Venous Insufficiency Ulcers [keywords]
- Modalities to Treat Venous Ulcers: Compression, Surgery, and Bioengineered Tissue. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Sep; 138(3 Suppl):199S-208S.
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) represent the most common ulcers of the lower extremity. VLUs are notorious for delayed and prolonged healing with high rates of recurrence. Most patients with VLUs also have significant comorbidities that interfere with primary wound healing. Thus, caring for patients with VLUs requires an interdisciplinary approach that addresses the abnormal venous anatomy and the downstream effects that lead to inflammation, ulceration, and a hostile wound microenvironment.The current literature regarding venous ulcer treatment with an emphasis on compression, surgical options, and use of bioengineered tissue was reviewed. A combination of society guidelines, Cochrane reviews, and over 80 primary articles with high-level evidence were utilized to develop this summary and algorithm for an integrated approach to treating patients with venous ulcers. Details regarding compression modalities and venous diagnostic imaging are presented to help the clinician understand the rationale for using these technologies.The comprehensive approach to the patient with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) includes advances in compression, diagnostics, minimally invasive surgical treatment of venous disease, wound bed preparation, and bioengineered skin and soft tissue substitutes. An algorithm that incorporates early treatment of the ulcer and the venous disease leading to healing with prevention of recurrence is presented.Utilizing guidelines that incorporate evidence-based modalities will lead to the highest quality outcomes with the most appropriate resource utilization. A proactive approach to treating venous disease will alleviate suffering and prevent the long-term sequelae of CVI.
- Current Status and Future of Skin Substitutes for Chronic Wound Healing. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cutan Med Surg 2016 Aug 16.
Chronic wounds, including diabetic ulcers, pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, and arterial insufficiency ulcers, are both difficult and expensive to treat. Conventional wound care may sometimes lead to suboptimal wound healing and significant morbidity and mortality for patients. The use of skin substitutes provides an alternative therapy showing superior efficacy and, in some cases, similar cost-effectiveness compared to traditional treatments. This review discusses the different types of currently available commercial skin substitutes for use in chronic wounds as well as the paucity of strong evidence supporting their use. It then delves into the limitations of these skin substitutes and examines the most recent research targeting these limitations.
- Effect of Pycnogenol on the Healing of Venous Ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Vasc Surg 2016 Aug 10.
Venous ulcers are common complications of chronic venous insufficiency that result in severe physical and mental suffering to patients. The oral administration of diosmin/hesperidin has been used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of pycnogenol and diosmin/hesperidin on the healing of venous ulcers.This longitudinal, prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 30 adult patients with venous ulcers from a vascular surgery outpatient clinic of a university hospital. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: group 1 (n=15) was treated with pycnogenol (50 mg orally, three-times daily), and group 2 (n=15) was treated with diosmin/hesperidin (450/50 mg orally, twice daily). They were assessed every 15 days for 90 days. During follow-up visits, photo-documentation was obtained and the ulcer area and circumference of the affected limb were measured. Friedman's test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to compare ulcer areas and circumference of affected limbs between and within groups at the different time points. The level of significance was set at 5% (P<0.05) for all tests.Both the pycnogenol and diosmin/hesperidin treatments had a similar effect on the healing of venous ulcers and led to a significant decrease in the circumference of affected limbs (P<0.0001).The results suggest that pycnogenol has an adjuvant effect on the healing of venous ulcers, similar to diosmin/hesperidin.
- [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Zentralbl Chir 2016 Aug 8.
