- Intradermal zoster vaccines: good for the old and the young. [Journal Article]
- BDBr Dent J 2016 Nov 18; 221(10):632
- This 'dose-sparing, and thus cost-sparing, intradermal vaccine' may not only reduce the burden of illness in the elderly population, but also chickenpox in children.
This 'dose-sparing, and thus cost-sparing, intradermal vaccine' may not only reduce the burden of illness in the elderly population, but also chickenpox in children.
- The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 10; 16(1):666
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox vaccination in Sweden.
- Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea. [Journal Article]
- JKJ Korean Med Sci 2016; 31(12):1897-1901
- A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community...
A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.
- Dysregulated Glycoprotein B Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion Disrupts Varicella-Zoster Virus and Host Gene Transcription During Infection. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2016 Oct 26
- The highly conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein complex, gB/gH-gL, mediates membrane fusion during virion entry and cell-cell fusion. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) characteristically forms multi-nucleat...
The highly conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein complex, gB/gH-gL, mediates membrane fusion during virion entry and cell-cell fusion. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) characteristically forms multi-nucleated cells, or syncytia, during the infection of human tissues but little is known about this process. The cytoplasmic domain of VZV gB (gBcyt) has been implicated in cell-cell fusion regulation because a gB[Y881F] substitution causes hyperfusion. The gBcyt regulation is necessary for VZV pathogenesis as the hyperfusogenic mutant gB[Y881F] is severely attenuated in human skin xenografts. In this study, gBcyt regulated fusion was investigated by comparing melanoma cells infected with wild type-like VZV or hyperfusogenic mutants. The gB[Y881F] mutant exhibited dramatically accelerated syncytia formation in melanoma cells caused by fusion of infected cells with many uninfected cells, increased cytoskeleton reorganization and rapid displacement of nuclei to dense central structures when compared to pOka using live cell confocal microscopy. VZV and human transcriptomes were concurrently investigated using RNA-seq to identify viral and cellular responses induced when the gBcyt regulation was disrupted by the gB[Y881F] substitution. The expression of four vital VZV genes, ORF61 and glycoproteins, gC, gE and gI, was significantly reduced at 36 hours post infection for the hyperfusogenic mutants. Importantly, hierarchical clustering demonstrated an association of differential gene expression with dysregulated gBcyt-mediated fusion. A subset of Ras GTPase genes linked to membrane remodeling were upregulated in cells infected with the hyperfusogenic mutants. These data implicate the gBcyt in the regulation gB fusion function that, if unmodulated, triggers cellular processes leading to hyperfusion that attenuates VZV infection.
- [Vaccination status in psoriasis patients on immunosuppressant therapy (including biologics)]. [Journal Article]
- ADAnn Dermatol Venereol 2016 Oct 19
- CONCLUSIONS: This study should help raise awareness among patients and health professionals concerning the new vaccination recommendations for a population particularly at risk of infection.
- Varicella Vaccination of Children With Leukemia Without Interruption of Maintenance Therapy: A Danish Experience. [Journal Article]
- PIPediatr Infect Dis J 2016; 35(11):e348-e352
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that VZV vaccination is feasible and justified in seronegative children with ALL, in countries where VZV vaccination is not part of the national vaccination program.
- Seroprotection against Vaccine-Preventable Diseases amongst Health Care Workers in a Community Hospital, Qatar. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Occup Environ Med 2016; 7(4):234-40
- CONCLUSIONS: HCWs, particularly physicians, are not enough protected against hepatitis B. The seroprotection against measles, rubella, and varicella.
- Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2016 Sep 15; 375(11):1019-32
- Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B ...
Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups. Conclusions In our trial, HZ/su was found to reduce the risks of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among adults 70 years of age or older. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01165177 and NCT01165229 .).
- Attitudinal variables and a possible mediating mechanism for vaccination practice in health care workers of a local hospital in L'Aquila (Italy). [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Sep 13; :1-8
- Active immunization is an important concern for health care workers (HCWs) susceptible subjects and potential sources of infection for patients. However, the vaccine coverage for vaccine preventable ...
Active immunization is an important concern for health care workers (HCWs) susceptible subjects and potential sources of infection for patients. However, the vaccine coverage for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) is below recommended standards. The aims of the study were to estimate the hospitals' HCWs' susceptibility and vaccination coverage rates for VPDs and to analyze the role of HCWs' attitudes and knowledge as determinants of the immunization practices. A cross-sectional study enrolled 334 HCWs (physicians, nurses, others) at local hospital in L'Aquila (Italy). By means of an anonymous questionnaire, self-report data about history of disease and active vaccination for seasonal influenza, chickenpox, measles-mumps-rubella and hepatitis B were collected, as well as attitudes and knowledge about vaccination in HCWs. The employees showed high levels of susceptibility and insufficient vaccination coverage rates, particularly for influenza. Specific trends were detected for different VPDs across age strata and professional categories, not always consistent with literature. Overall, the level of knowledge about recommended vaccination for HCWs was low, in all categories. The active immunization status against influenza was found the most clearly associated with difference levels in 3 psychometric variables: personal responsibility, beliefs on usefulness and beliefs on risk of vaccination. A mediation mechanism was analyzed between these constructs, and an interesting indirect effect was highlighted for beliefs that could enhance the advantage of increased responsibility for HCWs. Further effort in research is needed to evaluate the black-box of longitudinal intervention studies (education, environmental changes, policies), to improve HCWs immunization.
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- Prevalence and characteristics of pediatric healthcare workers without immunity to varicella zoster virus. [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Infect Dis 2016 Aug 31
- This study aimed to determine the proportion of varicella non-immune pediatric healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pediatrics Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and to determine cost effective...
This study aimed to determine the proportion of varicella non-immune pediatric healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pediatrics Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and to determine cost effective strategies to identify non-immune personnel. A cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire to determine history of chickenpox or 2-dose varicella vaccination was conducted. From a total of 699 HCWs, 653 HCWs (93%) including 145 physicians (22%), 297 nurses (46%) and 211 administrative staff (32%) responded to questionnaires. There were 475 HCWs (73%) who had a history of chickenpox, 58(9%) who had completed the 2-dose varicella vaccine schedule and 120(18%) whose VZV immunity status was uncertain. 107 HCWs (89%) were tested for VZV IgG, 90 of which had immunity and 17 HCWs determined non-immune. After combining history and Varicella IgG results, the prevalence of non-immune HCWs was 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-3.8), with those <40 years of age at higher risk of non-immunity. Implementing a strategy that tested only those with unknown VZV status and vaccination of only those determined non-immune cost 1801 USD. This strategy costs less than vaccinating all HCWs with uncertain status, which costs 4601 USD.