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Vitreous hemorrhage [keywords]
- Massive subretinal and vitreous haemorrhages at presentation in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: report of a case and review of literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Optom 2013 Jun 13.
A 21-year-old woman presented with acute decreased vision due to massive subretinal haemorrhage with macular exudation in the right eye and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye. Haematological work-up revealed thrombocytopenia (platelets 14,000/μl) with anaemia (haemoglobin 6.3 gm/100 ml). A diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was confirmed by a haematologist. Systemic therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the fundus features with near complete restoration of visual acuity over three months. ITP can present with intraocular haemorrhages, especially if accompanied by anaemia. A high index of suspicion and appropriate systemic treatment can lead to a successful outcome.
- Hemorrhagic retinal macrocysts, simulating choroidal melanoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2013.:973-6.
Hemorrhagic retinal macrocysts are extremely rare retinal lesions that can be mistaken for malignancy with subsequent enucleation. Such a case was diagnosed, by a retina specialist based on ultrasonography, as a choroidal melanoma with exudative retinal detachment and the patient was advised to have brachytherapy.A 15-year-old Caucasian boy suffered sudden visual loss in the left eye and exam revealed vitreous hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the mass as hyperintense on T1-weighted images and isointense on T2-weighted images with no enhancement after gadolinium dye. Following scleral buckle, the hemorrhagic retinal macrocyst collapsed gradually over a period of 5 weeks. The patient recovered visual acuity of 6/7.5 at the 1-year follow up.A hemorrhagic retinal macrocyst can be erroneously diagnosed as choroidal melanoma. Hints for the presence of retinal macrocysts include: egg shape; cyst wall configuration; no attachment to the choroid; and presence of retinal detachment.
- Fibrovascular Ingrowth After 25-Gauge Transconjunctival Vitrectomy in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013 Jun 14.:1-4.
The authors describe two patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy bilaterally who were treated with transconjunctival 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for dense vitreous hemorrhage (VH). After 4 and 10 months, respectively, both developed recurrent VH. They were initially managed with in-office gas-fluid exchange and anti-VEGF intravitreal injection. Soon after gas bubble resorption, the VH recurred. Color external photos revealed engorged episcleral vessels superotemporally, and ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of fibrovascular ingrowth (FVI) at the sclerotomy site in both patients. They were successfully treated with a slightly modified 25-gauge PPV technique. Although FVI is well-recognized following conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy, this report is the first to detail FVI arising after small-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:xxx-xxx.].
- Retinal vasculitis in two pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2013; 11(1):25.
We report two pediatric female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with decreased vision. Both patients were found to have retinal vasculitis and occlusive disease. The first patient also presented with vitreous hemorrhage and later non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. She was treated with panretinal photocoagulation and steroid therapy and later in her disease course was treated with rituximab and cyclophosphamide. Her vision remained decreased. The second patient was treated with rituximab and monthly cyclophosphamide infusions early in her disease course, and her vision improved dramatically. The difference in the presentations and outcomes of these two pediatric patients with SLE highlights the spectrum of severity of SLE retinopathy. We suggest that early recognition of disease and early intervention with B-cell depletion therapy in addition to a traditional cytotoxic agent should be considered in pediatric patients with SLE and occlusive retinopathy.
- Ocular injuries caused by metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles. [Journal Article]
- Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2013 May; 19(3):256-60.
Bottles containing carbonated drinks are potentially hazardous to the eye. In this study, we aimed to document the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes in a series of patients with ocular injury from flying metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles.Retrospective review of ocular injuries due to metal caps of carbonated mineral water bottles.Sixteen eyes of sixteen patients were included in the study. All of the patients were male, with a mean age of 24 years. Ten of the patients had a history of using improper tools for bottle cap removal. The left eye was involved in twelve cases and the right eye in four cases. All patients had contusion-type closed-globe injury. Varying degrees of hyphema were observed in all patients, and vitreous hemorrhage was present in four. The visual acuity at the last follow-up was 20/20 in 15 of the patients.The use of a bottle cap opener is essential for preventing ocular damage from pressed metal caps of carbonated drinks. In addition to popularising the use of screw cap bottles, warning labels that alert consumers about the possibility of eye injury should be placed on carbonated drinks with pressed metal caps.