Venous leg ulcer (VLU) counts among the most common chronic wounds in Europe. Treatment is lengthy, cumbersome and costly, and there is a high rate of recurrence. This review shows the measures that should be offered to every patient with healed VLU to permanently prevent recurrence. To prevent VLU in case of varicose veins, the progression of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has to be stopped. There is convincing evidence that the effective treatment of varicose veins reduces the recurrence rate in patients with VLU. In patients with post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), further thrombosis should be prevented through targeted prophylaxis of new thromboembolic events. The benefit of endovascular revascularization on the VLU recurrence rate in patients with post-thrombotic damage in the pelvic veins has not been proven in clinical studies. On the other hand, it has been clearly demonstrated in several studies that compression therapy is the basic procedure for the prevention of recurrent VLU in patients with varicose veins or PTS, regardless of whether other measures have been implemented or not. Good adherence in patients with compression therapy is more important than choosing the highest possible compression class. Future efforts for patients with VLU must aim to provide therapists with tools and treatment strategies to guide their patients and to increase patients' acceptance and understanding of the importance of self-management, in particular regarding compression therapy for the prevention of recurrent VLU.
- VENOUS ULCER--A NEW THERAPEUTIC APPROACH. [Journal Article]
- Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2016 Apr-Jun; 120(2):306-10.
Trophic leg ulcer is a major health problem affecting approximately 1-2% of the population, the incidence being higher in the elderly (70-80 years). It is a multifactorial condition, but the most common cause is chronic venous insufficiency. This can be attributed to reflux in the saphenous system and calf perforator vein incompetence. These were first described by Linton, the first intervention designed to correct perforator vein incompetence bearing his name. Today Linton's operation has been abandoned due to the large unaesthetic incision and great postoperative pain. Also, ulcer healing time is long (2 months) and recurrence rate is high. Currently a series of minimally invasive procedures are used to close these perforator veins, such as ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy. The advantages of these techniques are less discomfort to the patients, low rate of complications, short hospital stay.
- Chronic venous disease - Part I: Inflammatory biomarkers in wound healing. [Journal Article]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Oct; 1862(10):1964-74.
Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) produce wound fluid (WF), as a result of inflammatory processes within the wound. It is unclear if WF from different healing phases of VLU has a peculiar biochemical profile and how VLU microenvironment affects the wound healing mechanisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytokine/chemokine profiles in WF from distinct VLU phases, in WF- and LPS-stimulated monocytes and treated with glycosaminoglycan Sulodexide, a therapeutic option for VLU healing. WF and plasma were collected from patients with VLU during active inflammatory (Infl) and granulating (Gran) phases. Demographics, clinical characteristics and pain measurements were evaluated. WF, plasma, and THP-1 supernatants were analyzed for 27 inflammatory mediators by multiplex immunoassay. Our results demonstrated that: 1) pain was significantly increased in patients with Infl compared to Gran VLU; 2) cytokine profile of Infl WF was found to be statistically different from that Gran WF, as well significantly increased respect to plasma; 3) LPS- and WF-stimulation of THP-1 cells significantly increased the expression of several cytokines compared to untreated cells; 4) Sulodexide treatment of both LPS- and WF-stimulated THP-1 monocytes was able to significantly down-regulate the release of peculiar inflammatory mediators. Our study highlighted the importance to understand biomolecular processes underlying CVI when providing treatment for chronic VLU. Identification of inflammatory biomarkers in leg ulcer microenvironment, may provide useful tools for predicting healing outcome and developing targeted therapies.
- Successful Treatment of Chronic Venous Ulcers With a 1,320-nm Endovenous Laser Combined With Other Minimally Invasive Venous Procedures. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Surg 2016 Aug; 42(8):961-6.
