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Vaginal bleeding, postmenopausal [keywords]
- Laparoscopically assisted repair of vaginal evisceration after hysterectomy. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Vaginal evisceration is a rare condition most commonly associated with previous vaginal surgery. It usually presents with vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and a protruding mass, and requires immediate assessment and surgical management to salvage the prolapsed bowel. Any delay in the treatment may result in bowel ischaemia and perforation which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. We report a case of spontaneous vaginal evisceration during defaecation in a 56-year-old postmenopausal women 11 months post hysterectomy. This case highlights the benefits of a combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach in the successful management of this surgical emergency.
- Epidemiology and investigations for suspected endometrial cancer. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013 Apr; 35(4):380-1.
Objective:To review the evidence relating to the epidemiology of endometrial cancer and its diagnostic workups. Options: Women with possible endometrial cancer can undergo an endometrial evaluation by office biopsy, hysteroscopy, or dilatation and curettage. To assist in treatment planning, pelvic ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be considered. Outcomes: The identification of optimal diagnostic tests to evaluate patients with possible endometrial cancer. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., endometrial neoplasms) and key words (e.g., endometrium cancer, endometrial carcinoma). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 31, 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, national and international medical specialty societies, and recent conference abstracts. Values: The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Benefits, harms, and costs: This document is intended to guide the development of a standardized cost-effective investigation of patients with suspected endometrial cancer. Validation: The guideline was reviewed for accuracy by experts in pathology, radiation oncology, and medical oncology. Guideline content was also compared with relevant documents from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Recommendations 1. A complete focused history should be taken and a physical examination carried out in patients with suspected endometrial cancer. Attention should be paid to predisposing factors for excess estrogen stimulation of the endometrium such as long history of anovulation, obesity, menstrual irregularity, or long-term use of unopposed estrogen or tamoxifen. Patients with a strong family history of endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancers might have inherited Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome) that increases their lifetime risk of developing endometrial cancer. Genetic counselling and testing can be used to individualize risk-management interventions including screening strategies and treatment options. (III-B) 2. Endometrial cancer should be ruled out in perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients with abnormal vaginal bleeding. (II-1A) 3. Depending on access, histologic endometrial evaluation and transvaginal ultrasound are the preferred initial diagnostic investigations for patients with suspected endometrial cancer. (II-1B) 4. Histologic evaluation of the endometrium should be done in all patients in whom endometrial cancer is suspected. (II-1A) 5. Hysteroscopic examination should be considered in patients with persistent uterine bleeding with benign endometrial sampling or insufficient endometrial sampling after ultrasound. (II-2B) 6. Formal review of the histopathology should be considered in patients with high grade tumours or rare histologic types such as serous, clear cell, or mucinous types. (III-B) 7. Additional tumour markers, CT scan, and MRI scan should not be used routinely. (III-D).
- Clinical and Histopathologic Differential Diagnosis of Venous Malformation of the Uterine Cervix. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Low Genit Tract Dis 2013 Apr 19.
OBJECTIVE:Venous malformations of the uterine cervix are extremely rare. Most lesions are asymptomatic and incidental, but sometimes, they may present with abnormal and/or intractable vaginal bleeding. The study aimed to describe a case of venous malformation of the uterine cervix and discuss the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnosis of this entity. CASE: A 50-year-old woman attended to the gynecology clinic for postcoital spotting and postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination revealed polypoid, lobulated, bluish, vascular nodular lesions 4 to 1 cm in size surrounding the cervical introitus. The lesions were completely excised via loop electrosurgical excision procedure method. Pathologic diagnosis revealed venous malformations of the uterine cervix.
CONCLUSIONS:Venous malformations of the uterine cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with cervical mass and vaginal bleeding. Pathologic examination is necessary in such a case to exclude the possibility of malignant vascular tumor or cervical neoplasm.
- Endometrial pathology in breast cancer patients: Effect of different treatments on ultrasonographic, hysteroscopic and histological findings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2013 Apr; 5(4):1305-1310.
