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Venous Insufficiency Ulcers [keywords]
- The distribution and extent of reflux and obstruction in patients with active venous ulceration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phlebology 2014 Mar 28.
This study was performed to precisely define the underlying pathophysiology in patients with active venous ulcers.A PubMed search was conducted from 1991 to 2013 to select papers reporting the anatomic and physiologic etiology of ulceration in CEAP Class 6 patients. Studies which did not decipher between active and healed ulcers, did not use clear definitions, or did not give detailed accounts on the distribution/extent of venous pathology were excluded. Using the PRISMA guidelines, 12 studies were selected for further analysis.Primary insufficiency was reportedly the most common etiology of ulcers. Reflux most frequently occurred in the superficial system, either isolated or in conjunction with perforating and/or deep systems. Combined superficial and deep disease was observed in a median of 11.6% of limbs (range of 0-48%). Triple system disease was seen in a median of 31.6% of limbs (range of 22-52%). Isolated deep reflux was infrequently reported (2.1-28.4% of limbs). Previous deep venous thrombosis, reported in a median of 33% of patients, is likely underreported as it may resolve without detectable damage.There is a lack of data in the literature regarding the etiology of chronic active venous ulcers. Insufficiency of the superficial venous system from the micro- to the macro-vasculature has been frequently implicated in the development of venous ulceration. A prospective randomized controlled study is required for more conclusive results.
- Risk factors associated with complications in lower-extremity reconstruction with the distally based sural flap: A systematic review and pooled analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2014 May; 67(5):607-16.
The distally based sural fasciocutaneous flap is one of the few options available for local flap reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in the lower one-third of the leg. Few studies have assessed risk factors associated with poor outcomes in this flap. A literature search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles evaluating the use of sural artery fasciocutaneous flaps for soft-tissue reconstruction of the leg. Data were pooled and a univariate analysis was performed to identify characteristics associated with increased morbidity. A logistic regression model was created, and odds ratios and p values associated with the development of complications were calculated. Sixty-one papers were identified which included data on 907 patients. The majority of sural flaps were used to cover defects of the heel (28.2%), foot (14.4%) or ankle (25.8%). Trauma was the most common indication, followed by ulcers and open fractures. Flap complications were recorded in 26.4% of cases with a flap loss rate of 3.2%. With multivariate analysis, venous insufficiency and increasing age were independent risk factors for complications. Patients with venous insufficiency had nine times the risk of developing a complication compared to patients without venous insufficiency.
- Do ready-made compression stockings fit the anatomy of the venous leg ulcer patient? [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2014 Mar; 23(3):128, 130-2,134-5.
How usable two standardised measuring methods are for the selection of three different brands of ready-made below-knee compression stockings. Furthermore, this study aims to determine how many of the included patients fit into a ready-made compression stocking in a limited selection of brands.Consecutive patients suffering from venous insufficiency and treated at a specialised wound healing centre were included in this prospective comparative study. Two standardised measuring methods were used to evaluate the suitability of three different brands of ready-made below knee compression stockings. The circumference was measured at three points and seven points below the knee. The results of these measurements were compared to three selected brands of ready-made compression stockings.Together, 43 consecutive patients (25 men and 18 women) were included in the study. When the leg was measured at three points, 53.5%, 34.9% and 0% of the patients fitted into brand 1, brand 2 and brand 3 of the ready-made compression stockings, respectively. When measured at seven points, only 4.7% of the patients fitted into brand 1, 7% in brand 2 and 0% of the patients fitted into brand 3.These results demonstrate that there is a need to standardise measuring methods in the selection of ready-made below-knee compression stockings and a need for an evaluation of the present stocking sizes in relation to the anatomy of the venous leg ulcer patient. This study has shown that ready-made compression stockings presently prescribed will not properly fit the majority of patients to prevent oedema and ulcer recurrence. Further studies focused on the development of new sizes or changes in fitting recommendations may help solve these problems.There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare with regard to the manuscript or its content.
- Holistic management of venous ulcers especially with endovenous laser treatment using 980nm laser in an ethnically diverse society. [Journal Article]
- Med J Malaysia 2013 Dec; 68(6):453-8.
