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- [Diagnosis of vaginitis-vaginosis by hibridization with DNA strands]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ginecol Obstet Mex 2013 Apr; 81(4):195-200.
Vaginal infections lie among the most common causes women ask for medical advice. In order of frequency bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of vaginitis/vaginosis.To evaluate a DNA hybridization test for simultaneous molecular detection of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida species and Trichomonas vaginalis, as an alternative to conventional microbiological methods.Cohort, cross-sectional, and comparative study of 1,003 vaginal samples from symptomatic women from our health-care area. Two swabs were obtained from each woman, one for routine microbiological diagnosis of vaginal infection (wet mount, Gram stain, and mycological culture) and the other for the DNA hybridization test (Affirm VPIII, Becton Dickinson). This method detects clinically significant levels of G. vaginalis (2 x 10(5) CFU/ml), Candida spp. (1 x 10(4) cells) and T. vaginalis (5x103 trichomonads).Out of the 1,003 women studied, 30.6% tested positive for bacterial vaginosis, 23.3% for vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.5% for trichomoniasis. The Affirm VPIII method turned out positive in 27.5%, 27.4% and 0.5% of cases, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the molecular technique and conventional methods for microbiological diagnosis of vaginitis/ vaginosis (p < 0.05).The Affirm VPIII test correlated well with wet mount, Gram stain and mycological culture. Although its cost is relatively high, it is fast, reproducible, easy, and can be done in either clinical laboratories or Gynecology offices, which permits prescribing a specific early treatment.
- The Dimension of Trichomonas vaginalis as Measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Apr; 51(2):243-6.
It is known that physicochemical conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, and ionic strength) affect the size of trichomonads. In this study, the sizes of 4 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis cultured for more than a year (called "old T") and 3 isolates freshly isolated from vaginitis cases (called "fresh T") were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Although the fresh T had shorter body length, body width, and flagellar length than old T, total length (about 26 µm), including body length, flagella length, and axostyle length was almost the same in the 2 groups. A striking difference was observed between the axostyles of the 2 groups; the axostyle length of the fresh T (8.2 µm) was more than twice as long as that of the old T (4.0 µm). However, in several parasitology textbooks, the length of T. vaginalis is said to vary widely from 7 to 32 µm, and its undulating membrane is said to extend about half way (53.5%) to the posterior end of the body. On the other hand, in our study, the undulating membrane was observed to extend more than 3/4 of the body length (72.1%) in old T, whereas in fresh T it could not be measured. Taken together, we suggest that T. vaginalis averages 26 (21-32) µm in total length, with 9.5 (7.4-11.4) µm of body length and 6.8 (5.3-7.7) µm of width, and its undulating membrane extending 3/4 of its body length. Therefore, these findings may provide useful information for morphological characteristics of T. vaginalis.
- Correlation of Leukorrhea and Trichomonas vaginalis Infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2013 May 15.
Introduction:Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) causing vaginitis. Microscopy has poor sensitivity but is used for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in resource-poor settings. We aimed to provide a more reliable diagnosis of trichomoniasis by investigating an association with leukorrhea.Materials and
Methods:Women presenting for evaluation of vaginal discharge, STI exposure, or preventative gynecologic examination were evaluated for Trichomonas infection. Vaginal pH and microscopy was performed by the provider, who recorded the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) per epithelial cell and the presence of clue cells, yeast, and/or motile trichomonads. Leukorrhea was defined as greater than one PMNL per epithelial cell. Culture and a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were used to detect T. vaginalis. Patients were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using NAATs and bacterial vaginosis using Gram stains.
