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Venous Insufficiency Ulcers [keywords]
- Wound healing, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and collagen-containing products: a case study. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2014 Nov-Dec; 41(6):611-4.
The effects of multiple medications may impair or enhance wound healing. A review of the literature for drug side effects identified cell culture and case studies of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) impairing collagen deposition in cutaneous wounds; these medications have also been used to prevent or minimize keloid formation.A 71-year-old male patient presented with a venous leg ulcer (VLU), having incurred a crushing injury and fracture requiring surgical repair 16 years earlier. The patient's history was significant for obesity, smoking 1 cigar daily, hypertension, and lower extremity venous insufficiency; medications included amlodipine and lisinopril. The wound initially responded well to advanced wound products and compression, but wound healing subsequently stalled. A collagen-containing alginate dressing was added to the treatment regimen and the wound closed within 2 weeks.We postulate that lisinopril may have contributed to the observed delayed healing and targeted this potential impediment to wound healing with a readily available topical collagen-containing product resulting in a rapid wound closure after a significant delay in progress toward wound healing.
- [Varicoses: should invasive treatment be standard?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2014; 158(0):A8299.
The new Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for diagnosis and treatment of venous pathology deals with diagnosis and treatment of varicosis, new surgical techniques in obstruction or insufficiency of the deep venous system, crural ulcers and compression therapy with hosiery or bandages. It also describes classical and new techniques for surgery and endovascular obliteration of varicose veins and evidence based criteria for choosing the optimal therapeutic strategy. Although the working party puts much emphasis on new invasive therapies it neglects to describe the results of conservative therapy such as therapeutic elastic stockings and lifestyle advice including weight loss, exercise and avoiding standing in upright position for long periods. The general advice to choose invasive therapy above conservative therapy except where the result of previous invasive therapy has been insufficient or where invasive therapy is not an option, seems somewhat over the top. Modern elastic stockings are more acceptable as they look good, are transparent and have all kinds of elegant extras and the modern fabrics are comfortable for the wearer. Class I compression stockings have been shown to be effective in uncomplicated cases and are easier to handle than class II, especially for the elderly.
- [The value of radial shock wave therapy in the management of extended crural ulceration. Case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Orv Hetil 2014 Nov 1; 155(45):1794-9.
The authors present the history of a 36-year-old woman who had crural ulceration in the ventral side of the left lower limb due to venous circulatory failure for 5 years. In addition to the application of dressing adapted to the actual status of the wound, the authors applied an extracorporal shock wave therapy two times per week. After this treatment the size of the ulcer significantly decreased and it became suitable for mesh-graft cover. The patient is currently asymptomatic. The authors draw attention to the fact that the number of patients having crural ulcer is increasing in developed countries including Hungary. Lower limb ulcers occur in 1-5% of the adult population. Predisposing factors include older age and civilization hazards such as obesity, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle. The main cause of the disease is circulatory failure; venous insufficiency occurs in about two-thirds of the patients, arterial ischemia in 15% and diabetic angiopathy in 15% of the cases. Infections, metabolic diseases and immunological disorders may be also an underlying cause in a small number of patients. In several patients the causative factors occur simultaneously making difficult to find and effective treatment. Despite the use of numerous preventive and therapeutic protocols, treatment is usually long and does not always match expectations of the patients. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(45), 1794-1799.
- Chronic venous leg ulcers: Effects of foam sclerotherapy on healing and recurrence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phlebology 2014 Oct 28.
Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment option used for ablation of axial and perforator reflux for chronic venous ulceration. Active ulceration presents a significant health burden in both the primary and secondary care setting. The objective of this study is to determine ulcer healing rates at 24 weeks and 12 months, and ulcer recurrence rates at one year for chronic venous ulcers after ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy.Between 2007 and 2012, 54 patients underwent ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological C6 ulcers. All patients were followed up clinically, and venous duplex was performed on all legs before and after treatment. A prospectively maintained database was analysed to determine venous truncal occlusion rates, 24-week and 12-month healing and recurrence rates (using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis).Fifty-seven ulcerated legs, 39 primary and 18 with recurrent superficial venous reflux were analysed. Median time of active ulceration at presentation was 15.2 months (range 5 months to 17 years). At a median follow-up of 2.7 months, 90% (51 legs) achieved full truncal occlusion after one session, 4% (2) short segment occlusion and 5% (3) failed to occlude and one patient died and was lost to follow-up; 13/57 (23%) required a second session of treatment for completion of treatment, recanalisations and to treat perforator disease, 88% (50/57) ulcers healed at a median of 5.3 months (interquartile range 2.9-8.4 months) following their first ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy treatment. The 24-week and 12-month estimated healing rates were 53% and 72%, respectively. The estimated 12-month recurrence rate was 9.2%. There were no reported incidences of deep venous thrombosis or neurological symptoms.This study affirms the role of ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy as a safe and effective option for abolition of superficial reflux.
- [Ankle brachial index measurement]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2014 Oct.:123-6.
Ultrasound examinations are noninvasive diagnostic methods which, along with appropriate history and clinical examination, provide basic information on the etiology and spread of the disease, as well as on treatment options required in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and arterial flow impairment. Doppler flow meter offers useful data on venous blood return, primarily in great veins, while both deep and superficial veins as well as arteries can be visualized and data on venous and arterial hemodynamics obtained by duplex ultrasonography. In addition, Doppler flow meter provides data on the peripheral arterial system action through ankle brachial index measurement, which will guide the choice of compression therapy when deciding on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease and mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers. However, diagnosis of arterial insufficiency requires additional examinations.
- [Differential diagnosis and work up of chronic leg ulcers]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2014 Oct.:25-30.
Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcers. The main causes are chronic venous insufficiency, peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and diabetes. Some leg ulcers are caused by combinations of these well-known etiologic factors. The most common cause of PAOD is arteriosclerosis. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of leg ulcers. Less frequent causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infections, primary skin disease, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is made upon medical history, clinical picture, palpation of arteries, functional testing and serologic testing. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for additional clarification. Also, lesion biopsy should be taken for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology. The knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in a patient with leg ulcer.
- [Chronic wounds as a public health problem]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Acta Med Croatica 2014 Oct.:5-7.
Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals and the entire health care system. Regarding the healing process, wounds can be classified as acute or chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if healing does not occur within the expected period according to the wound etiology and localization. Chronic wounds can be classified as typical and atypical. The majority of wounds (95 percent) are typical ones, which include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic ulcers and two separate entities: diabetic foot and decubital ulcers. Eighty percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the rest are mostly neuropathic ulcers. Chronic wounds significantly decrease the quality of life of patients by requiring continuous topical treatment, causing immobility and pain in a high percentage of patients. Chronic wounds affect elderly population. Chronic leg ulcers affect 0.6-3 percent of those aged over 60, increasing to over 5 percent of those aged over 80. Emergence of chronic wounds is a substantial socioeconomic problem as 1-2 percent of western population will suffer from it. This estimate is expected to rise due to the increasing proportion of elderly population along with the diabetic and obesity epidemic. It has been proved that chronic wounds account for the large proportion of costs in the health care system, even in rich societies. Socioeconomically, the management of chronic wounds reaches a total of 2-4 percent of the health budget in western countries. Treatment costs for some other diseases are not irrelevant, nor are the method and materials used for treating these wounds. Considering etiologic factors, a chronic wound demands a multidisciplinary approach with great efforts of health care professionals to treat it more efficiently, more simply and more painlessly for the patient, as well as more inexpensively for health care funds.
- Surgical treatment of large vascular leg ulcers: a retrospective review evaluating risk factors for healing and recurrence. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Surg 2014 Nov; 40(11):1240-8.
