urinary diversion and urinary diversion plus diabetes groups. Nitrotyrosine and Mn superoxide dismutase increased in rats with diabetes and urinary diversion plus diabetes.Polyuria induced bladder hypertrophy, while hyperglycemia induced substantial oxidative stress in the bladder, which may have a pathogenic role in late stage diabetic bladder dysfunction.
- A contemporary assessment of nocturia: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management--a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Eur Urol 2012 Nov; 62(5):877-90.
Nocturia is a common urologic symptom that has been covered in a variety of reported studies in the literature but is not specifically covered in current guidelines.To comprehensively review the literature pertaining to the definition, etiologies, and consequences of nocturia and assess the evidence supporting the use of conservative medical and interventional therapy.A literature search was conducted using the keyword nocturia, restricted to articles in the English language, after 2000 and before April 2012, in PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Regarding treatment modalities, studies were included only if nocturia was a primary end point and if the studies were designed as randomized controlled trials without limit of date. When suitable, a meta-analysis was conducted. Papers covering treatment options for nocturia specifically related to nonurologic conditions were excluded.Nocturia is still defined as the symptom of wakening from sleep once or more often to void. The prevalence is high in both genders and increases with age. Frequency-volume charts, which are the pivotal tool of clinical assessment, detect 24-h polyuria, nocturnal polyuria (NP), or reduced nocturnal bladder capacity and help to target specific nonurologic etiologies. Nocturia is a morbid condition that significantly affects quality of life and increases mortality. Besides behavioral measures, validated treatment options include oral desmopressin, which is superior to placebo in treating NP. While the level of evidence for desmopressin is high, limited data support the use of α1-blockers and antimuscarinics; however, only rarely has nocturia been a primary end point when studying these drug classes, and studies have not consistently controlled for the effect of NP.Our knowledge of nocturia, its etiology, and its management has substantially improved in recent years. The evidence available on the management of nocturia remains limited; contributory factors include (1) the complexity of associated conditions, (2) the underuse of objective evaluation tools, and (3) the lack of specific focus on nocturia in clinical trials.