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- Varicocele due to a biliary cystadenoma. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
- Association of decreased spermatozoa omega-3 fatty acid levels and increased oxidative DNA damage with varicocele in infertile men: a case control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Reprod Fertil Dev 2014 Nov 19.
Varicocele is commonly associated with male infertility because it impairs normal sperm morphology and activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important determinants of sperm cell structure and function, but their relationship with varicocele remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PUFA composition in spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and to evaluate the potential relationship between PUFA and varicocele. This case control study recruited 92 infertile men with varicocele, 99 infertile men without varicocele and 95 fertile male control subjects. Semen morphology and activity parameters were assessed and seminal plasma 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content was determined by ELISA. Sperm concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Infertile men with varicocele had lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFA, higher omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratios and greater oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa compared with infertile men without varicocele and normal subjects. The degree of varicocele and DNA damage was associated with decreased omega-3 PUFA concentrations and semen quality in infertile men with varicocele. The findings suggest that omega-3 PUFA deficiency could be implicated in varicocele-associated infertility, and highlight the need for intervention trials to test the usefulness of omega-3 supplementation in reducing sperm abnormalities in infertile men with varicocele.
- Effect of Varicocelectomy on Male Infertility. [REVIEW]
- Korean J Urol 2014 Nov; 55(11):703-709.
Varicocele is the most common cause of male infertility and is generally correctable or at least improvable by various surgical and radiologic techniques. Therefore, it seems simple and reasonable that varicocele should be treated in infertile men with varicocele. However, the role of varicocele repair for the treatment of subfertile men has been questioned during the past decades. Although varicocele repair can induce improvement of semen quality, the obvious benefit of spontaneous pregnancy has not been shown through several meta-analyses. Recently, a well-designed randomized clinical trial was introduced, and, subsequently, a novel meta-analysis was published. The results of these studies advocate that varicocele repair be regarded as a standard treatment modality in infertile men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters, which is also supported by current clinical guidelines. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has been regarded as the gold standard compared to other surgical techniques and radiological management in terms of the recurrence rate and the pregnancy rate. However, none of the methods has been proven through well-designed clinical trials to be superior to the others in the ability to improve fertility. Accordingly, high-quality data from well-designed studies are needed to resolve unanswered questions and update current knowledge. Upcoming trials should be designed to define the best technique and also to define how to select the best candidates who will benefit from varicocele repair.
- Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles: a review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Minerva Urol Nefrol 2014 Nov 14.
In this article we reviewed the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicoceles cannot be explained by one theory. Valve dysfunction, ontogenetic collateral formation and the nutcracker phenomenon seem to act synergistically. Hyperthermia, elevated hydrostatic pressure and antisperm agents are suggested as possible causes for the pathophysiology how varicoceles induce infertility. However the combination of patient's lifestyle, genetic factors and the consequences of reflux into the PP are believed to contribute to the infertility. Although venography stays the gold standard, the combination of physical examination, color Doppler ultrasound and thermography has the highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose a varicocele. Regarding infertility, we are still searching for strict criteria or grading, to decide which patients with a varicocele may or may not have benefit from treatment. Treatment of varicoceles can be performed by different open surgical or percutaneous techniques. Treatment of varicoceles for infertility or to prevent infertility remains controversial, because the majority of men with varicoceles are still fertile. At the moment, inguinal or subinguinal microscopic surgery gave the highest PR rates, the lowest recurrence and lowest complication rates. But retrograde superselective glue embolization or sclerosing of the ISV are the best percutaneous alternative and can be performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia and with faster return to normal activities than surgery.
