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Uterine Prolapse [keywords]
- Determinants and management outcomes of pelvic organ prolapse in a low resource setting. [Journal Article]
- Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014 Sep; 4(5):796-801.
The last decade has seen significant progress in understanding of the pathophysiology, anatomy and management modalities of pelvic organ prolapse. A review of the way we manage this entity in a low resource setting has become necessary.The aim of the study is to determine the incidence, risk factors and management modalities of pelvic organ prolapse.A 5-year cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of women who attended the gynecologic clinic in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria and were diagnosed of pelvic organ prolapse was made. Proforma was initially used for data collection before transfer to Epi-info 2008 (v 3.5.1; Epi Info, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA) software.There were 199 cases of pelvic organ prolapse, out of a total gynecologic clinic attendance of 3082, thus giving an incidence of 6.5%. The mean age was 55.5 (15.9) years with a significant association between prolapse and advanced age (P < 0.001). The age range was 22-80 years. The leading determinants were menopause, advanced age, multiparity, chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and prolonged labor. Out of the 147 patients with uterine prolapse, majority, 60.5% (89/147) had third degree prolapse. Vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair was the most common surgery performed. The average duration of hospital stay following surgery was 6.8 (2.9) days and the most common complication was urinary tract infection, 13.5% (27/199). The recurrence rate was 13.5% (27/199). Most of the patients who presented initially with pelvic organ prolapse were lost to follow-up.The incidence of pelvic organ prolapse in this study was 6.5% and the leading determinants of pelvic organ prolapse were - multiparity, menopause, chronic increase in IAP and advanced age. Most were lost to follow-up and a lesser proportion was offered conservative management. Early presentation of women is necessary so that conservative management could be offered if feasible.
- Histopathological audit of 373 nononcological hysterectomies in a teaching hospital. [Journal Article]
- Patholog Res Int 2014.:468715.
Hysterectomy, the most common gynecological surgery, provides a definitive cure to various diseases like DUB (dysfunctional uterine bleeding), leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, prolapse, and malignancy. However, with advent of effective medical and conservative treatment modalities for nononcological causes it is now posing question mark on justification of hysterectomy. Therefore, an audit is required to assess the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of specimen for justification of the procedure. In this study over period of one year (April 2013 to March 2014) 373 hysterectomies specimens were received in the department of pathology for nononcological causes. The age of patients ranged from 22 to 85 years with mean 45 ± 9.2 years. All cases were divided into five categories on the basis of age and audit was done. In this study the most common finding was leiomyoma (43.7%) followed by adenomyosis (19.3%). Almost 50% of hysterectomies causes were justified as preoperative diagnosis matched with histopathology. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with κ value being 0.36. This study highlights that regular audit of surgeries can help improve quality of health care services and provide safe conservative option to patients.
- Vaginal hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse: what is the incidence of concurrent gynecological malignancy? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2014 Oct 8.
Vaginal hysterectomy (VH) is a commonly performed procedure for the operative treatment of uterovaginal prolapse (UVP). The reported incidence of unexpected gynecological cancer in cases of VH for UVP ranges between 0.3 and 0.8 %. Aim of the study is to assess the incidence of malignant and premalignant gynecological histopathological findings among women who underwent a VH for UVP and had a normal preoperative workup.The histopathology reports of women who underwent VH for the treatment of UVP were retrospectively assessed. All women had a history of normal cervical smear tests and a normal preoperative transvaginal scan. Patients with a history of a premalignant or malignant gynecological pathological condition and women with abnormal uterine bleeding were excluded.Overall, 14 out of 333 women who underwent VH (4.2 %) were found to have abnormal histopathological findings of the uterus. Among them, there were 9 cases of endometrial hyperplasia of any type (2.7 %), 1 case of cervical cancer (0.3 %), 1 case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III (0.3 %), and 3 cases of CINI (0.9 %). No cases of endometrial cancer were detected. Among women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy (n = 86) three simple serous cysts (3.5 %) were found, with no cases of ovarian cancer.The incidence of unexpected premalignant or malignant gynecological pathological conditions among asymptomatic women who underwent VH, with a history of normal cervical smear tests and normal preoperative TVS, was low but not negligible. This information should be included in the preoperative counseling of women planning to undergo surgery for UVP.
- Factors that affect early recurrence after prolapse repair by a nonanchored vaginal mesh procedure. [Journal Article]
- Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Sep; 53(3):337-42.
