(VARIVAX) articles in PubMed
- Seroprotection against Vaccine-Preventable Diseases amongst Health Care Workers in a Community Hospital, Qatar. [Journal Article]
- Int J Occup Environ Med 2016; 7(4):234-40IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: HCWs, particularly physicians, are not enough protected against hepatitis B. The seroprotection against measles, rubella, and varicella.
- Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- N Engl J Med 2016 Sep 15; 375(11):1019-32NEJM
- Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B ...
Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups. Conclusions In our trial, HZ/su was found to reduce the risks of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among adults 70 years of age or older. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01165177 and NCT01165229 .).
- Attitudinal variables and a possible mediating mechanism for vaccination practice in health care workers of a local hospital in L'Aquila (Italy). [Journal Article]
- Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Sep 13; :0HV
- Active immunization is an important concern for health care workers (HCWs) susceptible subjects and potential sources of infection for patients. However, the vaccine coverage for vaccine preventable ...
Active immunization is an important concern for health care workers (HCWs) susceptible subjects and potential sources of infection for patients. However, the vaccine coverage for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) is below recommended standards. The aims of the study were to estimate the hospitals' HCWs' susceptibility and vaccination coverage rates for VPDs and to analyse the role of HCWs' attitudes and knowledge as determinants of the immunization practices. A cross-sectional study enrolled 334 HCWs (physicians, nurses, others) at local hospital in L'Aquila (Italy). By means of an anonymous questionnaire, self-report data about history of disease and active vaccination for seasonal influenza, chickenpox, measles-mumps-rubella and hepatitis B were collected, as well as attitudes and knowledge about vaccination in HCWs. The employees showed high levels of susceptibility and insufficient vaccination coverage rates, particularly for influenza. Specific trends were detected for different VPDs across age strata and professional categories, not always consistent with literature. Overall, the level of knowledge about recommended vaccination for HCWs was low, in all categories. The active immunization status against influenza was found the most clearly associated with difference levels in three psychometric variables: personal responsibility, beliefs on usefulness and beliefs on risk of vaccination. A mediation mechanism was analysed between these constructs, and an interesting indirect effect was highlighted for beliefs that could enhance the advantage of increased responsibility for HCWs. Further effort in research is needed to evaluate the black-box of longitudinal intervention studies (education, environmental changes, policies), to improve HCWs immunization.
- Prevalence and characteristics of pediatric healthcare workers without immunity to varicella zoster virus. [Journal Article]
- Jpn J Infect Dis 2016 Aug 31JJ
- This study aimed to determine the proportion of varicella non-immune pediatric healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pediatrics Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and to determine cost effective...
This study aimed to determine the proportion of varicella non-immune pediatric healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pediatrics Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital and to determine cost effective strategies to identify non-immune personnel. A cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire to determine history of chickenpox or 2-dose varicella vaccination was conducted. From a total of 699 HCWs, 653 HCWs (93%) including 145 physicians (22%), 297 nurses (46%) and 211 administrative staff (32%) responded to questionnaires. There were 475 HCWs (73%) who had a history of chickenpox, 58(9%) who had completed the 2-dose varicella vaccine schedule and 120(18%) whose VZV immunity status was uncertain. 107 HCWs (89%) were tested for VZV IgG, 90 of which had immunity and 17 HCWs determined non-immune. After combining history and Varicella IgG results, the prevalence of non-immune HCWs was 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-3.8), with those <40 years of age at higher risk of non-immunity. Implementing a strategy that tested only those with unknown VZV status and vaccination of only those determined non-immune cost 1801 USD. This strategy costs less than vaccinating all HCWs with uncertain status, which costs 4601 USD.
- Efficacy of varicella (VZV) vaccination: an update for the clinician. [Journal Article]
- Ther Adv Vaccines 2016; 4(1-2):20-31TA
- Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes two distinct clinical conditions. Primary varicella infection results in chickenpox, a contagious rash illness typically seen among children. VZV can rea...
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes two distinct clinical conditions. Primary varicella infection results in chickenpox, a contagious rash illness typically seen among children. VZV can reactivate years after the initial infection to cause herpes zoster (HZ) and lead to post-herpetic neuralgia, a common complication resulting in persistent pain that may last for years after the zoster rash resolves. A person's risk of having longer lasting and more severe pain associated with HZ increases with age. Since the introduction of VZV vaccines, the rates of infection, hospitalizations, and mortality have declined. In this review, we discuss in detail current VZV vaccines available for the prevention of VZV and HZ infections. Varilrix (GSK Biologicals, UK), Varivax (Merck, USA) and the combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) vaccine contain the live attenuated Oka strain of VZV for routine varicella vaccination. While Zostavax is the only HZ vaccine currently approved for use in the United States and the European Union [EMEA, 2011], a subunit vaccine candidate called HZ/su has recently shown improved efficacy for zoster prevention in two clinical trial phase III studies. VariZIG, a post-exposure prophylactic, uses zoster immune globulin to prevent VZV infection in those who have recently been in contact with VZV but lack evidence of varicella immunity and are contraindicated to receive the varicella vaccine. Further, we discuss the skin tropic and neurotropic factor VZV ORF7 gene and its involvement in varicella infection, reactivation and latency in ganglia. Ultimately, these studies can contribute to the development of a neuroattenuated vaccine candidate against varicella or a vector for delivery of other virus antigens.
