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Venous Insufficiency Ulcers [keywords]
- Acroangiodermatitis (Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma). [Journal Article]
- Indian Dermatol Online J 2014 Jul; 5(3):323-5.
Acroangiodermatitis or Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative entity, related to chronic venous insufficiency or certain other vascular anomalies. It is often associated with chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, chronic renal failure treated with dialysis, paralyzed legs and amputation stumps. We hereby describe a case of 45 year old female presenting with pitting pedal edema, multiple ulcers over bilateral lower limbs with irregular margins with erythema and hyperpigmentation of the surrounding skin. Color Doppler study of bilateral lower limbs was normal. Histopathological examination from one of the lesions showed hyperplastic epidermis, proliferation of capillaries in dermis, hemosiderin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrate. These features thus confirmed the diagnosis of Acroangiodermatitis.
- Behaviour of the plasma concentration of gelatinases and their tissue inhibitors in subjects with venous leg ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Aug 26.
Venous leg ulcers are common in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency. The increased intraluminal pressure causes alteration of the skin microcirculation, leukocyte activation and release of proteolytic enzymes leading to ulceration. An impaired expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) might influence extracellular matrix degradation and deposition in chronic venous ulcers with the failure of the healing process. Our aim was to evaluate plasma concentration of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in subjects with venous leg ulcers before and after the compression therapy. We enrolled 36 subjects (12 men and 24 women, mean age 67.38 ± 12.7 yrs) with non-infected venous leg ulcers (CEAP C6), which underwent a color Duplex scan examination of the veins and arteries of the inferior limbs and were treated with a multi-layer bandaging system. The ulcer healing was obtained in 23 subjects only (9 men and 14 women). We evaluated, on fasting venous blood, the plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 using ELISA kit, before and after the treatment. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of gelatinases and their inhibitors and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in subjects with leg ulcers in comparison with normal controls. In subjects with healed ulcers we found a decrease in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels and in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio compared to the baseline values, although higher levels of all the examined parameters in comparison with normal controls. In conclusion, plasma MMPs profile is impaired in subjects with venous leg ulcers and it improves after the healing, persisting anyway altered in respect to healthy controls.
- Validation of the disease-specific quality of life Wuerzburg Wound Score in patients with chronic leg ulcer. [Journal Article]
- Vasa 2014 Sep; 43(5):372-9.
Aim of the study was to validate a newly developed disease-specific quality of life questionnaire (Wuerzburg Wound Score, WWS) in patients with chronic arterial or venous leg ulcers.In this prospective study 115 patients with vascular disease associated leg ulcer (54 arterial ulcer, 61 venous ulcer) were studied (mean age 66 ± 11 years, 51 % male). All patients completed the WWS at baseline, and after four and 12 weeks. To assess construct validity additionally all patients completed the generic QoL-questionnaires Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Construct validity and responsiveness of the WWS were tested.WWS showed acceptable construct validity versus SF-36 (r = 0.5 - 0.78; P < 0.001) and NHP (r = 0.36 - 0.68; P < 0.001). Responsiveness of the WWS was superior to SF-36 (P < 0.05) and NHP (P = 0.01). Generic as well as disease-specific QoL were more impaired in patients with arterial ulcer.The WWS is a valid measure of disease-specific QoL in patients with leg ulcers and it is more sensitive than the generic instruments in detecting changes of wound healing over time. Further assessment of the psychometric properties of the WWS with larger patient samples is required before the test can be recommended for use in clinical practice.
- Leg ulcer study to look at exercise. [Journal Article]
- Nurs Stand 2014 Aug 6; 28(49):11.
Scientists are examining whether exercising can help improve outcomes for patients with leg ulcers caused by chronic venous insufficiency.
- Effectiveness of prostaglandin E1 in patients with mixed arterial and venous ulcers of the lower limbs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Wound J 2014 Aug 5.
