Ventricular tachycardia [keywords]
- Low-Dose Quinidine Effectively Reduced Shocks in Brugada Syndrome Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Chinese Case Series Report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2016 Aug 23.
Only implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) have been proven to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). However, ICD discharge, whether appropriate or inappropriate, leads to impaired quality of life and even increases rehospitalization. Quinidine might prevent the recurrence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA); however, the effect of low-dose quinidine for preventing spontaneous arrhythmias remains less clear.In our cardiology center, 10 confirmed patients with BrS (all men, mean age 38.7 ± 6.72 years) who underwent appropriate ICD shocks due to recurrent VAs were treated with quinidine (≤200 mg/day) and followed regularly.All the patients underwent ICD shocks due to ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) before taking quinidine. A 24-hour distribution of VT/VF demonstrated that most of the events occurred in the sleeping time from 22:00 to 8:00. Quinidine prevented recurrence of VAs in nine patients. The other one patient took quinidine discontinuously because of anxiety suffered from less episodes of VA, and after psychological guidance, he took quinidine 200 mg/day and experienced no VA episodes from then on. In our series, only one patient suffered leukopenia related to quinidine. No other side effect was observed.Quinidine with a very low dose (≤200 mg/day) well controlled VT/VF recurrence for a long-term period in Chinese patients with BrS. Administration (at 21:00) according to the circadian distribution of VT/VF episodes might increase the efficiency and improve the patient's tolerance.
- Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cardiol Rev 2016 Aug 18.
The use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) has favorably impacted the prevention and treatment sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with ventricular arrhythmias. However, there are situations where an ICD cannot be immediately implanted, even though the patient is at high risk for SCD. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is a unique technology which can bridge this gap for patients. The WCD has been demonstrated to terminate ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation if worn and used correctly. With proper training, it is relatively easy to put on, maintain, and use. Most patients are compliant and are able to consistently wear the device. The WCD negates the infection risk or procedural complications associated with insertion and possible extraction of leads, as with an ICD. In terms of primary prevention of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <35%, prospective, randomized studies evaluating the survival of patients utilizing the WCD will need to be performed before evidenced-based criteria can be established. WCD use for those awaiting heart transplant, those with ICD indications status-post ICD explant, as well as high-risk SCD patients with possible reversible cardiomyopathy appears to be reasonable on the basis of current data.
- Long-Term Outcome of Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia in Structurally Normal Hearts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0160181.
The impact of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) on the risk of thromboembolic event and clinical outcomes in patients without structural heart disease remains undetermined. This study aimed to evaluate the association between NSVT and clinical outcomes.The study population of 5903 patients was culled from the "Registry of 24-hour ECG monitoring at Taipei Veterans General Hospital" (REMOTE database) between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004. Of that total, we enrolled 3767 patients without sustained ventricular tachycardia, structural heart disease, and permanent pacemaker. For purposes of this study, NSVT was defined as 3 or more consecutive beats arising below the atrioventricular node with an RR interval of <600 ms (>100 beats/min) and lasting < 30 seconds.There were 776 deaths, 2042 hospitalizations for any reason, 638 cardiovascular (CV)-related hospitalizations, 350 ischemic strokes, 409 transient ischemic accident (TIA), 368 new-onset heart failure (HF), and 260 new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) with a mean follow-up duration of 10 ± 1 years. In multivariate analysis, the presence of NSVT was independently associated with death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.362, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.071-1.731), CV hospitalization (HR: 1.527, 95% CI: 1.171-1.992), ischemic stroke (HR: 1.436, 95% CI: 1.014-2.032), TIA (HR 1.483, 95% CI: 1.069-2.057), and new-onset HF (HR: 1.716, 95% CI: 1.243-2.368). There was no significant association between the presence of NSVT and all-cause hospitalization or new-onset AF.In patients without structural heart disease, presence of NSVT on 24-hour monitoring was independently associated with death, CV hospitalization, ischemic stroke, TIA, and new onset heart failure.
- Sudden cardiac death and late arrhythmias after the Fontan operation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Congenit Heart Dis 2016 Aug 22.