Prosima (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) is a novel procedure for treating pelvic organ prolapse (POP) that uses nonanchored vaginal mesh. However, nonfixation of the mesh may limit effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and limitations of this procedure.From January 2011 through to December 2011, 52 patients with symptomatic POP ≥ Stage 2 undergoing the Prosima procedure at a tertiary hospital were enrolled consecutively in this prospective study. A Data and Safety Monitoring Plan (DSMP) was developed to assess the results.Fifty of the 52 patients (96%) attended the 3-6-month postoperative assessment. Symptom and quality-of-life scores were found to have improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.05). Forty-two patients (84%) underwent successful treatment for POP (Stage 0-1). The other eight patients (16%) were found to have recurrent Stage 2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse, although most of them (5/8) were asymptomatic. The highest morbidity, namely vaginal mesh exposure, occurred in four patients (8%) and was managed as a minor issue. Statistical analysis showed that anatomic recurrence was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with a "preoperative Ba ≥ +4 cm" (odds ratio = 20.57), "conservation of the prolapsed uterus" (odds ratio = 10.56) and "use of a concomitant midurethral sling" (odds ratio = 0.076).Prosima seems to have limitations when used to manage severe anterior vaginal wall prolapse and concomitant surgery may further affect its effectiveness. The information obtained from this study's DSMP will contribute to developing a strategy to improve the use of nonanchored vaginal mesh for POP repair.
- Current situation of transvaginal mesh repair for pelvic organ prolapse. [Journal Article]
- Chin Med Sci J 2014 Sep 29; 29(3):188-90.
SURGICAL mesh is a metallic or polymeric screen intended to be implanted to reinforce soft tissue or bone where weakness exists. Surgical mesh has been used since the 1950s to repair abdominal hernias. In the 1970s, gynecologists began using surgical mesh products to indicate the repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and in the 1990s, gynecologists began using surgical mesh for POP. Then the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first surgical mesh product specifically for use in POP. Surgical mesh materials can be divided into several categories. Most surgical mesh devices cleared for POP procedures are composed of non-absorbable synthetic polypropylene. Mesh can be placed in the anterior vaginal wall to aid in the correction of cystocele (anterior repair), in the posterior vaginal wall to aid in correction of rectocele (posterior repair), or attached to the top of the vagina to correct uterine prolapse or vaginal apical prolapse (apical repair). Over the past decades, surgical mesh products for transvaginal POP repair became incorporated into "kits" that included tools to aid in the delivery and insertion of the mesh. Surgical mesh kits continue to evolve, adding new insertion tools, tissue fixation anchors, surgical techniques, and ab- sorbable and biological materials. This procedure has been performed popularly. It was also performed increased in China. But this new technique met some trouble recently and let shake in urogynecology.
- Laparoscopic sacral uteropexy with cravat technique--experience and results. [Journal Article]
- Int Braz J Urol 2014 Jul-Aug; 40(4):526-32.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a ″Cravat″ technique for the management of uterine prolapse in patients who want to preserve uterus, involving suspension of the uterus from the sacral promontory by using polypropylene mesh.A prospective observational study between January 2011 and September 2013 was conducted. Prior to surgery, prolapse assessment was undertaken with Baden-Walker halfway system to grade the degree of prolapse at all sites. Patients with severe uterine prolapse (stage II-IV) who want to preserve uterus, were operated with Cravat technique. All patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after surgery and followed for 6 months. Outcomes were evaluated objectively by vaginal examination using Baden-Walker halfway classification, and subjectively classifying patients as 'very satisfied', 'satisfied' and 'not satisfied' at the 6th month postoperatively.Sacral uteropexy was successfully performed by laparoscopy in 32/33 patients (one needed to be converted to laparotomy). Nine patients also had a concurrent procedure as colporaphy anterior, colporaphy posterior or transobturator tape. Postoperative recovery has been uneventful with subjective and objective cure rates were 96.9% and 93.9%, respectively at six month. One recurrence of total prolapse needed to be reoperated and two patients with sacrouteropexy still remained at stage 2 prolapse. There have been no cases of graft exposure, rejection or infection with a median follow-up of 23.9 months.Laparoscopic sacral uteropexy with "Cravat technique" was found to be safe and simple procedure.
- Hysteropexy in the treatment of uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher: a multicenter randomized controlled non-inferiority trial comparing laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy with vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy (LAVA-trial, study protocol). [Journal Article]
- BMC Womens Health 2014.:112.
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common health problem: the lifetime risk of undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse by the age of 85 years is 19%. Pelvic organ prolapse has significant negative effects on a woman's quality of life. Worldwide, vaginal hysterectomy is the leading treatment method for patients with symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse. Several studies have shown that vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy and laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy are safe and effective alternatives in treating uterine descent. To date, it is unclear which of these techniques leads to the best operative result and the highest patient satisfaction. Therefore, we conducted the LAVA trial.The LAVA trial is a randomized controlled multicenter non-inferiority trial. The study compares laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy with vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher. The primary outcome of this study is surgical success of the apical compartment at 1 and 5 years follow-up. Secondary outcomes are subjective improvement on urogenital symptoms and quality of life (assessed by disease-specific and general quality of life questionnaires), complications following surgery, hospital stay, post-operative recovery, sexual functioning and costs-effectiveness. Evaluation will take place pre-operatively, and 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months and annually till 60 months after surgery. Validated questionnaires will be used.Analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Based on comparable recurrence rates of 3% and a non-inferiority margin of 10%, 62 patients are needed in each arm to prove the hypothesis with a 95% confidence interval.The LAVA trial is a randomized controlled multicenter non-inferiority trial that will provide evidence whether the efficacy of laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy is non-inferior to vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy in women with symptomatic uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher.Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR4029.