Breast cancer patients have an increased risk of endometrial pathology. To investigate whether the incidence of endometrial abnormalities and their clinicopathological features were affected by receiving tamoxifen (TAM), non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) or no treatment (NT), 333 peri/postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were referred to the Department of Gynecological, Obstetrical Sciences and Reproductive Medicine for gynecological assessment, were reviewed retrospectively. Transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUS), hysteroscopic and histological findings were investigated. Endometrial histological findings included: atrophy in 61, 94.3 and 55.6% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; polyps in 30.9, 31.4 and 42.2% of cases in the TAM, AIs and NT groups, respectively; hyperplasia in 3% of patients in the TAM group and 11.1% of patients in the NT group; and cancer in 3.8% of cases in the TAM group and 11.1% of cases in the NT group. There was a significant correlation between the duration of TAM treatment and the severity of endometrial pathology. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between hysteroscopic and histological findings with regard to the diagnosis of endometrial atrophy, polyps, hyperplasia and cancer (P<0.001). In conclusion, these data revealed that there was a higher incidence of endometrial pathology in the NT group compared with the TAM group, which was significant for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. The chance of developing high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer was independent of TAM use. Lastly, although there was no significant difference in recurrent vaginal bleeding and mean endometrial thickness between the TAM and AIs groups, patients receiving AIs did not exhibit hyperplastic, dysplastic or neoplastic changes in the endometrium. This study indicates that breast cancer patients require screening for endometrial pathology; TVUS alone is useful in asymptomatic patients, however, in patients where the endometrial line is irregular or its thickness is >3 mm, hysteroscopy with directed biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic method.
- Uterine carcinosarcoma in a patient with didelphys uterus. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2013.:401962.
Background.Didelphys uterus is a noncommon finding in women. Till now, few cases with benign mesenchymal tumors in patients with didelphys uterus are described. We present a case of a patient with carcinosarcoma arising in a didelphys uterus. Case. A 73-year-old patient presented with profuse watery postmenopausal bleeding. On examination under anesthesia, left and right cervixes were identified. Tumor extended from the left cervix into the lower third of the vagina and was adherent to the right vaginal sidewall. There was no evidence of parametrial extension. Tissue was sent for biopsy which revealed high-grade uterine carcinosarcoma. Two uterine fundi and two vaginas in keeping with uterine didelphys were identified on imaging. The patient underwent vaginal excision of the protruding tumor measuring 8 × 6 cm with harmonic scalpel followed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. Although a number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes were also identified on imaging, she was not planned for lymphadenectomy after MDT (multidisciplinary team) discussion because of her comorbidities. The final histology confirmed the diagnosis.
Conclusion.According to our knowledge, this is the second case of carcinosarcoma arising in didelphys uterus in the world literature.
- Coexistence of placental site nodule and cervical squamous carcinoma in a 72-year-old woman. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gynecol Pathol 2013 May; 32(3):335-7.
We report a unique case of the coexistence of cervical cancer and placental site nodule (PSN) in a 72-year-old multiparous woman presenting with vaginal bleeding. She had undergone tubal sterilization 30 years before. On admission, she had profuse vaginal bleeding, and a bulky cervical mass was seen on vaginal examination. Histology revealed the coexistence of a moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a PSN in its stroma. Its immunohistochemistry revealed characteristic phenotypes for both lesions--the squamous carcinoma was strongly positive for p16. The intermediate trophoblasts of the PSN showed a diffuse positivity for CAM 5.2, human placental lactogen, CD10, and α-inhibin and, focally, for human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report on the coexistence of these 2 lesions in an elderly postmenopausal patient and demonstrates that PSN can be found after the menopause as an unexpected lesion in this age group, mimicking various cervical malignancies.
- Postmenopausal bleeding due to a Cu-7 intrauterine device retained for thirty years. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- JSLS 2012 Apr-Jun; 16(2):329-32.