- [Problematic issues related to screening for diabetic retinopathy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vnitr Lek 2013 Mar; 59(3):218-23.
The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of screening for diabetic retinopathy and the education of diabetic patients. The key prerequisite of an effective screening is close collaboration between health care professionals. Successful screening detects DR at early stages and helps to prevent severe visual loss. Two cases of proliferative DR exhibiting the most serious complications (vitreous haemorrhage, traction retinal detachment and combined traction and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma) are reported. The first comorbid patient lost her vision despite the adequate treatment. The second patient was successfully managed with pars plana vitrectomy with final visual acuity better to the preoperative value.
- Contrast sensitivity evaluation in high risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy treated with panretinal photocoagulation associated or not with intravitreal bevacizumab injections: a randomised clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Ophthalmol 2013 Jul; 97(7):885-889.
PURPOSE:To compare the effect on contrast sensitivity (CS) measurements of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) associated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections versus PRP alone in high risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (HR-PDR).
DESIGN:Prospective, randomised, masked, controlled trial.
PARTICIPANTS:42 patients with HR-PDR with visual acuity ≥20/200.
METHODS:Eyes were randomised to one of two groups: one underwent PRP and IVB injections (study group) and the other PRP alone (control group). PRP was performed three times during the study and IVB injection was administered twice.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Mean change in CS threshold scores between and within groups, from baseline to 6 months.
RESULTS:Seven patients presented with vitreous haemorrhage and were removed from the study. Mean results for CS threshold (at 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) frequencies) for patients with and without diabetic macular oedema showed no significant differences (p>0.05 for all comparisons) between the two groups. In 35 eyes in the control group, compared with baseline values, there was significant worsening (p<0.05) of CS at 1.5, 12 and 18 cpd after 1 month, at 12 cpd after 3 months, and at 6 and 12 cpd after 6 months. In the study group, there was significant improvement in CS at 3 cpd, 3 months after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS:In eyes with HR-PDR, PRP treatment is associated with deterioration of CS while adjuvant use of bevacizumab prevents such deterioration. CS evaluation seems to support the adjuvant use of bevacizumab when using PRP for the treatment of HR-PDR. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT 01389505.
- [Treatment of retinal arterial branch occlusion with transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolectomy.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ophthalmologe 2013 May 18.
BACKGROUND:There is currently no effective therapy for retinal artery branch occlusion (RABO). Transluminal Nd:YAG embolectomy (TYE) was developed to achieve rapid reperfusion; however, it is still a subject of controversy. A Nd:YAG laser is focused on the occluded vessel, the vessel wall is ruptured and the embolism dislocates to the vitreous humor through the opening in the artery.
METHOD:We retrospectively examined the results of five patients treated with TYE.
RESULTS:The age of the patients was 26-75 years (mean age 58 years, median 68 years). Initial visual acuity was hand movements to 1.0 and all patients had visual field defects. Treatment was performed between 4 and 30 h from the onset of symptoms. Visual acuity improved markedly in two cases the next day (hand movements to 0.8 and 0.4 to 1.0) and final visual acuity was between 0.8 and 1.25. All treatments led to vitreous hemorrhage but only one patient required surgical treatment. The range of follow-up was 4-42 months.
CONCLUSIONS:The results are in accordance with those published in the literature. It can be concluded that TYE is a fast, easy and readily available method that should be taken into account especially in cases with low initial visual acuity.
- Traumatic macular hole from intentional basketball overinflation. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013 May 1; 44(3):303-5.
We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware.[Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:303-305.].
- Ultra-widefield Imaging of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy-associated Proliferative Retinal Vasculopathy Improved With Panretinal Laser Photocoagulation Alone. [Journal Article]
- Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013 May 1; 44(3):293-5.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder whose ophthalmic associations most commonly consist of pigmentary fundus changes and scotopic electroretinogram abnormalities. A 23-year-old man with advanced DMD and associated cardiopulmonary compromise complaining of floaters presented with a striking retinal vasculopathy characterized by vitreous hemorrhage, neovascularization, capillary drop-out, and prominent saccular venular aneurysms diffusely throughout the fundus of both eyes. This vasculopathy was promptly treated with panretinal phocoagulation with marked improvement to at least 1 year. This report suggests that early identification and prompt treatment of DMD may be important in managing this condition.[Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:293-295.].