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- Herpes Zoster Stromal Keratitis After Varicella Vaccine Booster in a Pediatric Patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cornea 2014 Jul 24.
In this study, the case of a healthy pediatric patient who presented with herpes zoster (HZ) stromal keratitis after vaccination with live attenuated varicella vaccine (Varivax) and subsequent booster is described.This is a retrospective case review.A 6-year-old girl with no medical history presented with HZ ophthalmicus and stromal keratitis. She had received the original Varivax vaccine at 1 year of age and a booster 1 year before presentation. Topical prednisolone acetate was started with subsequent improvement in inflammation and visual acuity. However, the patient was unable to be completely tapered off the steroids because of reactivation.HZ ophthalmicus with stromal keratitis is a rare but potentially damaging manifestation of the varicella zoster virus in the pediatric population. Long-term data regarding reactivation rates in the post-vaccination era are still limited. Close follow-up is needed to ensure resolution of the infiltrates, and reactivation may require long-term steroid therapy.
- Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. [Journal Article]
- Sao Paulo Med J 2014; 132(4):255.
Herpes zoster or, as it is commonly called, 'shingles' is a neurocutaneous disease characterised by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the virus that causes chickenpox, which is latent in the dorsal spinal ganglia when immunity to VZV declines. It is an extremely painful condition which can often last for many weeks or months, impairing the patient's quality of life. The natural aging process is associated with a reduction of cellular immunity which predisposes to herpes zoster. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T cell production, therefore avoiding viral reactivation. A herpes zoster vaccine with an active virus has been approved for clinical use among older adults by the Food and Drug Administration and has been tested in large populations.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. METHODS Search methods: We searched the following sources for relevant studies: CENTRAL 2012, Issue 7, MEDLINE (1948 to July week 1, 2012), EMBASE (2010 to July 2012), LILACS (1982 to July 2012) and CINAHL (1981 to July 2012). We also reviewed reference lists of identified trials and reviews for additional studies.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing zoster vaccine with placebo or no vaccine, to prevent herpes zoster in older adults (mean age > 60 years).Two review authors independently collected and analysed data using a data extraction form. They also carried out an assessment of risk of bias.We identified eight RCTs with a total of 52,269 participants. Three studies were classified at low risk of bias. The main outcomes on effectiveness and safety were extracted from one clinical trial with a low risk of bias. Four studies compared zoster vaccine versus placebo; one study compared high-potency zoster vaccine versus low-potency zoster vaccine; one study compared refrigerated zoster vaccine versus frozen zoster vaccine; one study compared live zoster vaccine versus inactivated zoster vaccine and one study compared zoster vaccine versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (pneumo 23). Confirmed cases of herpes zoster were less frequent in patients who received the vaccine than in those who received a placebo: risk ratio (RR) 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.56), with a risk difference (RD) of 2%, and number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) of 50. Analyses according to age groups indicated a greater benefit in participants aged 60 to 69 years, RR 0.36 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.45) and in participants aged 70 years and over, RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.75). Vaccine-related systemic adverse effects were more frequent in the vaccinated group (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57, number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) = 100). The pooled data risk ratio for adverse effects for participants with one or more inoculation site adverse effect was RR 4.51 (95% CI 2.35 to 8.68), and the NNTH was 2.8 (95% CI 2.3 to 3.4). Side effects were more frequent in younger (60 to 69 years) than in older (70 years and over) participants.Herpes zoster vaccine is effective in preventing herpes zoster disease. Although vaccine benefits are larger in the younger age group (60 to 69 years), this is also the age group with more adverse events. In general, zoster vaccine is well tolerated; it produces few systemic adverse events and injection site adverse effects of mild to moderate intensity.
- Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines: WHO position paper, June 2014. [Journal Article]
- Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2014 Jun 20; 89(25):265-87.
- Hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity among nurses of a hospital. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ceylon Med J 2014 Jun; 59(2):59-60.
The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting hepatitis B vaccine immunogenicity among nursing staff of Teaching Hospital, Jaffna. 152 nursing staffs were recruited from April to July 2013. Those who received three doses had 7.7% failure rate in developing protective immune response. Failure rates were 20% in those who received one dose and 10.6% in two doses. Following vaccination, participants who had chickenpox had a failure rate of 75% (n=13; p=0.02). Pregnancy significantly impaired protective immunity among those who received two doses (p=0.03). Three doses of hepatitis B vaccine may not be sufficient to protect the vaccinees. Therefore assessment of HBsAb titres is warranted after vaccination.
- Vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis against varicella (chickenpox) in children and adults. [Journal Article]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014.:CD001833.
