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- Eye Banking and Corneal Transplantation Communicable Adverse Incidents: Current Status and Project NOTIFY. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cornea 2013 May 14.
PURPOSE:: Evidence of the transmission of disease via donor ocular tissue has been demonstrated for adenocarcincoma, rabies, hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and a variety of bacterial and fungal infections.
METHODS::Although there is no evidence to date of disease transmission for HIV infection, syphilis, hepatitis C, hepatitis A, tuberculosis, HTLV-1 and -2 infection, active leprosy, active typhoid, smallpox, and active malaria, these entities remain contraindications for transplantation for all eye banks nationally and internationally. The potential sources of contamination include infected donors, during the process of removing tissue from cadaveric donors, the processing environment, and contaminated supplies and reagents used during processing. The transmissions of Herpes simplex virus and HSV via corneal graft have been shown to be responsible for primary graft failure. HSV-1 may also be an important cause of PFG.
RESULTS::The long latency period of some diseases, the emergence of new infectious disease, and the reemergence of others emphasize the need for long-term record maintenance and effective tracing capabilities.
CONCLUSIONS::The standardization of definitions for adverse events and reactions will be necessary to support the prevention and transmission of disease. International classification of a unique identification system for donors will be increasingly important for vigilance and traceability in cross-national exportation of human cells, tissues, and cellular- and tissue-based products. Opportunities for continuous improvement exist as does the need for constant vigilance and surveillance.
- Safety and immunogenicity of IMVAMUNE(®) smallpox vaccine using different strategies for a post event scenario. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vaccine 2013 May 9.
INTRODUCTION:Reintroduction of Variola major as an agent of bioterrorism remains a concern. A shortened dosing schedule of Bavarian Nordic's (BN) IMVAMUNE(®) (modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine against smallpox) was compared to the currently recommended 0- and 28-day schedule for non-inferiority by evaluating the magnitude and kinetics of the immune responses.
METHODS:Subjects were assigned to receive IMVAMUNE or placebo administered subcutaneously on Days 0 and 7, Days 0 and 28, or Day 0. Blood was collected for antibody and cell-mediated immune assays. Subjects were followed for safety for 12 months after last vaccination.
RESULTS:The primary endpoint of this study was the geometric mean antibody titers (GMT) at 14 days post last vaccination. Of 208 subjects enrolled, 191 received vaccine (Group: 0+7, Group: 0+28 and Group: 0) and 17 received placebo. Moderate/severe systemic reactogenicity after any vaccination were reported by 31.1%, 25.4%, and 28.6% of the subjects for Group: 0+7, Group: 0+28, and Group: 0, respectively (Chi-square test, P=0.77). Based on BN's Plaque Reduction Assay GMTs, Group: 0+7 was non-inferior to Group: 0+28 at Day 4, 180, and 365 after the second vaccination. On Day 14, Group: 0+7 and Group: 0+28 GMT were 10.8 (CI: 9.0, 12.9) and 30.2 (CI: 22.1, 41.1), respectively. Based on BN's Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the proportion of subjects with positive titers for Group: 0+28 was significantly greater than that for Group: 0+7 after second vaccination at Days 4 and 180. By Day 14 after the second dose, the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) responses were similar for Group: 0+28 and Group: 0+7.
CONCLUSION:Overall, a standard dose of IMVAMUNE (0.5mL of 1×10(8)TCID/mL) administered subcutaneously was safe and well tolerated. A second dose of IMVAMUNE at Day 28 compared to Day 7 provided greater antibody responses and the maximal number of responders. By Day 14 after the second dose, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were similar for Group: 0+28 and Group: 0+7.
- Assessment of the protective effect of IMVAMUNE(R) and ACAM2000(R) vaccines against aerosolised Monkeypox virus in cynomolgus macaques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Virol 2013 May 8.