Results:294 women were enrolled and 16% were found to have Trichomonas (46/294). Trichomonas infection was more common in parous non-Hispanic, black women who reported low rates of contraceptive use (33% vs. 17%, p-value =0.02) and a STI history (85% vs. 55%, p-value=0.002). These women were more likely to report vaginal discharge (76% vs. 59%, p-value =0.02), have an elevated vaginal pH (87% vs. 48%, p-value < 0.001), and gonorrhea infection (15% vs. 4%, p-value=0.002). Leukorrhea was associated with a 4-fold increased risk of Trichomonas infection.Discussion:Leukorrhea on microscopy was associated with Trichomonas vaginitis. Patients with leukorrhea should be evaluated with more sensitive tests for T. vaginalis, preferably NAATs, if microscopy is negative.
- Effects of Contraception on Cervical Cytology: Data from Mardin City. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Turk Patoloji Derg 2013; 29(2):117-121.
Objective:Mardin is an area of low socioeconomic level with low rates of contraceptive method use. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the effects of the contraceptive methods used in the area on epithelial cell abnormalities and vaginal flora changes. Material and Method: Cervical smear samples received at the Pathology Department between 2010 and 2012 of 526 patients who had used a contraceptive method and 112 who had never used one were included in the study. The cases were divided into 3 groups as those using hormonal contraception (107, 20.3%), those using an intrauterine device (343, 65.2%) and those using a barrier method (76, 14.4%). The evaluation was made using the Bethesda 2001 criteria for cervical epithelial abnormalities and specific cervicovaginal infections.
Results:There was no significant difference between the groups for epithelial cell abnormalities while bacterial vaginitis (12%, p=0.03) and Trichomonas vaginalis (7.6%) were more common in the IUD users. The Actinomyces rate in RIA users was 1.3%. There was only 1 case of bacterial vaginitis in the barrier group and none of the other patients had a specific infection. Discussion: We did not find a significant cytopathic effect of using a IUD or hormonal contraception in our study. There was a low rate of epithelial abnormality in the barrier method group. IUD was seen to increase the incidence of bacterial vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Actinomyces. We did not find a significant effect of hormone use on the vaginal flora.
- Candida vaginitis in non-pregnant patients: A study of antifungal susceptibility testing and virulence factors. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol 2013 May; 33(4):378-83.
Vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) is a major problem for the female population worldwide, and considerably little is known about the difference between acute VVC (AVVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC). We investigated the susceptibility to six antifungal agents and boric acid of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal cultures, as described in the CLSI document M27-A3, from 228 non-pregnant sexually active women (aged 18-49 years), and the virulence factors of these isolates. The isolates were derived from patients with AVVC (n = 64), those with RVVC (n = 125) and those without signs or symptoms (n = 39). In total, C. albicans was the most commonly isolated species (50%), followed by C. glabrata (35.5%) and other Candida spp. (14.5%). We observed slightly different minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) for various antifungals among the species and study groups that could have potential therapeutic benefits for the treatment. Analysis of the virulence factors revealed that haemolytic activity is not involved in VVC pathogenesis but that germ-tube formation, adhesion to VECs, and proteinase and phospholipase production may be important in the pathogenesis of VVC.
- Foreign body in vagina: an uncommon cause of vaginitis in children. [Journal Article]
- Ann Med Health Sci Res 2013 Jan; 3(1):102-4.
Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long-standing intra-vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6-year-old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a foul-smelling, blood-stained vaginal discharge as well as dysuria for 2 years. There was no history of sexual abuse. Initial evaluation that excluded gynecologic examination revealed lower abdominal tenderness. Vaginal swab and urine cultures yielded Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to ceftriaxone only. She was commenced on this antibiotic for 2 weeks, but the discharge persisted, necessitating referral to the gynecologist. Examination under anesthesia by the gynecologist revealed shreds of toilet tissue paper extracted from the vagina and slight excoriations on the wall of the vagina. Vaginal foreign body can present with diverse symptoms. It should be considered in any young female patient presenting with recurrent or persistent vaginal discharge.
- Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD003552.