Superficial reflux ablation and revascularization improve the long-term prognosis of venous and arterial leg ulcers but do not solve the problem of protracted healing of large chronic wounds. Skin grafting has been shown to successfully heal chronic leg ulcers.To identify risk factors for ulcer healing and recurrence after shave therapy and split-skin grafting in patients with large ulcers treated surgically for venous insufficiency.Single-center retrospective cohort study involving 72 chronic leg ulcers with a mean area of 77 ± 132 cm. Healing and recurrence rates were determined using life-table analysis. Clinical, demographic, and hemodynamic parameters were correlated with healing and recurrence using Cox regression analysis.Sixty ulcers (83%) healed after a mean of 1.9 months and 15 ulcers (25%) recurred after a mean of 12.7 months. Healing was positively associated with compression treatment (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.59) and negatively associated with ulcer duration (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.0). Male sex, ulcer duration, and deep venous reflux were identified as significant risk factors for ulcer recurrence (HR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03-0.73; HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.0-1.04; and HR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.30-22.31).Early surgical intervention improves healing and reduces the risk of ulcer recurrence.
- Maggots as a wound debridement agent for chronic venous leg ulcers under graduated compression bandages: a randomised controlled trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Phlebology 2014 Oct 8.
Slough in chronic venous leg ulcers may be associated with delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to assess larval debridement in chronic venous leg ulcers and to assess subsequent effect on healing.All patients with chronic leg ulcers presenting to the leg ulcer service were evaluated for the study. Exclusion criteria were: ankle brachial pressure indices <0.85 or >1.25, no venous reflux on duplex and <20% of ulcer surface covered with slough. Participants were randomly allocated to either 4-layer compression bandaging alone or 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae. Surface areas of ulcer and slough were assessed on day 4; 4-layer compression bandaging was then continued and ulcer size was measured every 2 weeks for up to 12 weeks.A total of 601 patients with chronic leg ulcers were screened between November 2008 and July 2012. Of these, 20 were randomised to 4-layer compression bandaging and 20 to 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae. Median (range) ulcer size was 10.8 (3-21.3) cm(2) and 8.1 (4.3-13.5) cm(2) in the 4-layer compression bandaging and 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae groups, respectively (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.184). On day 4, median reduction in slough area was 3.7 cm(2) in the 4-layer compression bandaging group (P < 0.05) and 4.2 cm(2) (P < 0.001) in the 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae group. Median percentage area reduction of slough was 50% in the 4-layer compression bandaging group and 84% in the 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae group (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). The 12-week healing rate was 73% and 68% in the 4-layer compression bandaging and 4-layer compression bandaging + larvae groups, respectively (Kaplan-Meier analysis, P = 0.664).Larval debridement therapy improves wound debridement in chronic venous leg ulcers treated with multilayer compression bandages. However, no subsequent improvement in ulcer healing was demonstrated.
- The perspectives of adults with venous leg ulcers on exercise: an exploratory study. [Journal Article]
- J Wound Care 2014 Oct; 23(10):496-509.
Exercise has the potential to offer a range of health benefits in addition to improving healing outcomes for people with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). However, despite evidence-based recommendations, most of these individuals do not engage in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives of adults with VLUs, in relation to exercise.This was a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Ten participants with venous leg ulceration volunteered to participate. Recruitment was through a specialist wound clinic. Verbatim data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured guide. Data saturation was reached after three group discussions and two interviews. A random selection of transcripts was sent back to the participants for verification. Thematic content analysis was used to determine major themes and categories. Two transcripts were independently analysed, categories and themes independently developed, cross checked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using the developed categories and codes.Regardless of their current exercise routine, participants reported exercising before venous leg ulceration and expressed an interest in either becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Overall, four themes emerged from the findings: i) participant understanding of the relationship between chronic venous insufficiency and exercise patterns; ii) fear of harm impacts upon positive beliefs and attitudes to exercise; iii) perceived factors limit exercise; and iv) structured management facilitates exercise.The value of exercise in improving outcomes in VLUs lies in its capacity to promote venous return and reduce the risk of secondary conditions in this population. Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with VLUs report many obstacles. Further exploration of mechanisms that assist this patient population and promote understanding about management of barriers, coupled with promotion of enabling factors, is vital for improving their exercise participation.The authors declare that they have no competing interests.