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- Bilateral central retinal artery occlusion and vein occlusion complicated by severe choroidopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lupus 2013 May 16.
Severe retinal vascular occlusions resulting in blindness is a rare occurrence in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we report a case of a 33-year-old female who developed combined central retinal artery occlusion, retinal vein occlusion, and choroidopathy and rapidly became completely blind in both eyes within a week. The electroretinogram revealed a severely attenuated a-wave and b-wave, indicating a profound dysfunction of both choroidal and retinal circulation, respectively. The current case demonstrates objectively the functional impact of severe choroidopathy in SLE for the first time. Patients with unilateral blindness due to combined retinal/choroidal vascular obstructions should be monitored carefully to ensure adequate anticoagulant therapy in an attempt to guard the vision in the fellow eye.
- Intense FDG uptake on PET/CT in the upper and lower respiratory system indicative of Wegener's granulomatosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol 2013 May 13.
Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an uncommon systemic vasculitis, which involves the upper and lower respiratory tracts and the kidneys. Because the patients generally present with clinical manifestations that are similar to common diseases, WG may be initially misdiagnosed as infection or malignancy. We report the case of a 55-year-old male presenting with weight loss, cough, hemoptysis, low-grade fever, and pulmonary nodules detected on the thoracic CT scan. Malignancy was initially suspected, so a PET/CT was performed. It demonstrated intense FDG uptake in the upper and lower respiratory system. The diagnosis of WG was based on PET findings, elevated serum levels of inflammatory markers, and the presence of c-ANCA. We consider that the knowledge of FDG-PET/CT findings may help to make an easier and earlier diagnosis of WG.
- Coronary artery dilatation and vasculitis in a case of rabies: Similarity with Kawasaki disease? [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Int 2013 Apr; 55(2):237-40.
A 9-year-old boy died of rabies complications. We report the unusual combination between rabies, coronary dilatation on echocardiography and coronary vasculitis documented upon autopsy. In the search for the etiological agent of Kawasaki disease, we suggest that a viral infection with potential antigenic similarities to rabies virus should be entertained.
- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2013 Apr; 74(4):151-62.
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes.
- Simvastatin inhibits neutrophil degranulation induced by anti-neutrophil cytoplasm auto-antibodies and N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) peptide. [Journal Article]
- Saudi Med J 2013 May; 34(5):477-83.
To test the hypothesis that simvastatin is capable of blocking human neutrophil degranulation induced by proteinase 3 (PR3)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasm auto-antibodies (ANCA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA, and by the chemotactic and inflammatory peptide N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP).This study was conducted between March 2010 and September 2011 at the Renal Institute of Birmingham, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified from the plasma of 20 randomly selected patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (10 PR3- and 10 MPO-ANCA), and their ability to induce neutrophil degranulation in the presence or absence of simvastatin (10 uM) was tested. The ability of the same dose of simvastatin to block fMLP-induced neutrophil degranulation was also tested. In addition, the ability of serum obtained from rats that received simvastatin at a dose of 25 mg/kg/day to block neutrophil degranulation in vitro was tested.The addition of simvastatin significantly inhibited ANCA IgG-induced neutrophil degranulation by 48% (p=0.02). There was no significant difference in response to simvastatin inhibition (p=0.73) between PR3- and MPO-ANCA. Simvastatin also inhibited neutrophil degranulation induced by 1 uM fMLP (30%, p=0.04). We further demonstrated that serum from rats that received simvastatin significantly inhibited neutrophil degranulation induced by ANCA (31.7%, p=0.01) and fMLP (23.5%, p=0.03) compared to serum from control animals.Simvastatin blocked both ANCA and fMLP-induced neutrophil degranulation. It is worth pursuing further therapeutic investigation of statins in vascular inflammatory diseases that involve neutrophil degranulation in their pathogenesis.
- [Parvovirus B19 arthritis: Report of three cases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chil 2012 Nov; 140(11):1453-6.
Parvovirus B19 infection is highly prevalent in children and the most common manifestation is a facial rash. In adults, acute polyarthritis and skin rash are often the presenting features. We report three patients with the disease. A 40-year-old female presenting with fever, myalgias and painful swelling of elbows, knees, wrists and feet, with functional limitation, after having a respiratory infection. Additionally, an erythematous skin rash appeared in both extremities. IgM antibodies against Parvovirus B19 were positive. The skin biopsy disclosed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antihistaminics. A 40-year-old female, presenting with skin rash and pain in wrists and hands. IgM antibodies against parvovirus were positive. The patient was treated successfully with acetaminophen. A 38-year-old male with psoriasis, presenting with generalized and progressive polyarthralgia. A Parvovirus viral load determination found 239000 copies of the virus and IgM antibodies were positive. He was successfully treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Systemic Vasculitis Associated with Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies against Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing Protein. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2013; 52(10):1095-9.
Myeloperoxidase- and proteinase 3-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are often negative in cases in which systemic vasculitis is highly suspected. We herein present a case of bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI)-ANCA-positive systemic vasculitis. This case highlights the possible role of BPI-ANCA in the pathogenesis of systemic vasculitis as well as the possible use of BPI as a diagnostic tool. The accumulation of further case-based reports is expected to shed some light on the pathogesis of systemic vasculitis.
- Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with letrozole. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Oncol Pharm Pract 2013 May 14.
Aromatase inhibitors are increasingly used in the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. They can produce various skin adverse effects but are only rarely associated with cutaneous vasculitis. We report the first case of cutaneous vasculitis clearly associated with the use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole.
- Generalized Alopecia with Vasculitis-Like Changes in a Dog with Babesiosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Med Sci 2013 May 16.
A locally bred, 12-year-old, intact female Satsuma dog presented with generalized alopecia. Erythema, crusts and desquamation were observed primarily on the truck. Papules and erosions were present in the pinnae, and there were multiple areas of skin necrosis on the right forelimb. The cutaneous lesions had not responded to treatment with systemic antibiotics and prednisolone. The dog also had progressive anemia. Babesia gibsoni was detected in the blood, and the dog was treated with antiprotozoal agents. The skin lesions and anemia improved, but relapsed after the treatment was discontinued. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed findings suggestive of early leukocytoclastic vasculitis or ischemic vasculopathy.
- Prevalence of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris Following Metal-on-Metal THA. [Journal Article]
- Orthopedics 2013 May 1; 36(5):e606-12.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) following large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. The authors examined the potential for using magnetic resonance imaging to screen for pseudotumors in 108 hips 2 years postoperatively. Serum cobalt and chromium concentrations were measured in 80 hips that underwent unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The authors considered pseudotumors and aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions to be ARMD and compared metal ion levels between hips with ARMD (ARMD group) with hips with no ARMD (non-ARMD group).Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pseudotumors in 9 patients (10 hips, 9%). Five of these 10 hips were symptomatic and underwent revision surgery. Two other patients underwent revision surgery due to symptomatic cup loosening with aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions. Ten patients (12 hips) had ARMD. Serum cobalt and chromium concentrations were significantly higher in hips with ARMD than hips without ARMD. Other factors, including age, body mass index, sex, clinical score, acetabular cup inclination angle, and femoral head diameter, were not significantly different between the groups.Elevated metal ion levels suggest that ARMD is associated with increased metal wear. Magnetic resonance imaging provides sensitive screening for pseudotumors following metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.