To support the licensure of a new and safer vaccine to protect people against smallpox, a monkeypox model of infection in cynomolgus macaques, which simulates smallpox in man, was used to evaluate two vaccines, ACAM2000® and IMVAMUNE® for protection against disease. Animals vaccinated with a single immunisation of IMVAMUNE® were not protected completely from severe/lethal infection whereas those receiving either a prime and boost of IMVAMUNE®, or a single immunisation with ACAM2000® were protected completely. Additional parameters including clinical observations, radiographs, viral load in blood, throat swabs and selected tissues, vaccinia virus-specific antibody responses, immunophenotyping, extracellular cytokines levels and histopathology were assessed. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the levels of neutralizing antibody in animals vaccinated with a single immunization of ACAM2000® (132 U/ml) and the prime/boost IMVAMUNE® regime (69 U/ml) prior to challenge with monkeypox virus. After challenge there was evidence of viral excretion from the throats of 2 out of 6 animals in the prime/boost IMVAMUNE® group whereas there was no confirmation of excreted live virus in the ACAM2000® group. This evaluation of different human smallpox vaccines in cynomolgus macaques helps to provide information about optimal vaccine strategies in the absence of human challenge studies.
- Pharmacokinetics and Interspecies Allometric Scaling of ST-246, an Oral Antiviral Therapeutic for Treatment of Orthopoxvirus Infection. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61514.
Plasma pharmacokinetics of ST-246, smallpox therapeutic, was evaluated in mice, rabbits, monkeys and dogs following repeat oral administrations by gavage. The dog showed the lowest Tmax of 0.83 h and the monkey, the highest value of 3.25 h. A 2- to 4-fold greater dose-normalized Cmax was observed for the dog compared to the other species. The mouse showed the highest dose-normalized AUC, which was 2-fold greater than that for the rabbit and monkey both of which by approximation, recorded the lowest value. The Cl/F increased across species from 0.05 L/h for mouse to 42.52 L/h for dog. The mouse showed the lowest VD/F of 0.41 L and the monkey, the highest VD/F of 392.95 L. The calculated extraction ratios were 0.104, 0.363, 0.231 and 0.591 for mouse, rabbit, monkey and dog, respectively. The dog showed the lowest terminal half-life of 3.10 h and the monkey, the highest value of 9.94 h. The simple allometric human VD/F and MLP-corrected Cl/F were 2311.51 L and 51.35 L/h, respectively, with calculated human extraction ratio of 0.153 and terminal half-life of 31.20 h. Overall, a species-specific difference was observed for Cl/F with this parameter increasing across species from mouse to dog. The human MLP-corrected Cl/F, terminal half-life, extraction ratios were in close proximity to the observed estimates. In addition, the first-in-humans (FIH) dose of 485 mg, determined from the MLP-corrected allometry Cl/F, was well within the dose range of 400 mg and 600 mg administered in healthy adult human volunteers.
- Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination: A Population-based Danish Case-Cohort Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013 Apr 24.
BACKGROUND::Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark for children born between 1965 and 1976, hence allowing the study of subsequent risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a unique prospective design.
METHODS::The Copenhagen School Health Records Register contains detailed documentation of vaccination. Among the background cohort of individuals born between 1965 and 1976 (N = 47,622), cases with Crohn's disease (n = 218) and ulcerative colitis (n = 256) were identified through linkage to the Danish National Patient Registry. The vaccination status of the cases was compared with that of a subcohort (n = 5741) of the background cohort and analyzed in a case-cohort design.
RESULTS::No difference in risk of IBD was observed between individuals vaccinated and unvaccinated with BCG (hazard ratio = 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.19) or smallpox vaccine (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.32). This was also the case for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis separately. However, BCG given before 4 months of age may decrease the risk of IBD (hazard ratio = 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.93).
CONCLUSIONS::This prospective long-term case-cohort study shows that BCG and smallpox vaccination do not cause IBD later in life. These findings are important for the etiological understanding of IBD and of clinical importance because BCG is still one of the most commonly used childhood vaccinations, smallpox vaccine has been reintroduced in the U.S. military, and both vaccines may be used as vectors in new vaccines.
- A new population curve for prehistoric Australia. [Journal Article]
- Proc Biol Sci 2013; 280(1761):20130486.