The delivery of combination contraceptive steroids from a transdermal contraceptive patch or a contraceptive vaginal ring offers potential advantages over the traditional oral route. The transdermal patch and vaginal ring could require a lower dose due to increased bioavailability and improved user compliance.To compare the contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, compliance (adherence), and safety of the contraceptive patch or the vaginal ring versus combination oral contraceptives (COCs).Through February 2013, we searched MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of the contraceptive patch or the vaginal ring. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. For the initial review, we contacted known researchers and manufacturers to identify other trials.We considered randomized controlled trials comparing a transdermal contraceptive patch or a contraceptive vaginal ring with a COC.Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. For dichotomous variables, the Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated. For continuous variables, the mean difference was computed. We also assessed the quality of evidence for this review.We found 18 trials that met our inclusion criteria. Of six patch studies, five examined the marketed patch containing norelgestromin plus ethinyl estradiol (EE); one studied a patch in development that contains levonorgestrel (LNG) plus EE. Of 12 vaginal ring trials, 11 examined the same marketing ring containing etonogestrel plus EE; one studied a ring being developed that contains nesterone plus EE.Contraceptive effectiveness was not significantly different for the patch or ring versus the comparison COC. Compliance data were limited. Patch users showed better compliance than COC users in three trials. For the norelgestromin plus EE patch, ORs were 2.05 (95% CI 1.83 to 2.29) and 2.76 (95% CI 2.35 to 3.24). In the levonorgestrel plus EE patch report, patch users were less likely to have missed days of therapy (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.51). Of four vaginal ring trials, one found ring users had more noncompliance (OR 3.99; 95% CI 1.87 to 8.52), while another showed more compliance with the regimen (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.68).More patch users discontinued early than COC users. ORs from two meta-analyses were 1.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.00) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.06) and another trial showed OR 2.57 (95% CI 0.99 to 6.64). Patch users also had more discontinuation due to adverse events than COC users. Users of the norelgestromin-containing patch reported more breast discomfort, dysmenorrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In the levonorgestrel-containing patch trial, patch users reported less vomiting, headaches, and fatigue.Of 11 ring trials with discontinuation data, two showed the ring group discontinued less than the COC group: OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.66) and OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.88). Ring users were less likely to discontinue due to adverse events in one study (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.70). Compared to the COC users, ring users had more vaginitis and leukorrhea but less vaginal dryness. Ring users also reported less nausea, acne, irritability, depression, and emotional lability than COC users.For cycle control, only one trial study showed a significant difference. Women in the patch group were less likely to have breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Seven ring studies had bleeding data; four trials showed the ring group generally had better cycle control than the COC group.Effectiveness was not significantly different for the methods compared. Pregnancy data were available from half of the patch trials but two-thirds of ring trials. The patch could lead to more discontinuation than the COC. The patch group had better compliance than the COC group. Compliance data came from half of the patch studies and one-third of the ring trials. Patch users had more side effects than the COC group. Ring users generally had fewer adverse events than COC users but more vaginal irritation and discharge.The quality of the evidence for this review was considered low for the patch and moderate for the ring. The main reasons for downgrading were lack of information on the randomization sequence generation or allocation concealment, the outcome assessment methods, high losses to follow up, and exclusions after randomization.
- Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of ESBL production by Vaginal Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women. [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2013.:7.