The prevention of varicella (chickenpox) using live attenuated varicella vaccines has been demonstrated both in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and in population-based immunisation programmes in countries such as the United States and Australia. Many countries do not routinely immunise children against varicella and exposures continue to occur. Although the disease is often mild, complications such as secondary bacterial infection, pneumonitis and encephalitis occur in about 1% of cases, usually leading to hospitalisation. The use of varicella vaccine in persons who have recently been exposed to the varicella zoster virus has been studied as a form of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).To assess the efficacy and safety of vaccines for use as PEP for the prevention of varicella in children and adults.We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to March week 1, 2014), EMBASE (January 1990 to March 2014) and LILACS (1982 to March 2014). We searched for unpublished trials registered on the clinicaltrials.gov and WHO ICTRP websites.RCTs and quasi-RCTs of varicella vaccine for PEP compared with placebo or no intervention. The outcome measures were efficacy in prevention of clinical cases and/or laboratory-confirmed clinical cases and adverse events following vaccination.Two review authors independently extracted and analysed data using Review Manager software.We identified three trials involving 110 healthy children who were siblings of household contacts. The included trials varied in study quality, vaccine used, length of follow-up and outcomes measured and, as such, were not suitable for meta-analysis. We identified high or unclear risk of bias in two of the three included studies. Overall, 13 out of 56 vaccine recipients (23%) developed varicella compared with 42 out of 54 placebo (or no vaccine) recipients (78%). Of the vaccine recipients who developed varicella, the majority only had mild disease (with fewer than 50 skin lesions). In the three trials, most participants received PEP within three days following exposure; too few participants were vaccinated four to five days post-exposure to ascertain the efficacy of vaccine given more than three days after exposure. No included trial reported on adverse events following immunisation.These small trials suggest varicella vaccine administered within three days to children following household contact with a varicella case reduces infection rates and severity of cases. We identified no RCTs for adolescents or adults. Safety was not adequately addressed.
- [Chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adolescents in Germany : Results of the KiGGS study: first follow up (KiGGS wave 1)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2014 Jul; 57(7):779-88.
The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) 2003-2006 is the first nationwide comprehensive study on the health of children and adolescents living in Germany. The KiGGS first interview follow-up is a telephone interview study that collected, among other things, data on a number of chronic and vaccine-preventable diseases in 2009-2012 and is a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study based on a population registry sample from the 167 KiGGS study points. The analysis is based on 12,368 respondents (7913 KiGGS follow-up participants aged 7-17 years, response 72 % and 4455 newly recruited 0- to 6-year-olds, response 42 %). Based on parent reports the lifetime prevalence of both chickenpox and pertussis has decreased in the population targeted by recently changed vaccination recommendations. For measles the prevalence remained unsatisfactorily high in each investigated age group. Of the children and adolescents aged 0-17 years 16 % (95 % confidence interval CI 15.2-17.0 %) had a long-standing chronic health condition according to the parents. Of these, however, only one in five was affected in their routine daily activities. The lifetime prevalence in 7- to 17-year-olds was 1.2 % (0.9-1.6) for epilepsy (0.4 % for the past 12 months), 5.0 % (4.4-5.7) for migraine, 0.2 % (0.1-0.3) for diabetes and in 0 to 6-year-olds 2.0 % (1.5-2.6) for heart conditions and 3.1 % (2.5-3.8) for febrile seizures with a -prevalence in 0 to 2-year-olds which are most affected of 1.0 % (0.6-1.6) in the past 12 months. The vast majority of children and adolescents in Germany are in good or very good health as suggested by other results reported in this issue; however, chronic conditions are not rare and need continuous monitoring. These results confirm that implementation of the vaccination recommendations of the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) can lead to effective prevention of infectious diseases in Germany.
- Evidence to guide measles immunization recommendations. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Am Fam Physician 2014 May 15; 89(10):786-7.
- [Shingles vaccine: which recommendations in 2014?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Suisse 2014 Apr 16; 10(426):869-72, 874-5.
Zostavax, a live attenuated vaccine against shingles (herpes zoster) has been available in Switzerland since 2008. In a population aged 60 and over, evidence suggests the vaccine effectively reduces the incidence of shingles and some of its corresponding complications. More importantly, in terms of public health, vaccination appears to reduce the burden of illness and be pharmaco-economically viable. Despite being part of the vaccination programmes in the United States and several European countries, the vaccine is not yet part of the Swiss vaccination programme. Should Switzerland follow suit by incorporating Zostavax into their vaccination policy?
- Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Vaccin Immunother 2014 Apr 29; 10(4)
Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits: CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success: Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study: Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk: HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities: Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project: Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies: Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic.
- Herpes zoster (shingles). [Journal Article]
- Nurse Pract 2014 May 12; 39(5):15-6.