(Variola) articles in PubMed
- Antiviral Effect of Agaricomycetes Mushrooms (Review). [Journal Article]
- Int J Med Mushrooms 2016; 18(5):375-86IJ
- This review presents data on the studied antiviral activities of Agaricomycetes mushrooms against the herpes, West Nile, influenza, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis viruses, as well as orthopoxv...
This review presents data on the studied antiviral activities of Agaricomycetes mushrooms against the herpes, West Nile, influenza, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis viruses, as well as orthopoxviruses, including the variola virus. Polysaccharides and other compounds (e.g., proteins, glycoproteins, terpenoids, melanins, nucleosides) exhibit antiviral activity against many viruses that are pathogenic in humans. Effective strains isolated from wild mushrooms in culture represent promising objects for the development of biotechnological drugs, including ones possessing antiviral activity. The data on antitumor and antiviral activities of compounds from the same mushroom species indicate the correlation of these properties. With regard to this connection, preparations of Basidiomycetes may have prophylactic value in preventing cancers with a viral etiology.
- The primary immune response to Vaccinia virus vaccination includes cells with a distinct cytotoxic effector CD4 T-cell phenotype. [Journal Article]
- Vaccine 2016 Sep 14V
- CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that CD4 CTL are prominent in the early response to VV. Understanding the role of CD4 CTL in the generation of an effective anti-viral memory may help develop more effective vaccines for diseases such as HIV.
- Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VVIHD-J by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity. [Journal Article]
- Antiviral Res 2016 Sep 13AR
- The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, m...
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required. With this aim, new vectors based on avian poxviruses that cannot replicate in mammals should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases, such as cowpox and monkeypox. In this study, DNA and fowlpox (FP) recombinants that expressed the VV L1R, A27L, A33R, and B5R genes were generated (4DNAmix, 4FPmix, respectively) and tested in mice using novel administration routes. Mice were primed with 4DNAmix by electroporation, and boosted with 4FPmix applied intranasally. The lethal VVIHD-J strain was then administered by intranasal challenge. All of the mice receiving 4DNAmix followed by 4FPmix, and 20% of the mice immunized only with 4FPmix, were protected. The induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses directly correlated with this protection. In particular, higher anti-A27 antibodies and IFNγ-producing T lymphocytes were measured in the blood and spleen of the protected mice, as compared to controls. VVIHD-J neutralizing antibodies in sera from the protected mice suggest that the prime/boost vaccination regimen with 4DNAmix plus 4FPmix may be an effective and safe mode to induce protection against smallpox and poxvirus zoonotic infections. The electroporation/intranasal administration routes contributed to effective immune responses and mouse survival.
- Cotton Mather's medicine, with particular reference to measles. [Journal Article]
- J Med Biogr 2016 Sep 15JM
- While the vocation of Cotton Mather (1663-1728) was his ministry in Boston, he made important contributions to medicine, most famously in helping to introduce variolation to New England in 1721-22 an...
While the vocation of Cotton Mather (1663-1728) was his ministry in Boston, he made important contributions to medicine, most famously in helping to introduce variolation to New England in 1721-22 and in writing The Angel of Bethesda (1724), the first medical treatise produced in Colonial North America. This article, however, focuses on an earlier initiative, Mather's efforts to quell the epidemic of measles that struck Boston in 1713, killing among many others his wife and three children. Historians have devoted little attention to this episode or to measles in general, even though the disease was highly mortal during the colonial period. To help victims, Mather published a 'letter' on treating measles. Such a specific discussion of treatment would have been rare in Europe and it was unprecedented in America. The therapy that Mather proposed not only reflected popular medicine but also incorporated newer practices, notably those associated with Thomas Sydenham. In contrast to heroic therapies for measles, which were often dangerous but became more popular across the eighteenth century, Mather's recommendations were moderate.
- Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:32575SR
- Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the inf...
Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The "gold standard" for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle.
- Building Ventilation as an Effective Disease Intervention Strategy in a Dense Indoor Contact Network in an Ideal City. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0162481Plos
- Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks, especially they are transmitted by the airborne route, before new vaccines can be made available. Airborne disease...
Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks, especially they are transmitted by the airborne route, before new vaccines can be made available. Airborne diseases may spread rapidly as people visit different indoor environments and are in frequent contact with others. We constructed a simple indoor contact model for an ideal city with 7 million people and 3 million indoor spaces, and estimated the probability and duration of contact between any two individuals during one day. To do this, we used data from actual censuses, social behavior surveys, building surveys, and ventilation measurements in Hong Kong to define eight population groups and seven indoor location groups. Our indoor contact model was integrated with an existing epidemiological Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Recovered (SEIR) model to estimate disease spread and with the Wells-Riley equation to calculate local infection risks, resulting in an integrated indoor transmission network model. This model was used to estimate the probability of an infected individual infecting others in the city and to study the disease transmission dynamics. We predicted the infection probability of each sub-population under different ventilation systems in each location type in the case of a hypothetical airborne disease outbreak, which is assumed to have the same natural history and infectiousness as smallpox. We compared the effectiveness of controlling ventilation in each location type with other intervention strategies. We conclude that increasing building ventilation rates using methods such as natural ventilation in classrooms, offices, and homes is a relatively effective strategy for airborne diseases in a large city.
- Rapid mortality transition of Pacific Islands in the 19th century. [Journal Article]
- Epidemiol Infect 2016 Sep 9; :1-11EI
- The depopulation of Pacific islands during the 16th to 19th centuries is a striking example of historical mass mortality due to infectious disease. Pacific Island populations have not been subject to...
The depopulation of Pacific islands during the 16th to 19th centuries is a striking example of historical mass mortality due to infectious disease. Pacific Island populations have not been subject to such cataclysmic infectious disease mortality since. Here we explore the processes which could have given rise to this shift in infectious disease mortality patterns. We show, using mathematical models, that the population dynamics exhibited by Pacific Island populations are unlikely to be the result of Darwinian evolution. We propose that extreme mortality during first-contact epidemics is a function of epidemiological isolation, not a lack of previous selection. If, as pathogens become established in populations, extreme mortality is rapidly suppressed by herd immunity, Pacific Island population mortality patterns can be explained with no need to invoke genetic change. We discuss the mechanisms by which this could occur, including (i) a link between the proportion of the population transmitting infectious agents and case-fatality rates, and (ii) the course of infection with pathogens such as measles and smallpox being more severe in adults than in children. Overall, we consider the present-day risk of mass mortality from newly emerging infectious diseases is unlikely to be greater on Pacific islands than in other geographical areas.
- Vaccines and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. [Review]
- J Neurol 2016 Sep 7JN
- Vaccinations are often the most effective tool against some disease known to mankind. This study offers a literature review on the role of vaccines regarding the risk of developing multiple sclerosis...
Vaccinations are often the most effective tool against some disease known to mankind. This study offers a literature review on the role of vaccines regarding the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS relapse. The method used in this study is a systematic literature review on the database PubMed. The study found no change in risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination against hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, seasonal influenza, measles-mumps-rubella, variola, tetanus, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), polio, or diphtheria. No change in risk of relapse was found for influenza. Further research is needed for the potential therapeutic use of the BCG vaccine in patients in risk of developing MS and for the preventive potential of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine.
- The gene therapy of collagen-induced arthritis in rats by intramuscular administration of the plasmid encoding TNF-binding domain of variola virus CrmB protein. [Journal Article]
- Dokl Biochem Biophys 2016; 469(1):284-7DB
- Wistar rats with collagen-induced arthritis were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/sTNF-BD encoding the sequence of the TNF-binding protein domain of variola virus CrmB prot...
Wistar rats with collagen-induced arthritis were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/sTNF-BD encoding the sequence of the TNF-binding protein domain of variola virus CrmB protein (VARV sTNF-BD) or the pcDNA3.1 vector. Quantitative analysis showed that the histopathological changes in the hind-limb joints of rats were most severe in the animals injected with pcDNA3.1 and much less severe in the group of rats injected with pcDNA/sTNF-BD, which indicates that gene therapy of rheumatoid arthritis is promising in the case of local administration of plasmids governing the synthesis of VARV immunomodulatory proteins.
New Search Next
- Finishing monkeypox genomes from short reads: assembly analysis and a neural network method. [Journal Article]
- BMC Genomics 2016; 17 Suppl 5:497BG
- CONCLUSIONS: The protocol may prove useful in any clinical viral isolate (regardless if a reference-strain sequence is available) and especially useful in genomes confounded by many global and local repetitive sequences embedded in them. This work highlights the feasibility of finishing real, complex genomes by systematically analyzing genetic characteristics, thus remedying existing assembly shortcomings with a neural network method. Such finished sequences may enable clinicians to track genetic distance between viral isolates that provides a powerful epidemiological tool.