Vaginal Escherichia coli is a reservoir along the fecal-vaginal-urinary/neonatal course of transmission in extraintestinal E. coli infections. They also causes genital tract infections especially vaginitis, so that detection of their antibiotic resistance is an important approach to control these infections. One important mechanism of resistance is ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae especially Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, which is now a worldwide problem that limits therapeutic options.Sixty one vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant and non-pregnant women, were detected phenotypically and genotypically for ESBL production.Most of pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates, were resistant to cefotaxime (100% vs. 81.5%, respectively) and more than half of them to ceftazidime (56.5% vs. 71.0%, respectively). One hundred percent each, 52.1% vs. 68.4%, and 73.9% vs. 60.5%%, were ESBL producers by screening, confirmatory, and PCR tests, respectively. Pregnant women's isolates had: CTX-M- (69.5%), SHV- and OXA-type (each 4.3%) ESBLs. Only one isolate (4.3%) had two types of ESBLs. All 16 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Non-pregnant women's isolates were predominated by SHV and CTX-M -type (44.7% vs. 39.4%, respectively), followed by OXA- (15.7%), and TEM-type (2.6%). Of these isolates, 42.1% had two types of ESBL genes. All 15 CTX-M-positive (100%) isolates had CTX-M-1. Pregnant and non-pregnant women's isolates differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) regarding the expression of SHV- (4.3% vs. 44.7%, respectively) and CTX-M-type (69.5% vs. 39.4%, respectively) ESBLs. In both, CTX-M-1 was the predominant CTX-M group (each 100%). All of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, while the highest rate of resistance was against β-lactams. Multidrug resistance was noted in 56.2% of ESBL-producing isolates.Ggenital tracts of pregnant and non-pregnant women represent different environments for propagation of ESBL-producing E. coli. In Iraq, nationwide study is required to make a precise estimation of this widespread of ESBL-producing bacteria.
- Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic Acid vaginal gel to ease vaginal dryness: a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- J Sex Med 2013 Jun; 10(6):1575-84.
Atrophic vaginitis is a common occurrence, particularly among postmenopausal women; however, few seek or receive treatment. One therapeutic solution is topically applied products. Estrogen-based treatments have been shown to be effective; however, many patients are reluctant to use such formulations due to health concerns, hence the need to assess the efficacy of acceptable alternatives.This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel to treat vaginal dryness compared with estriol cream in postmenopausal women.One hundred forty-four subjects were randomized, 72 to the test group treated with hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) and 72 to the control group treated with estriol cream (Ovestin). Treatment in both groups was applied by means of a device once every 3 days for a total of 10 applications over 30 days.Efficacy was measured by grading vaginal dryness and three other vaginal symptoms on a visual analog scale. Safety assessments included vital signs, laboratory examinations of the vaginal microecosystem, vaginal pH value, vaginal B ultrasound, and incidence of adverse events. Assessments were performed at baseline, by telephone after the third application, and at the final visit.Both hyaluronic acid vaginal gel and estriol cream can significantly improve the clinical symptoms of vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women, with improvement rate of 84.44% and 89.42%, respectively, after 10 applications, without statistically significant difference between them.Both hyaluronic acid vaginal gel and estriol cream are effective in the treatment of vaginal dryness. Hyaluronic acid vaginal gel may be considered as a valid alternative to estrogen-based treatments in relieving the symptoms of vaginal dryness.
- Genotyping reveals no link between Candida albicans genotype and vaginitis severity in Turkish women. [Journal Article]
- Mycopathologia 2013 Apr; 175(3-4):287-94.
Recent studies have clearly defined the vaginopathic Candida albicans strains that cause severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Therefore, genotyping C. albicans isolates may predict the success of and assist in choosing the appropriate antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the genotypes of C. albicans isolates causing VVC with those found in asymptomatic healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women in Adana, Turkey, as well as the antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates. A total of 216 independent C. albicans isolates were genotyped by allelic combination based on the microsatellite marker analysis of one such microsatellite, present in the promoter region of the elongation factor 3-encoding gene (CEF3) of C. albicans. The susceptibility testing profiles of all of the isolates against five antifungals and boric acid were obtained retrospectively from our laboratory records. We identified 20 genotypes on the basis of different allelic combinations at the CEF3 locus with a discriminatory power of 0.85. Genotypes 136-144 and 126-135 were present in 50 % of the isolates. No differences existed in the genotypic profiles of fungal isolates between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Remarkably, we did not find a single vaginopathic genotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine, and the fluconazole and ketoconazole resistance rates were 0.9 and 3.7 %, respectively. Therefore, we did not find any correlation between genotype, severity of VVC, and antifungal resistance (P > 0.05). Even so, additional molecular data may provide new insights into the management of VVC.