This paper presents a new reconstruction of prehistoric population of Australia for the last 50 ka, using the most comprehensive radiocarbon database currently available for the continent. The application of new techniques to manipulate radiocarbon data (including correction for taphonomic bias), gives greater reliability to the reconstructed population curve. This shows low populations through the Late Pleistocene, before a slow stepwise increase in population beginning during the Holocene transition (approx. 12 ka) and continuing in pulses (approx. 8.3-6.6, 4.4-3.7 and 1.6-0.4 ka) through the Holocene. These data give no support for an early saturation of the continent, although the estimated population following initial landfall was probably greater than previously allowed (comparable with the Early Holocene). The greatest increase in population occurred in the Late Holocene, but in contrast to existing intensification models, changes in demography and diversification of economic activities began much earlier. Some demographic changes appear to be in response to major climatic events, most notably during the last glacial maximum, where the curve suggests that population fell by about 60 per cent between 21 and 18 ka. An application of statistical demographic methods to Australian ethnographic and genetic data suggests that a founding group of 1000-2000 at 50 ka would result in a population high of approximately 1.2 million at approximately 0.5 ka. Data suggests an 8 per cent decline to approximately 770 000-1.1 million at the time of European contact, giving a figure consistent with ethnographic estimates and with historical observations of the impact of smallpox, and other diseases introduced by Macassans and Europeans during and after AD 1788.
- Genomic analysis of vaccinia virus strain TianTan provides new insights into the evolution and evolutionary relationships between Orthopoxviruses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Virology 2013 Apr 19.
Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain TianTan was used for much of China's modern history to vaccinate against smallpox, however the only genome sequence contains errors. We have sequenced additional examples of TianTan to obtain a better picture of this important virus. We detected two different subclones. One (TP03) encodes large deletions in the terminal repeats that extend into both VEGF genes and create a small plaque variant. The second clone (TP05) encodes a nearly intact complement of genes in the terminal repeats, except for an insertion of sequences resembling the telomeric 69bp repeats. The TP05 genome spans 196,260bp and encodes 219 genes. The revised sequence documents the integrity of all the genes in the conserved virus core. Phylogenetic methods show that TianTan belongs to a unique clade of VACV, but probably also share a common origin with strains belonging to the Copenhagen/Lister lineage and distinct from the Wyeth/Dryvax lineage.
- Molluscum contagiosum: report of one case with overview. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2013.
Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin and mucosal disease of viral origin, caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) virus of poxvirus family. With the eradication of smallpox, MCV is now the only member of the poxvirus family that causes substantial disease in humans. Though frequently reported, its unusual clinical presentation makes its diagnosis a challenging task. We discuss a case of molluscum contagiosum in a 30-year-old woman along with a review of aetiology, histopathology and different possible treatment modalities.
- Current status of registry of vaccine clinical trials conducted by Korean investigators in ClinicalTrials.gov, database of US National Institutes of Health. [Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2013 Jan; 2(1):46-52.
PubMed is not only includes international medical journals but also has a registration site for the ongoing clinical trials, such as ClinicalTrials.gov, under the supervision of US National Institutes of Health. We analyzed current status of vaccine clinical trials conducted by Korean investigators in database of ClinicalTrial.gov.As of October 2012, there are total of 72 trials found on registry of vaccine clinical trials conducted by Korean investigators in database of ClinicalTrial.gov. These trials were analyzed and classified by conditions of vaccine clinical trials, biologicals or drugs used in vaccine clinical trials, status of proceeding research, and list of sponsor and collaborators.Total 72 trials of vaccine clinical trials conducted by Korean investigators are classified by groups of infection (64 trials), cancer (4 trials), and others (4 trials). Infections group shown are as follows: poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (10), influenza (9), human papillomavirus infection (8), pneumococcal vaccine (6), herpes zoster (4), smallpox (4), hepatitis B (4), etc. One trial of each in lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer are shown in cancer group. One trial of each in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, renal failure, and rheumatoid arthritis are shown in other group.Vaccine clinical trials conducted by Korean investigators in ClinicalTrial.gov reflects the current status of Korean research on vaccine clinical trials at the international level and can indicate research progress. It is hoped that this aids the development of future vaccine clinical trials in Korea.
- Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective. [Journal Article]
- Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2013 Jan; 2(1):4-7.
Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.