Chronic venous ulcers usually occur as an occupational hazard due to venous insufficiency with venous hypertension. Endovenous laser treatment (EVT) is used to treat varicose veins with venous ulcers and outcome including demography assessed in the different races.145 lower limbs(right 39.3%, left 60.7%) with venous ulcers involving reflux of the great saphenous (132 cases) and / or small saphenous (57 cases) veins underwent EVT with 980 nm diode laser for single (123 cases) or both (11 cases) legs intervention. Supplementary procedures required multiple avulsions and / or sclerotherapy. Holistic advice of multilayered bandaging, graduated compression stockings, weight reduction and lifestyle changes enforced.The average age with venous ulcers was 53.6 years.The mean BMI was 26.8 : the Chinese, Indian and Malay BMIs were 25.1, 28.1 and 31.3 respectively. Symptoms that included pain, swelling, heaviness and cramps assessed pre- and postsurgically were significantly reduced (<0.0001), using the Wilcoxan signed rank test. Of the occupations involved by race, the Chinese were mostly salespersons, Indians blue collar workers and Malays foodrelated workers. Young overweight Indians with sedentary occupations were most predisposed to venous ulcers. Gram negative organisms 63.4% and gram positive organisms 36.6% were isolated in the ulcers. Most ulcers 63.5% measured <2 cm and majority 73.8% localised in the gaiter area.Results of EVT in healing ulcers with no recurrences more than 2 years were successful in 89.7% (130/145). Complications included numbness foot 7.5% and DVT 1.4%. 10.3% (15 cases) had recurrence of venous ulcers within 2 years. In terms of satisfaction 32.3% experienced as very satisfied while 63.4% were satisfied and 4.3% unsatisfied. In conclusion EVT is a useful adjunct with with minimal invasion in managing venous ulcers holistically.
- Conditions in the elderly. [Journal Article]
- Practitioner 2014 Jan; 258(1767):28-9.
- Healing outcomes of MRSA-infected wounds with a protocol combining Oakin dressing with elements of the de-escalation theory. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2014 Feb; 23(2):S4, S6-8, S10-1.
This paper presents a novel wound healing protocol for the treatment of MRSA-infected lower extremity wounds of various etiologies, and describes the healing rate at 30, 60 and 90 days.A total of 40 participants with singular wounds were enrolled and treated with a specially designed protocol, which involves elements of the de-escalation theory together with a wound dress containing Oakin, in a private practice setting or a wound care center. The primary endpoint was the number of participants who achieved wound closure at 90 days. Data analysed and collected included wound etiology, wound size, gender, healing time by setting, and days to heal overall. Due to the anticipated small cohort of wound types, several statistical calculations were considered, including one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and Levene's test.All wounds were classified by etiology: 58% (n=23), diabetic neuropathic ulcers (DNU), 25% (n=10) venous insufficiency ulcers (VU), and 17% (n=7) pressure ulcers (PU). Overall, 35% (n=14) healed within 30 days (22.14 ± 4.47), 60% (n=24) healed in 60 days (31.76 ± 13.02), and 78% (n=31) healed in 90 days (40.81 ± 22.23). After 90 days, the remaining 23% (n=9) of participants were no longer followed.This clinical evaluation demonstrated the overall effectiveness of this treatment protocol by attaining nearly 80% wound closure within 90 days. This protocol is intended to provide a roadmap for clinicians to follow and adapt to their wound care practice should a high prevalence of MRSA-infected wounds be present.The author has disclosed that he has worked doing clinical case studies for Amerx Health Care Corp. and is on their speaker bureau. The author has also disclosed that he has no financial relationship or vested interest with Amerx Health Care Corp. No funding was provided by the NIH, Wellcome Trust, HHMI, or others.
- Overview of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers: a US perspective. [REVIEW]
- J Multidiscip Healthc 2014.:111-117.
Comprehensive care of chronic venous insufficiency and associated ulcers requires a multipronged and interprofessional approach to care. A comprehensive treatment approach includes exercise, nutritional assessment, compression therapy, vascular reconstruction, and advanced treatment modalities. National guidelines, meta-analyses, and original research studies provide evidence for the inclusion of these approaches in the patient plan of care. The purpose of this paper is to review present guidelines for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers as followed in the US. The paper further explores evidence-based yet pragmatic tools for the interprofessional team to use in the management of this complex disorder.