Mixed arterial and venous ulcers of the lower limbs are present in around 15-30% of patients with chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) and are considered difficult-to-heal wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the treatment of mixed arterial and venous ulcers of the lower limbs with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) infusion. This study was carried out in 48 consecutive patients. Patients who showed intolerability to PGE1, and patients with peripheral neuropathy, blood or systemic diseases, malignancy and acute wound infections or necrotic tissue on the wound bed were excluded. The patients were separated at random into two main groups: group I (25 patients) received standard treatment and PGE1 infusion. Group II (23 patients) received only standard treatment. Pre-treatment data indicated the area of ulceration. The number of healed ulcers and the variation in the area of ulceration were considered as endpoints. The endpoints were noticed after 120 days from the beginning of treatment. Healing occurred in 80% of limbs of group I and in 52·2% of limbs of group II patients. The average reduction in area was 92% versus 60% in patients of group I and II, respectively. During the whole treatment period, the incidence of adverse events was 8% in group I: there was one case of headache and one case of headache and hypotension combined. No side effects were recorded in patients of group II. In conclusion, PGE1 infusion is a determinant in the reduction of the healing time of mixed ulcers of the lower limbs.
- Vascular Leg Ulcers: Histopathologic Study of 293 Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Dermatopathol 2014 Jul 28.
: Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations.
- Chronic venous insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- Circulation 2014 Jul 22; 130(4):333-46.
- Leg ulcers in antiphospholipid syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. [Journal Article]
- J Dermatol Case Rep 2014 Jun 30; 8(2):38-41.
Despite encouraging reports on the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in antiphospholipid syndrome, the clinical value of this treatment is not well established, and most of the data are based on case reports and small series of patients.We describe the significant improvement of leg ulcers with IVIg in a 61-year-old female, with diabetes mellitus, venous peripherical insufficiency and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome to systemic lupus erythematosus.This case illustrates a rare cause of leg ulcers and documents that IVIg may be an effective adjuvant treatment in the management of selected patients with antiphospholipid syndrome when conventional strategies using subcutaneous heparin and low-dose aspirin are insufficient.
- Endovenous laser with miniphlebectomy for treatment of varicose veins and effect of different levels of laser energy on recanalization. A single center experience. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jul 4.
Varicose veins, associated with great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, are traditionally treated with conventional surgery. In recent years, minimally invasive alternatives to surgical treatment such as the endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and radiofrequency (RF) ablation have been developed with promising results. Residual varicose veins following EVLA, regress untouched, or phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy can be concomitantly performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of EVLA with different levels of laser energy in patients with varicose veins secondary to saphenous vein reflux. From February 2006 to August 2011, 740 EVLA, usually with concomitant miniphlebectomies, were performed in 552 patients. A total of 665 GSV, 53 small saphenous veins (SSV), and 22 both GSV and SSV were treated with EVLA under duplex USG. At 84 patients, bilateral intervention is made. In addition, miniphlebectomy was performed in 540 patients. A duplex ultrasound (US) is performed to patients preoccupying chronic venous insufficiency (with visible varicose veins, ankle edema, skin changes, or ulcer). Saphenous vein incompetence was diagnosed with saphenofemoral, saphenopopliteal, or truncal vein reflux in response to manual compression and release with patient standing. The procedures were performed under local anesthesia with light sedation or spinal anesthesia. Endovenous 980-nm diode laser source was used at a continuous mode. The mean energy applied per length of GSV during the treatment was 77.5 ± 17.0 J (range 60-100 J/cm). An US evaluation was performed at first week of the procedure. Follow-up evaluation and duplex US scanning were performed at 1 and 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years to assess treatment efficacy and adverse reactions. Average follow-up period was 32 ± 4 months (3-55 months). There were one patient with infection and two patients with thrombus extension into the femoral vein after EVLA. Overall occlusion rate was 95 %. No post-procedural deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Laser energy, less than 80 J/cm, was significantly associated with increased recanalization of saphenous vein, among the other energy levels. EVLA seems a good alternative to surgery by the application of energy of not less than 80 J/cm. It is both safe and effective. It is a well-tolerated procedure with rare and relatively minor complications.
- [Venous ulcer--patience and consequence are demanded]. [Journal Article]
- MMW Fortschr Med 2014 May 28; 156(10):68-9.