- [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination]. [Journal Article]
- Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2016; 90(3):291-6KZ
- In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in childr...
In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with a significantly higher, antibody response than that after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). Side reactions were generally minor, including fever (≥ 37.5 degrees C), rash at the injection site, and rash at other sites. There were no significant differences in the incidences of side reactions between the initial and booster vaccinations. A total of 185 participants responded to the questionnaire (response rate : 68%), and the period between receiving the initial vaccination and their response to the questionnaire ranged from 1.0 to 7.5 years (median : 4.0 years). The prevalence of breakthrough varicella after the initial vaccination was 17% among seroconverters who did not receive booster vaccination and 14% among non-seroconverters who received booster vaccination, showing no significant difference between the two groups. In conclusion, there are no safety issues regarding the administration of a booster vaccination to children with PVF after an initial varicella vaccination, and,a good antibody response can be expected.
- Varicella with rapidly progressive hepatitis presenting with multiple hepatic nodules in a child with acute leukemia. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Chemother 2016 Aug 2JI
- Abdominal pain may precede the characteristic varicella skin lesions in immunocompromised patients with visceral varicella. The absence of skin lesions may delay timely diagnosis and treatment of var...
Abdominal pain may precede the characteristic varicella skin lesions in immunocompromised patients with visceral varicella. The absence of skin lesions may delay timely diagnosis and treatment of varicella for those patients. Furthermore, abdominal imaging findings to provide information to diagnose visceral varicella have rarely been reported. Varicella was diagnosed in a 5-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complaining of fever and abdominal pain followed by papulovesicular skin lesions. Later, the patient was found to have rapidly progressive acute hepatitis, and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatic nodules. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin, and empirical antibiotic and antifungal therapy. However, his fever and abdominal pain persisted, and a laparoscopic liver biopsy was performed to differentiate other causes of the persisting symptoms. Eventually, the patient was diagnosed with visceral varicella based on histopathologic findings. In conclusion, visceral varicella should be considered in immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and multiple hypodense hepatic nodules on abdominal imaging studies. However, bacteria, fungi, and tuberculosis can produce similar imaging findings; therefore, a biopsy may be necessary in patients not responding to antiviral therapy.
- Deep Sequencing of Distinct Preparations of the Live Attenuated Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine Reveals a Conserved Core of Attenuating Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms. [Journal Article]
- J Virol 2016 Oct 1; 90(19):8698-704JV
- The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the at...
The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the attenuation of the vOka virus for replication in skin. At least three different preparations of vOka are marketed. Here, we show using deep sequencing of seven batches of vOka vaccine (including ZostaVax, VariVax, VarilRix, and the Oka/Biken working seed) from three different manufacturers (VariVax, GSK, and Biken) that 137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations are present in all vaccine batches. This includes six sites at which the vaccine allele is fixed or near fixation, which we speculate are likely to be important for attenuation. We also show that despite differences in the vaccine populations between preparations, batch-to-batch variation is minimal, as is the number and frequency of mutations unique to individual batches. This suggests that the vaccine manufacturing processes are not introducing new mutations and that, notwithstanding the mixture of variants present, VZV live vaccines are extremely stable.
- Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites. [Journal Article]
- Virology 2016; 496:277-86V
- Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechani...
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains.
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- Preparing to introduce the varicella vaccine into the Italian immunisation programme: varicella-related hospitalisations in Tuscany, 2004-2012. [Journal Article]
- Euro Surveill 2016 Jun 16; 21(24)ES
- A universal immunisation programme against varicella in the form of the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine for toddlers aged 13-15 months was introduced in Tuscany in July 2008. An assess...
A universal immunisation programme against varicella in the form of the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine for toddlers aged 13-15 months was introduced in Tuscany in July 2008. An assessment of the impact of this programme on varicella-related hospitalisations 4 years after its introduction could further support its adoption at a national level. The hospitalisation data were analysed in two periods: pre-vaccination (2004-2007) and vaccination period (2009-2012). The high coverage of the vaccines (84% in 2012) resulted in a significant decline in notifications, from 33,114 (2004-2007) to 13,184 cases (2009-2012), and also of hospitalisations, from 584 (pre-vaccination period) to 325 (vaccination period). The hospitalisation rate was 4.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 3.4-4.7) before the introduction of vaccination, which dropped to 2.2 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the vaccination period (hospitalisation risk ratios: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.472-0.619). The reduction was most significant in the youngest age groups. The introduction of universal vaccination has already led to a significant decline in hospitalisations due to varicella after just 4 years of implementation. Hospitalisation rates fell noticeably among younger individuals involved in the vaccination programme. The decrease in hospitalisation rate in the older age groups suggests a possible indirect protection.