Venous ulcers are very common with few curative treatment options.To report the closure rate and clinical characteristics of active venous ulcers in a vein clinic using endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with a 1,320-nm laser.A prospective database was kept consisting of patients with an active venous ulcer at the time of consultation in a single-practitioner academic vein clinic from March 2007 to May 2014. A database was maintained and charts were reviewed with attention to the length of time the patient reported having the ulcer, procedures performed, and time to ulcer healing.Thirty-one patients were identified at consultation with venous ulceration. One patient's ulcer was healed with conservative medical management before receiving treatment. The remaining 30 patients were treated with a combination of EVLA of the great and/or short saphenous veins, foam sclerotherapy of insufficient varicose and reticular veins, and phlebectomy as appropriate. Two patients were lost to follow up after partial treatment. Ulcer healing occurred in more than 93% (27/29) of patients with a median healing time of 55 days from the time of first treatment. The median follow-up time after treatment was 448 days.Endovenous laser ablation with a 1,320-nm laser in combination with foam sclerotherapy and phlebectomy as appropriate is effective treatment of chronic venous ulcers and should be considered as a treatment option for patients with C6 venous insufficiency. To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest, prospective series of chronic venous ulcers treated with EVLA. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.
- Reactive Eccrine Syringofibroadenoma Associated with Neuropathy, Venous Stasis, and Diabetic Foot Ulcer. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Dermatol 2016 May-Aug; 8(2):124-9.
Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is an uncommon benign adnexal neoplasm which derives from cells of the acrosyringium of eccrine sweat glands. The clinical appearance is nonspecific but the histological features are typical. Five clinical subtypes of ESFA exist: (1) solitary ESFA; (2) multiple ESFA associated with ectodermal dysplasia; (3) multiple ESFA without cutaneous features; (4) unilateral linear ESFA (nevoid), and (5) reactive ESFA associated with inflammatory or neoplastic dermatoses. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with long-standing diabetes and neuropathy, presenting with a 4-year history of asymptomatic erythematous plaques on a background of brown hyperpigmentation on the left foot. The clinical presentation and histopathological findings are compatible with reactive ESFA.
- Chronic venous disease - Part II: Proteolytic biomarkers in wound healing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Jul 25; 1862(10):1900-1908.
Venous leg ulcers (VLU) are characterized by sustained proteolytic microenvironment impairing the healing process. Wound fluid (WF) reflect the biomolecular activities occurring within the wound area; however, it is unclear if WF from different healing phases have different proteolytic profiles and how VLU microenvironment affects the wound healing mechanisms. We investigated the proteolytic network of WF from distinct VLU phases, and in WF- and LPS-stimulated THP-1 monocytes treated with glycosaminoglycan sulodexide, a well known therapeutic approach for VLU healing. WF were collected from patients with VLU during inflammatory (Infl) and granulating (Gran) phases. WF and THP-1 supernatants were analyzed for nine matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) by multiplex immunoassays. Our results demonstrated that: 1) WF from Infl VLU contained significantly increased concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 compared to Gran WF; 2) WF from Gran VLU showed significantly increased levels of MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-13, and TIMP-4 compared to Infl WF; 3) LPS- and WF-stimulation of THP-1 cells significantly increased the expression of several MMP compared to untreated cells; 4) Sulodexide treatment of both LPS- and WF-stimulated THP-1 significantly down-regulated the release of several MMPs. Our study provides evidence-based medicine during treatment of patients with VLU. WF from Infl and Gran VLU have different MMP and TIMP signatures, consistent with their clinical state. The modulation of proteolytic pathways in wound microenvironment by glycosaminoglycan sulodexide, provide insights for translating research into clinical practice during VLU therapy.
- [Venous ulcer]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Wien Med Wochenschr 2016 Jun; 166(9-10):287-92.
Venous disorders causing a permanent increase in venous pressure are by far the most frequent reason for ulcers of the lower extremity. With a prevalence of 1 % in the general population rising to 4 % in the elderly over 80 and its chronic character, 1 % of healthcare budgets of the western world are spent on treatment of venous ulcers. A thorough investigation of the underlying venous disorder is the prerequisite for a differenciated therapy. This should comprise elimination of venous reflux as well as local wound management. Chronic ulcers can successfully be treated by shave therapy and split skin grafting. Compression therapy is a basic measure not only in venous ulcer treatment but also in prevention of ulcer recurrence. Differential diagnosis which have to be considered are arterial ulcers, vasculitis and neoplasms.