Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Vocal cord paralysis [keywords]
- Intraoperative monitoring: Normative range associated with normal postoperative glottic function. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Laryngoscope 2013 May 20.
OBJECTIVE:Despite increasing use of neural monitoring (IONM) there is limited information on normative elecrophysiologic EMG parameters. The objective of this study is to define normative parameters of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) intraoperative neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery associated with normal postoperative vocal cord function.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Quantitative analysis of evoked waveform amplitude and threshold was performed on 125 patients with 167 nerves at risk. Values were displayed as a mean with 5(th) percentile and 95(th) percentiles (5(th) , 95(th) ). Postoperative vocal cord function in all patients was documented.
RESULTS:All patients had normal postoperative laryngeal function (Group I Normal group) except for two patients who had postoperative transient vocal cord paralysis (Group II Abnormal/Outlier group). The final amplitude between 247 and 3607 μV at the end of dissection/end of surgery and was associated in all Group I patients with a normal postoperative neural function. Final intraoperative amplitude measures for Group II averaged just 97.5 μV significantly different than our normative ranges obtained for Group I and fell outside of the Group I 5-95% percentile range (p=0.016). Final amplitude adequately predicted postoperative RLN impaired function immediately after surgery.
CONCLUSION:We propose IONM EMG data criteria which predict normal postoperative vocal cord function Monitoring provides information about nerve functioning at the end of the operation, thereby allowing adaptation of the surgical strategy when a bilateral procedure is indicated in order to avoid bilateral nerve paralysis. Level of evidence: 4.
- [Delayed laryngeal nerve paralysis after lung cancer surgery;report of a case]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Kyobu Geka 2013 May; 66(5):427-30.
A 75-year-old woman with mesopharyngeal adenocarcinoma underwent left upper lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma. Before the operation, computed tomography showed no stricture of the trachea, and laryngoscope showed no abnormality of vocal cord. Spiral tube( 7.5 mm I.D.) was used insted. One lung ventilation was achieved using balloon. It took 4 hours and 3 minutes to finish the surgical procedure. After extubation in the operation room, we did not recognize the breathing abnormality and laryngeal nerve palsy. 4 days after the operation, stridor was noticed, and laryngoscopic examination revealed stenosis of glottis due to bilateral laryngeal nerve paralysis. We performed the emergent tracheotomy. 7 days after the operation, nerve paralysis improved.
- Vocal cord paralysis secondary to spontaneous internal carotid dissection: case report and systematic review of the literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 May 13; 42(1):34.
Objectives To present a rare case of unilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP) secondary to spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection and to perform a literature review. Case report A 35-year-old male presented to the emergency department with acute onset hoarseness and dysphagia. History, physical exam and laryngoscopy revealed left sided VCP without obvious cause. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrated a left internal carotid artery dissection of unknown etiology. Neurovascular surgery was consulted and treatment with aspirin was initiated. The dysphagia and hoarseness resolved in 12 weeks with long-term neurosurgery follow-up as the management plan.
METHODS:Systematic literature review was conducted by 3 independent reviewers. Since 1988 only 9 cases of VCP due to internal carotid artery dissection have been reported. These were reviewed for: demographics, diagnostic method, treatment and vocal cord function.
RESULTS:7 patients had unilateral while 2 had bilateral VCP. MRI was used for diagnosis in 7 cases and 5 cases utilized a type of angiography. All received antithrombotic treatment with 5 out of the 9 patients experiencing vocal cord recovery in an average of 7.2 weeks.
CONCLUSION:MRI is crucial in the work-up of idiopathic VCP. If an ipsilater al internal carotid artery dissection is found, antithrombotic treatment is initiated with an expectation that vocal cord mobility is likely to return.
- Battery ingestion leading to bilateral vocal cord paresis. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Mar; 139(3):304-6.