- Laparoscopic varicocelectomy in the management of chronic scrotal pain. [Journal Article]
- JSLS 2014 Jul; 18(3)
To evaluate the usefulness of laparoscopic varicocelectomy in the management of chronic scrotal pain.Between 2009 and 2011, 48 patients in total were treated with laparoscopic varicocelectomy for dull scrotal pain that worsened with physical activity and was attributed to varicoceles. All patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months and biannually thereafter with a physical examination, visual analog scale score, and ultrasonographic scan in selected cases.The mean age was 38.2 years (range, 23-54 years). The mean follow-up period was 19.6 months (range, 6-26 months). Bilateral varicoceles were present in 7 patients (14.6%), and a unilateral varicocele was present in 41 (85.4%). The varicocele was grade 3 in 27 patients (56.3%), grade 2 in 20 (41.6%), and grade 1 in 1 (2.1%). The mean preoperative visual analog scale score was 4.8 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean postoperative visual analog scale score at 3 months was 0.8. After the procedure, 42 patients (87.5%) had a significant improvement in the visual analog scale score (P < .001); 5 (10.4%) had symptom improvement, although it was not statistically significant; and 1 (2.1%) remained unchanged. During follow-up, we observed 5 recurrences (10.4%) whereas de novo hydrocele formation was identified in 4 individuals (8.3%).Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is efficient in the treatment of symptomatic varicoceles with a low complication rate. However, careful patient selection is necessary because it appears that individuals presenting with sharp, radiating testicular pain and/or a low-grade varicocele are less likely to benefit from this procedure.
- Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: virtual reality training and learning curve. [Journal Article]
- JSLS 2014 Jul; 18(3)
To explore the role that virtual reality training might play in the learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy.A total of 1326 laparoscopic varicocelectomy cases performed by 16 participants from July 2005 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The participants were divided into 2 groups: group A was trained by laparoscopic trainer boxes; group B was trained by a virtual reality training course preoperatively. The operation time curves were drafted, and the learning, improving, and platform stages were divided and statistically confirmed. The operation time and number of cases in the learning and improving stages of both groups were compared. Testicular artery sparing failure and postoperative hydroceles rate were statistically analyzed for the confirmation of the learning curve.The learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy was 15 cases, and with 14 cases more, it came into the platform stage. The number of cases for the learning stages of both groups showed no statistical difference (P = .49), but the operation time of group B for the learning stage was less than that of group A (P < .00001). The number of cases of group B for the improving stage was significantly less than that of group A (P = .005), but the operation time of both groups in the improving stage showed no difference (P = .30). The difference of testicular artery sparing failure rates among these 3 stages was proved significant (P < .0001), the postoperative hydroceles rate showed no statistical difference (P = .60).The virtual reality training shortened the operation time in the learning stage and hastened the trainees' steps in the improving stage, but did not shorten the learning curve as expected to.
- Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Occlusion of the Impaired Urogenital Venous System - First Experience. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rofo 2014 Nov 12.
Purpose:To effect regression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Gat et al. (Andrologia 2008) proposed to occlude incompetent spermatic veins to reduce increased hydrostatic pressure on the prostatic venous plexus and prevent reflux with androgen rich blood from the testicles. Our aim was to implement this treatment strategy in clinical practice and to report about first results.
Methods:Embolization of the spermatic veins was performed in 30 patients with BPH. In 16 patients, we obtained follow-up data from at least 6 months. The sonographic transabdominal prostatic volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and peripheral total testosterone levels were determined before and 6 months after the intervention. Subjective symptomatology was assessed using standardized questionnaires (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] and Quality of Life score [QoL]) before and 6 months after the procedure.
Results:The age of all treated patients was 46 - 77 years. The age of the 16 patients who received follow-up was 51 - 77 years. IPSS (median 18 [IQR 20.75 - 14.50] vs. 9 [IQR 11.00 - 7.25], p < 0.0001) and QoL score (4 [IQR 5 - 3] vs. 2 [IQR 3 - 1], p < 0.001) were significantly decreased 6 months after the intervention. The subjective improvement of symptoms did not correspond with prostatic volumes, which did not change significantly (54.31 ± 30.90 vs. 50.50 ± 29.26 ml, p = n. s.). 4/16 patients had a measurable post-void urine volume, which decreased in two patients 6 months after the procedure, remained unchanged in one patient, and was no longer detectable in one patient. 4 of the 11 had a sonographically detectable varicocele before the intervention, and one patient had a trabeculated bladder. Both the peripheral total testosterone levels (4.55 ± 1.27 vs. 3.93 ± 1.00 ng/ml; p = n. s.) and PSA levels (3.74 ± 2.83 vs. 4.06 ± 3.34 ng/ml; p = n. s.) showed no significant differences.