We sought to examine the incidence and predictors of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) after Fontan operation.Arrhythmias and SCD have been reported following operations for congenital heart disease, but the incidence and risk factors have not been well defined in patients after a Fontan operation.We reviewed records of all patients who had a Fontan operation from 1973 to 2012 (n = 1052) at our institution. A questionnaire was mailed to patients who were not known to be deceased at the initiation of the study. Late arrhythmias were classified as bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias requiring treatment >30 days after operation.We included 996/1052 (95%) patients with no arrhythmia diagnosis prior to Fontan. Overall 10-, 20-, and 30-year freedom from arrhythmias was 71%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. Of 864 patients who survived >30 days after Fontan, 304 (35%) had atrial flutter, 161 (19%) had atrial fibrillation, 108 (13%) had atrial tachycardia, 37 (4%) had reentrant supraventricular tachycardia, 40 (5%) had ventricular tachycardia, and 113 (13%) had sinus node dysfunction. Predictors of late arrhythmias included an atriopulmonary Fontan, age at operation (>16 years) or atrial arrhythmias postoperatively. During follow-up, 52/1052 (5%) patients had SCD, with 51 having documentation available; 8 patients died suddenly within 30 days and the remaining 43 had an average time to SCD of 6.9 ± 6.7 years (median was 3.8 years). Arrhythmias were documented in 28/43 (65%) patients prior to SCD. Predictors of SCD included atrioventricular valve replacement and post-bypass Fontan pressures >20 mm Hg; preoperative sinus rhythm was protective.Arrhythmias and SCD are significant concerns among Fontan patients and specific risk factors may warrant closer follow-up and earlier consideration for therapy.
- The pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in epilepsy. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epilepsy Res 2016 Aug 11.:19-29.
Alterations in cardiac electrophysiology are an established consequence of long-standing drug resistant epilepsy. Patients with chronic epilepsy display abnormalities in both sinoatrial node pacemaker current as well as ventricular repolarizing current that places them at a greater risk of developing life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The development of cardiac arrhythmias secondary to drug resistant epilepsy is believed to be a key mechanism underlying the phenomenon of Sudden Unexpected Death in EPilepsy (SUDEP). Though an increasing amount of studies examining both animal models and human patients have provided evidence that chronic epilepsy can detrimentally affect cardiac function, the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent work has shown the expression of several key cardiac ion channels to be altered in animal models of genetic and acquired epilepsies. This has led to the currently held paradigm that cardiac ion channel expression may be secondarily altered as a consequence of seizure activity-resulting in electrophysiological cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, cortical autonomic dysfunction - resulting from seizure activity-has also been suggested to play a role, whereby seizure activity may indirectly influence cardiac function via altering centrally-mediated autonomic output to the heart. In this review, we discuss various cardiac dysrhythmias associated with seizure events-including tachycardia, bradycardia and QT prolongation, both ictally and inter-ictally, as well as the role of the autonomic nervous system. We further discuss key ion channels expressed in both the heart and the brain that have been shown to be altered in epilepsy and may be responsible for the development of cardiac dysrhythmias secondary to chronic epilepsy.
- Cardiac autonomic function in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without ventricular tachycardia. [Journal Article]
- BMC Pulm Med 2016; 16(1):124.
Autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may increase the risks of arrhythmia and sudden death. We studied cardiac autonomic function in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD).Patients with AECOPD were classified into ventricular tachycardia (VT) and non-VT groups according to the presence or absence of VT. The following parameters derived from 24-h Holter monitoring were compared between groups: average heart rate, heart rate deceleration capacity (DC), heart rate acceleration capacity (AC), standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of average RR interval in 5-min segments (SDANN), root mean square of standard deviations of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals (rMSSD), low-frequency power (LF), high-frequency power (HF) and LF/HF ratio.Seventy patients were included, 22 in the VT group and 48 in the non-VT group. The groups had similar clinical characteristics (except for more common amiodarone use in the VT group, P < 0.05) and general ECG characteristics. DC, SDNN, SDANN and rMSSD were lower and AC higher in the VT group (P < 0.05). In the VT group, DC was correlated positively with SDNN (r = 0.716), SDANN (r = 0.595), rMSSD (r = 0.571) and HF (r = 0.486), and negatively with LF (r = -0.518) and LF/HF (r = -0.458) (P < 0.05). AC was correlated negatively with SDNN (r = -0.682), SDANN (r = -0.567) and rMSSD (r = -0.548) (P < 0.05).DC decreased and AC increased in patients with AECOPD and VT, reflecting an imbalance in autonomic regulation of the heart that might increase the risk of sudden death.