Disk battery ingestion is common in the pediatric population, with over 50,000 ingestions reported annually. In the upper aerodigestive tract, consequences of such ingestions vary widely from superficial mucosal ulcerations to death from erosion through vital structures. This report describes a battery ingestion complication, vocal cord paralysis, to our knowledge not previously described in the otolaryngology literature.We describe a patient who presented with biphasic stridor and drooling after upper esophageal disk battery ingestion. The battery was removed 5 hours after ingestion, but stridor with respiratory distress persisted. To stabilize the airway, a tracheotomy was performed after a several-week period of inpatient observation. Two years after ingestion, the patient is tracheostomy dependent.Disk battery ingestion has the potential for recurrent laryngeal nerve damage and vocal cord paralysis. Expeditious battery removal and long-term care are crucial for successful ingestion management, as ingestion complications can be significant.
- Coarctation-Associated Aneurysms: A Localized Disease or Diffuse Aortopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Thorac Surg 2013 May 2.
BACKGROUND:We evaluated the occurrence and treatment of aortic aneurysms in coarctation patients.
METHODS:During 1962 to 2011, 943 cases of coarctation were repaired. Aortic aneurysms were identified in 55 patients (5.8%). Forty-eight had prior coarctation repair (median 23 years earlier, interquartile range 18 to 26 years). Forty-two aneurysms were found in the descending thoracic aorta (76.4%), 18 in the ascending aorta (32.7%), 8 in the left subclavian artery (14.5%), and 1 each (1.8%) in the abdominal aorta, iliac artery, and innominate artery. Twenty-three patients (41.8%) had multiple aneurysms. Twenty-five patients (45.4%) had a bicuspid aortic valve.
RESULTS:Fifty-three patients' aneurysms were treated surgically. Thirty-five (66.0%) had descending thoracic aortic repair, of whom 11 had aorto-left subclavian bypass. Aortic cross-clamping alone was used in 23 patients, left heart bypass in 4, and circulatory arrest in 8. Eleven patients underwent endovascular repair (20.8%). Proximal aortic aneurysms were repaired in 7 patients (13.2%); 1 had simultaneous antegrade endostent delivery. Four patients had ascending-to-descending aortic bypass (7.3%). Concomitant valve-sparing root repair was performed in 2 patients, Bentall in 4, aortic valve replacement in 3, and coronary artery bypass in 1. One 30-day death occurred (1.9%). Three patients (5.7%) had transient neurologic deficits, 2 (3.8%) required tracheostomy, and 11 (20.8%) had vocal cord paralysis.
CONCLUSIONS:Coarctation is a marker for aortic aneurysm formation in adults and merits long-term surveillance. Anatomic complexity and associated conditions can complicate the surgical repair. Various open, extra-anatomic, and endovascular techniques may be used.
- Ultrasonic scissors-assisted 'open-book' thyroidectomy in massive goiter compressing airway and causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. [Journal Article]
- Med J Malaysia 2013 Apr; 68(2):183-5.
A massive goiter may constrict the trachea resulting in shortness of breath. Recurrent laryngeal nerve compression may cause vocal cord paralysis. We highlight a case of a 62- year-old female with a 30 year history of an anterior neck swelling gradually increasing in size. She presented with acute symptoms of upper airway obstruction and voice changes. Emergency thyroidectomy was performed by dividing the middle part of the gland using ultrasonic scissors. The recovery was uneventful and the patient regained normal vocal cord function post operatively.
- Incidence of concomitant airway anomalies when using the university of california, los angeles, protocol for neonatal mandibular distraction. [Journal Article]
- Plast Reconstr Surg 2013 May; 131(5):1116-23.