Conclusion:Interventional occlusion of the spermatic veins in patients with BPH is a feasible outpatient procedure with a low complication rate. Intermediate results are satisfactory. Mid- and long-term results and pathophysiologic mechanisms need to be further elucidated. Key Points: • Venous embolization in patients with BPH is a feasible outpatient procedure.• It shows satisfactory intermediate result with good symptom relief.• Medium and long-term results need to be further evaluated. Citation Format: • Strunk H, Meier M, Schild HH et al. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Occlusion of the Impaired Urogenital Venous System - First Experience. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2014; DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1385353.
- Associated factors with male infertility: a case control study. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Sep; 8(9):FC11-3.
Sperm analysis is an important step to evaluate and diagnose male's infertility. The present study aimed to determine associated factors with males' infertility by using semen analysis.In this study 96 men were evaluated who attended to the infertility clinics of Ilam province, western Iran between May 2010 to May 2011. Semen analysis was done using the Weili Dynamic Sperm Analysis software adapted to the WHO classification. Based on movement and speed characters, sperms were classified to either A, B, C or D classes. Participants were stratified into two groups that called "Oligospermia (OS)" with sperm counts of less than 20 million in mL (n=48) and "Non-Oligospermia (NOS)" with values more than determined cutoff point (n=48).The Mean age ±SD for OS and NOS group were 29.9 ±5.1 y and 31.17 ±5.24 y, respectively (p>0.05). Overall, 62.5% of OS and 31.2% of NOS were clinically infertile (OR=3.6, CI, 1.5-8.5, p=0.01). A significant difference was found between job and live ratio(A+B+C) in NOS group (F=2.8, p<0.05).Prevalence of infertility was higher in the OS men compared to the NOS group. The main risk factors in the OS group were History of Varicocele surgery and residence site of patients that are totally similar to the NOS men. Further case-control studies and clinical trials are recommended to recognize infertility causes in men.
- Painful varicoceles: Role of varicocelectomy. [Journal Article, Review]
- Indian J Urol 2014 Oct; 30(4):369-73.
The incidence of varicocele in the general population is up to 15%. It is estimated that the prevalence of pain with varicoceles is around 2-10%. Till the year 2000, only two studies evaluated efficacy of varicocelectomy in painful varicoceles with conflicting results. Over the past decade many other studies have addressed this issue and reported on the treatment outcome and predictors of success. We critically appraised studies published from March 2000 to May 2013 evaluating surgical management in painful varicoceles to provide an evidence based review of effectiveness of varicocelectomy in relieving pain in patients with symptomatic painful varicoceles. The association between varicoceles and pain is not clearly established. Conservative treatment is warranted as the first line of treatment in men with painful clinical varicoceles. In carefully selected men with clinically palpable varicoceles and associated characteristic chronic dull ache, dragging or throbbing pain who do not respond to conservative therapy, varicocelectomy is warranted and is associated with approximately 80% success. However, surgical success does not always translate into resolution of pain and pain might persist even when no varicoceles are detected postoperatively.
- Nutcracker syndrome. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Nephrol 2014 Nov 6; 3(4):277-81.
The nutcracker phenomenon [left renal vein (LRV) entrapment syndrome] refers to compression of the LRV most commonly between abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Term of nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is used for patients with clinical symptoms associated with nutcracker anatomy. LRV entrapment divided into 2 types: anterior and posterior. Posterior and right-sided NCSs are rare conditions. The symptoms vary from asymptomatic hematuria to severe pelvic congestion. Symptoms include hematuria, orthostatic proteinuria, flank pain, abdominal pain, varicocele, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, fatigue and orthostatic intolerance. Existence of the clinical features constitutes a basis for the diagnosis. Several imaging methods such as Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and retrograde venography are used to diagnose NCS. The management of NCS depends upon the clinical presentation and the severity of the LRV hypertension. The treatment options are ranged from surveillance to nephrectomy. Treatment decision should be based on the severity of symptoms and their expected reversibility with regard to patient's age and the stage of the syndrome.