- Impact of dynamic transrectal ultrasonography on pelvic organ prolapse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Urol 2014 Sep 11.
We hereby developed a new method to evaluate POP dynamically in supine and standing position using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). The aim of this study is to visualize descending and prolapsing of pelvic organs in real-time using dynamic TRUS. And, the obtained findings of dynamic TRUS were compared with intraoperative findings.A prospective analysis was carried out including 31 women with symptomatic POP. Before the surgical repair for POP, TRUS was performed by the operator separated from the surgeon, and the findings of TRUS were compared with the intraoperative findings focused on diagnosis of POP. The patients were put on the fluoroscopic tilting table for passive postural change from spine to standing position. After injection of sonographic jelly into the vaginal lumen, ultrasound probe was inserted into the rectum. As getting up the patient passively using the fluoroscopic tilting table, descent and prolapse of pelvic organs were dynamically evaluated in real-time.Cystocele, uterine prolapse, and rectocele were dynamically observed in this procedure. Morphological detail of POP, such as movement, sliding, eversion, descent, and looseness of vaginal wall and bladder wall were successfully demonstrated in most of the cases. In total, dynamic TRUS showed the high values of sensitivity (85.0%), specificity (81.1%), positive predict value (77.3%), and negative predict value (87.8%).We successfully demonstrated morphological conditions and dynamic changes of pelvic organs during passive postural change using dynamic TRUS in real-time. Dynamic TRUS can be a useful modality to visualize POP preoperatively.
- Functional outcome after pelvic floor reconstructive surgery with or without concomitant hysterectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gynecol Obstet 2014 Sep 9.
When counseling patients about surgical alternatives for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair, numerous things have to be considered. Uterine preservation vs. hysterectomy is one relevant issue. Hysterectomy has been traditionally performed for POP, but its benefit regarding outcome has never been proven. Furthermore, a growing number of women ask for uterine preservation.In this retrospective cohort study, 384 patients who had undergone surgery for POP between 2000 and 2012 at Freiburg University Medical Center were included. Using a standardized questionnaire, further surgeries, urinary incontinence, recurrent POP, pessary use, and satisfaction with the surgical outcome were evaluated. The functional results after uterine preservation vs. concomitant hysterectomy were compared using t test.196 (51.04 %) women were available for follow-up and agreed to participate (n = 122 with hysterectomy, n = 72 with uterine-preserving surgery, respectively). After a mean follow-up time of 67 months, vaginal bulge symptoms and urinary incontinence did not differ between treatment groups. We observed higher success rates and satisfaction scores in the uterine-preserving group. Regarding satisfaction with surgery and whether the patients thought it had been successful, we observed a trend toward better results in the uterine-preserving group (mean satisfaction score: 8.45 ± 2.15 vs. 7.76 ± 2.91, range 0-10, p = 0.061; success: 91.4 vs. 81.7 %, p = 0.087).There was no difference with regard to functional outcome between patients with or without concomitant hysterectomy. Satisfaction with the operation was slightly higher after uterus preserving surgery. Therefore, uterine-preserving surgery is a valuable option unless there are contraindications.
- Multicenter, randomized trial comparing native vaginal tissue repair and synthetic mesh repair for genital prolapse surgical treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2014 Sep 9.
This trial aimed to compare the outcomes of native vaginal tissue repair versus polypropylene mesh repair for the treatment of severe genital prolapse.This multicenter randomized trial included 184 women, with POP-Q stage 3 or 4. They were randomly assigned to undergo surgical treatment using native tissue repair (n = 90) or synthetic mesh repair (n = 94). Native tissue repair surgery was performed according to site-specific defects, including sacrospinous ligament fixation for apical defects. Mesh repair (Prolift™) was performed in accordance with manufacturer recommendations. Hysterectomy was performed in all cases of uterine prolapse. Statistical tests were used to compare between-group and within-group differences before the surgery and at 1-year follow-up. We considered cure to have occurred when the POP-Q point evaluation was equal to or less than 0 and POP-Q point C better than or equal to half the total vaginal length (TVL) after 1 year. The patients answered the Prolapse Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PQoL) and the Sexual Quotient Female Version (QS-F) questionnaire.Both groups were homogeneous preoperatively. There were no differences between the groups in operative time, complications or pain. At 1-year follow-up, anatomical cure rates were better in the mesh group in the anterior compartment (p = 0.019). Significant improvement in PQoL scores at 1-year follow up were observed in each group; between-group comparisons of changes in PQoL scores revealed greater improvement in the mesh group.Both techniques were effective. Anatomical efficacy was superior in the mesh group regarding the anterior compartment; quality of life changes were also greater in the mesh group. Complications were significantly higher in the mesh group.