A retained intrauterine device is a rare, but easily correctable, cause of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB).A 64-year-old woman presented to her gynecologist with PMB. Sonographic evaluation of the endometrium revealed the presence of a Cu-7 IUD retained for at least 30 years. Hysteroscopically assisted retrieval of the IUD resulted in complete resolution of symptoms.A retained IUD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for PMB. In addition, the authors recommend pelvic sonography as the first-line diagnostic modality for PMB to aid the diagnosis of retained IUD as well as other pathology.
- [Hysteroscopy clinic: diagnostic and therapeutic method in abnormal uterine bleeding]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ginecol Obstet Mex 2012 Dec; 80(12):761-8.
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a public health problem prevalence exceeded only by abnormal vaginal discharge as a reason for medical consultation.To describe the findings reported by the Hysteroscopy clinic of the Hospital GEA Gonzalez on patients with Abnormal Uterine bleeding diagnosis.Retrospective, transversal, descriptive study. The total 2546 records of those patient that were evaluated by Office Hysteroscopic between January 2007 and December 2008 on the Hysteroscopy Clinic of Hospital Manuel GEA Gonzalez, then we selected the 1482 records of those patients that were sended because of an Abnormal Uterine bleeding condition. We descrive the frequencies of the diagnosis and its interrelation with the age of the patients. We also report the therapeutical interventions during office hysteroscopy.The mean age of the patients was 42.15 +/- 9.30 years (from 12 a 92 years); the age groups of patients that belonged to 40-44 years and 45-49 years are the most frequent patient and they represent the 25% y el 23.3% of the records. The abnormal findings occurred on the 66% de of the patients. Those patients of 65 years old and older do not have any report of normal cavities, all of then have abnormal findings. The leiomyoma (26.9%) and the endometrial polyps (27.3%) were the most frequent findings. The postmenopausal bleeding had a rate of 90.9% abnormal findings and in this group of patients the most frequent diagnosis was atrophic endometrium (32.2%) and polyps (24.3%). Besides that the office hysteroscopy show its therapeutical usefulness because of the 67% and 77.5% of polipectomy perform for endometrial and cervical polyps respectivelyThe office Hysteroscopy is a well tolerated diagnosis and therapeutic method that is useful for any women with abnormal uterine bleeding condition and it is the ideal technique for the examination of abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women... The office hysteroscopy is a efficient cost-effective and cost-benefic method for the management for endometrial and cervical polyps.
- Ovarian volume assessment in relation to histologic findings and sex hormone levels in women with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium. [Journal Article]
- Ann Saudi Med 2012 Nov-Dec; 32(6):588-92.
In postmenopausal women, ovarian stromal hyperplasia and endometrial cancer are often identified concurrently. The aim of the present study was to verify the association of ovarian volume with histologic findings and sex hormones levels in women with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium.Prospective observational study conducted in a teaching hospital between March 2008 and February 2010Ninety women with postmenopausal bleeding and thickened endometrium (>=5 mm) were enrolled. They underwent vaginal sonography for ovarian volume measurement. Blood samples were collected for sex steroid hormones assay. In addition, endometrial sampling was done for definitive histologic diagnosis.According to histologic results, 18 cases (20%) had endometrial adenocarcinoma, 24 cases (26.7%) had endometrial hyperplasia with or without atypia and 48 cases (53.3%) had benign histologic findings. Large ovaries were significantly associated with higher body mass index (BMI>=30) (P=.002) and endometrial adenocarcinoma (P < .001). After adjustment for age and BMI, increased ovarian volume in adenocarcinoma was associated with high serum level of estradiol (P < .001), serum total testosterone (P=.04) and serum free testosterone (P < .01) compared with other histologic findings.Large ovaries among women with postmenopausal bleeding and thick endometrium were associated with elevated serum sex steroid hormones and represent a marker of risk for endometrial adenocarcinoma.
- An unusual cause of postmenopausal bleeding. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
A 68-year-old postmenopausal woman presented to the gynaecology clinic with a 1-week history of vaginal bleeding. She was investigated to rule out local and systemic causes including genital malignancy. The investigations were negative for genital malignancy and her symptoms settled spontaneously. The bleeding was attributed to a corticosteroid treatment for shoulder joint pain. A short literature review of this rare side effect is discussed.