: In newborns with micrognathia and severe upper airway obstruction, understanding potential airway lesions is important for determining appropriate treatment: observation, mandibular distraction, or tracheostomy. When concomitant airway anomalies are present, mandibular distraction is often unsuccessful at alleviating causes of obstruction, mandating the need for tracheostomy. The first part of this study evaluates 10-year results using the University of California, Los Angeles, algorithm for surgical candidacy to identify patients who will benefit from neonatal mandibular distraction. The second part describes the concomitant airway abnormalities found at the time of diagnostic laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy and how these anomalies affect neonatal distraction candidacy of these patients.: Newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with micrognathia and upper airway obstruction (n = 133) were subjected to a decision tree model protocol formulated by a multidisciplinary team at the University of California, Los Angeles, to decide on appropriate treatment. Concomitant airway abnormalities were recorded and outcomes were documented for the first 5 years of life.: Fifty-five percent of patients underwent internal mandibular distraction with 97 percent success. Home observation with a nasopharyngeal tube was chosen in 11 percent of patients, and 34 percent had tracheostomies. On endoscopic examination, 51.7 percent of the nondistracted patients had concomitant airway anomalies: laryngomalacia (53.3 percent), tracheal web (20.0 percent), vocal cord paralysis (13.3 percent), epiglottal collapse (6.7 percent), and infraglottal narrowing (6.7 percent).: For the management of neonatal upper airway obstruction with micrognathia, a decision tree algorithm is useful to determine candidates for mandibular distraction. Diagnostic laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy is an important component of this algorithm because a multitude of airway anomalies may be present.: Therapeutic, IV.
- Image-guided Ablation of Postsurgical Locoregional Recurrence of Biopsy-proven Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- J Vasc Interv Radiol 2013 May; 24(5):672-9.
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) as salvage therapy for locoregional recurrence after resection of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.There were 42 locoregional, biopsy-proven, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma lesions (0.5-3.7 cm) treated, 21 with RF ablation and 21 with PEI. Of treated lesions, 35 were located in the lateral compartments, and 7 were located in the central compartment. Data points in the retrospective analysis, determined beforehand by the investigators, were progression at the ablation site, serum thyroglobulin levels before and after the procedure, and procedural complications.Average follow-up after RF ablation was 61.3 months and after PEI was 38.5 months. No progression was detected in the region of ablation for any of the lesions treated with RF ablation. Local progression was detected 4-11 months after ablation in 5 of the 21 lesions treated with PEI, 3 in the lateral compartment and 2 in the central compartment; all of the lesions were successfully retreated with repeat PEI, RF ablation, or surgery. Permanent vocal cord paralysis occurred after one RF ablation procedure of a lateral compartment supraclavicular node. There were no complications after PEI.This case series provides long-term follow-up evidence of the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided RF ablation and PEI for control of locoregional recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery.
- The effect of primary thyroid surgery on the morbidity of reoperative thyroid surgery. [Journal Article]
- Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg 2013 Mar-Apr; 23(2):67-73.
This study aims to investigate the effect of primary surgery on the morbidity of reoperative thyroid surgery.Fifty-seven patients (14 male, 43 female; mean age 41 years; range 21 to 70 years), who underwent reoperative thyroid surgery in our clinic between January 2007 and January 2012 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of vocal cord paralysis, temporary or permanent hypoparathyroidism, and other complications. The patients were classified into two groups. The first group consisted of 42 completion thyroidectomy patients that had undergone the primary operation of unilateral total lobectomy + isthmusectomy in our clinic, whereas the second group consisted of 15 patients that had undergone bilateral subtotal or near total thyroidectomy in another center. Complication rates were compared between the groups.Complication rates were observed as permanent vocal cord paralysis in one patient (1.7%), permanent hypocalcemia in two patients (3.5%) and temporary hypocalcemia in four patients (7%). None of the patients had temporary vocal cord paralysis. The complications in the second group were significantly higher than the first group (p=0.021).The minimal operation should be hemithyroidectomy (total lobectomy and isthmusectomy) to minimize the complications. This approach removes the need for the intervention to the previous surgery field during reoperative thyroid surgery.
- Carbon dioxide laser endoscopic posterior cordotomy technique for bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis: a 15-year experience. [Journal Article]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Apr 1; 139(4):401-4.
IMPORTANCE Treatment of bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a considerable challenge for otolaryngologists. Many surgical techniques have been developed for the management of this entity to eliminate the need for tracheotomy.