- The lived experiences of persons with chronic venous insufficiency and lower extremity ulcers. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2014 Mar-Apr; 41(2):122-6.
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the lived experience of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) sufferers and to explore how this chronic disease affected their health-related quality of life.Participants included persons with a history of venous insufficiency and leg ulcers or active venous insufficiency patients. The research setting was a hospital-based outpatient wound care clinic in a small naval community approximately 1 hour from Seattle, Washington. A convenience sample of 10 patients participated in the study; 6 were women and their mean age was 66 years. Nine were white and 1 was African American, and all were currently retired, disabled, or unemployed.A 9-item interview guide was developed consisting of open-ended questions intended to elicit the lived experiences of persons with CVI.Respondents participated in 1 focus group or individual interviews. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to guide data collection and analysis. Three patients participated in individual interviews and 7 patients participated in a 1-hour focus group. Data obtained from personal interviews were handwritten and data from focus group were audio-recorded. Audio-recorded data from focus group participation were transcribed, analyzed, and compared with the handwritten interviews using interpretive phenomenological analysis.Four themes identifying the various emotional, physical, and social implications of living with CVI were identified. They were (1) knowledge deficit, (2) discomfort, (3) inconvenience, and (4) coping. Participants identified concerns with knowledge deficits surrounding CVI among nonwound specialized providers. Physical discomfort and issues around the inconvenience presented by the frequency of physician visits and the nature of the treatments for CVI were also noted as a great concern among all participants. Participants provided insight into the importance of a strong social network of friends and family as well as the importance of a good relationship with your medical providers to assist sufferers in coping with the disease process.Participants cited knowledge deficits regarding CVI among nonspecialized health care providers and the discomfort, pain, and inconvenience of suffering from CVI as contributors to poor health-related quality of life. Participants described family, friends, and caregiver relationships as being especially important in helping them cope with the disease process.
- Improving the management of varicose veins. [Journal Article]
- Practitioner 2013 Nov-Dec; 257(1766):21-4, 2-3.
Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux.
- Low-frequency ultrasound for patients with lower leg ulcers due to chronic venous insufficiency: a report of two cases. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ostomy Wound Manage 2014 Feb; 60(2):52-61.
Low-frequency ultrasound may facilitate debridement and healing of chronic wounds, including lower leg wounds in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). To evaluate the use of a low-frequency ultrasound (LFU) device with a curette, two patients with CVI and chronic wounds were treated for a period of 2 to 3 weeks. A 63-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and two wounds, one on the right lower leg (250 cm³) and one wound on the left medial leg (0.80 cm³), present for 12 months; and a 77-year-old man with cardiopulmonary issues with seven wounds, three on the left medial calf (1.2 cm³, 11.40 cm³, and 0.72 cm³), one on the left anterior calf (0.30 cm³), two on the right posterior calf (0.90 cm³, 0.30 cm³), and one on the right anterior calf (0.14 cm³), present for 3 months consented to participate in the study. Both patients received low-intensity (50-70 μm), low-frequency (35 kHz) ultrasound at an intensity of 50% through a saline mist in addition to antimicrobial dressing with silver, a multilayer compression bandage system applied at every visit, and pain medication as needed. Both patients received treatments every 1 to 3 weeks that were not timed. Treatment continued until no additional slough or other necrotic tissue could be removed from the wound bed; the female patient received two treatment sessions and the male received three. Average wound volume did not change significantly from the first to last treatment session (t(8)-1.2, P = 0.26). Five wounds (56%) with initial measurements of 0.8 cm³, 0.72 cm³, 0.3 cm³, 0.3 cm³, and 0.14 cm³ reduced in volume by 100%. Mean wound characteristic scores changed significantly (P <0.05) for amount of fibrin, periwound skin, drainage amount, and color. In addition, the number of wounds filled with slough decreased from 89% at the first session to 22% at the final treatment session. The results of this study suggest LFU may have been beneficial for these patients with CVI. Additional studies using larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate the effect of this treatment on a variety of chronic wounds and to compare its effectiveness to other debridement methods.