- The natural history of fetal long QT syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electrocardiol 2016 Jul 28.
Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), the magnetic analog of ECG, has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of fetal arrhythmias. In the past 15years, we have evaluated over 300 fetuses with arrhythmia by fMCG. We review the unique characteristics and natural history of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) rhythms.We reviewed the fMCGs of subjects referred with suspected LQTS based on either a positive family history or echo diagnosis of the LQTS rhythms (sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or 2:1 AV conduction) to the Biomagnetism laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics, UW-Madison. We recorded fMCGs using a 37-channel (Magnes, 4D Neuroimaging, Inc., San Diego, CA) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetometer, housed in a magnetically-shielded room for 1200-6000s. Signal processing was used to remove maternal interference. Cardiac intervals (R-R, p, QRS, QT) were measured and compared to published normals. We correlated fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns and effects of fetal movement on FHR and rhythm using actocardiography.Thirty-nine fetuses were studied at a mean of 28 (19-38) weeks of gestation. All had structurally normal hearts. One was on amiodarone for suspected supraventricular tachycardia and hydrops. Five had serial fMCGs. Isolated sinus bradycardia with a QTc >490ms was found in 35: 33 had a KCNQ1 mutation There was one false positive and one false negative LQTS diagnosis. Four fetuses had torsades de pointes (TdP) and 3 had periods of 2:1 conduction and either KCNH2 or SCN5A mutations. TdP was rarely initiated with a preceding long-short pattern and did not degenerate into ventricular fibrillation. One fetus with TdP died in utero, 2 with fetal TdP had postnatal cardiac arrest.Fetal LQTS is diagnosed by an fMCG QTc >490ms with an 89% sensitivity and specificity. TdP are seen with uncharacterized, KCNH2 or SCN5A R1623q mutations. Fetal TdP occurs when QTc ≥620ms. Identifying fetal LQTS and defining its rhythms by fMCG risk stratifies postnatal management.
- Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with sinus node dysfunction and junctional rhythm: Case report and literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electrocardiol 2016 Jul 28.
We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with history of syncope and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; tachycardia was inducible at exercise stress test, not at electrophysiologic study. Phases of QT prolongation were found at ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. The woman came to our attention for periodic control of implantable loop recorder. Rest electrocardiogram at admission unexpectedly showed sinus bradycardia, junctional rhythm, and ventricular premature beats. Furthermore, loop recorder control revealed a short run of bidirectional tachycardia, not associated with syncope. Final diagnosis was catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and the patient was implanted with an ICD. We therefore report an unusual case of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with sinus node dysfunction and junctional escape rhythm. We hypothesize that a diffuse dysfunction of cardiac conduction system, presumably based on diffuse disorder of calcium handling, may be responsible for both sinus node failure and ventricular tachycardia.
- Measurement of T wave variability in body surface ECG. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electrocardiol 2016 Jul 28.
Lability in the ventricular repolarization process has been associated with an increased risk of experiencing ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. A number of risk predictors have been devised that quantify beat-to-beat variability in the T wave morphology of body surface ECG. Initial studies have suggested that measurement of T wave variability may yield important prognostics markers of cardiac mortality, but approaches and experimental designs vary. The aim of this contribution is to provide an overview of existing techniques as well as discuss some of the methodical considerations.
- Integration of 60 000 exomes and ACMG guidelines question the role of Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia associated variants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Genet 2016 Aug 19.
Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT) is a highly lethal cardiac arrhythmia disease occurring during exercise or psychological stress. CPVT has an estimated prevalence of 1:10 000 and has mainly been associated with variants in calcium regulating genes. Identification of potential false-positive pathogenic variants was conducted by searching The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database (n=60 706) for variants reported to be associated with CPVT. The pathogenicity of the interrogated variants was assessed using guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and in silico prediction tools. Thirty-eight out of 246 variants (15%) previously associated with CPVT were identified in the ExAC database. We predicted the CPVT prevalence to be 1:132. The ACMG standards classified 29% of ExAC variants as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. The in silico predictions showed a reduced probability of disease-causing effect for the variants identified in the exome database (P˂0.001). We have observed a large overrepresentation of previously CPVT associated variants in a large exome database. Based on the frequency of CPVT in the general population, it is less likely that the previously proposed variants are associated with a highly penetrant monogenic form of the disease.