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Vulvovaginal Infections [keywords]
- Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- EMBO Mol Med 2013 Apr 30.
Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series.
- Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy. [Journal Article]
- Int J Gen Med 2013.:153-8.
Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse) and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria). Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.
- Prevalence of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in 5 European Countries and the United States: Results From an Internet Panel Survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Low Genit Tract Dis 2013 Mar 12.
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to estimate prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurring VVC (RVVC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:An online omnibus survey was administered to 6,010 women aged 16 and older in 6 countries.
RESULTS:We analyzed surveys from 6,000 women. Depending on the country, between 29% and 49% of participating women reported having a health care provider-diagnosed vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. More than one fifth of women reporting one vaginal yeast infection also reported a 12-month period with 4 or more infections (RVVC) (overall 9%). The cumulative probability of RVVC after an initial vaginal yeast infection was very high. By age 25 years, the probability was 10% for women having had 1 initial yeast infection. By age 50 years, it was 25%.
CONCLUSIONS:The overall rates of VVC and RVVC were high and consistent with previous findings. Results were consistent across countries with the exception of France, which had a lower rate of VVC. This may reflect differences in risk behavior, response to infection, or sampling biases. Recurring VVC is a significant health problem in western countries, and the probability that VVC will progress to RVVC is high.
- Comparison of the cobas 4800 CT/NG Test with Culture for Detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Genital and Nongenital Specimens in a Low-Prevalence Population in New Zealand. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Microbiol 2013 May; 51(5):1505-9.
To assess the clinical utility of replacing microbial culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), we compared N. gonorrhoeae culture with the cobas 4800 CT/NG test for 18,247 urogenital and 666 nongenital samples. For urogenital specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the cobas N. gonorrhoeae PCR were 98.7%, 100%, 95.6%, and 100%, respectively, and for nongenital specimens, the values were 100%, 99.8%, 92.9%, and 100%, respectively. In our test population, 37% (10,185) of patients tested over the study period were screened for C. trachomatis by PCR but were not screened for gonorrhea by culture. Of these, 43 were N. gonorrhoeae positive by PCR and therefore went undiagnosed. The cobas 4800 CT/NG test diagnosed 33% (n = 30) more urogenital and 25% (n = 3) more rectal gonorrhea infections than culture and, based on the above performance indicators, does not require supplementary testing for urogenital or rectal specimens. The ability to test noninvasive specimens (such as urine and self-taken vulvovaginal swabs) for N. gonorrhoeae will enable more patients to be screened for infection, thus offering significant positive public health benefits.
- Vulvar ulcer causing osteomyelitis of the pubic bone. [Journal Article]
- J Low Genit Tract Dis 2013 Apr; 17(2):230-3.
Osteomyelitis of the pubic bone is a rare entity. Risk factors for infection of the symphysis pubis and osteomyelitis of the pubic bone include direct trauma, previous urogynecologic procedures, extreme physical exercise, and immunocompromised state. The treatment modalities range from conservative antibiotic treatment to extensive surgery.A 49-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis and borderline diabetes mellitus presented with bloody vulvovaginal discharge. The source was found out to be an ulcer located above the urethra with exposure of the underlying symphysis pubis. Intraoperative debridement of the ulcer followed by bone biopsies demonstrated osteomyelitis of the pubic bone. Prolonged intravenous antibiotics and 4 operative debridements were needed before the osteomyelitis was adequately addressed and the defect could be closed with a bulbocavernosus flap.This is the first report of a severe case of osteomyelitis of the pubic bone arising from a vulvar ulcer.
- [Genotyping of Vaginal Candida glabrata Isolates Using Microsatellite Marker Analysis and DNA Sequencing to Identify Mutations Associated with Antifungal Resistance]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2013 Jan; 47(1):109-21.
Vulvovaginal candidosis is the second most common cause of vaginitis (17-39%) after bacterial vaginosis (22-50%). Since the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis mainly depends on clinical findings without mycologic confirmatory tests and treated empirically, the actual incidence rate of vulvovaginal candidosis is unknown. Approximately 70-90% of vulvovaginal candidosis cases are caused by Candida albicans, however the increasing incidence of C.glabrata infections and its reduced susceptibility to azole drug therapy have generated increasing attention. The epidemiology and population structure of vulvovaginal candidosis due to C.glabrata are poorly characterized. This study was aimed to genotype the C.glabrata strains isolated from vaginal samples in Cukurova region, Turkey by microsatellite markers, to investigate the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the strains and to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to phenotypical azole resistance. A total of 34 unrelated vaginal C.glabrata strains isolated from patients with acute (n= 11) and recurrent (n= 14) vulvovaginal candidosis, control group (n= 9) without vaginitis symptoms, and a reference strain of C.glabrata CBS 138 (ATCC 2001) were included in the study. These isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of three microsatellite markers (RPM2, MTI, and Cg6). Analysis of microsatellite markers was performed by fragment size determination of RPM2, MTI, and Cg6 PCR products through capillary electrophoresis. For each of the evaluated strains, DNA sequence analysis was performed for one gene (CgERG11) and four loci (CgPDR1, NTM1, TRP1, and URA3) to detect mutations possibly associated with antifungal resistance in each strain. In vitro susceptibility profiles of the strains to 13 antifungals and boric acid were determined according to CLSI document M27-A3 to investigate possible relationships between detected mutations and phenotypic resistance. C.glabrata CBS 138 strain was found to be susceptible to all the antifungals tested, while one of (%2.9) 34 vaginal C.glabrata isolates was found to be dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole, 13 (38.2%) to itraconazole and 3 (8.8%) to voriconazole. No resistant strain were detected in the study population. Only three isolates were found to be resistant to clotrimazole (8.8%), however no relationship was identified between the genotypes and phenotypic resistance (p> 0.05). Thirteen genotypes were detected by microsatellite marker analysis, with high discrimination power (DP= 0.877). As a result, microsatellite marker analysis was validated as a rapid, reliable method for genotyping C.glabrata strains with good, but not optimal discriminatory power. Further studies examining larger numbers of isolates are needed to verify possible relationships between mutations and phenotypic resistance.
- [Local estrogen therapy--clinical implications--2012 update]. [English Abstract, Journal Article, Review]
- Ginekol Pol 2012 Oct; 83(10):772-7.
With increasing longevity in Poland, women can now expect to live around 40% of their lives after menopause, and there is a growing desire for older women to preserve their vitality sexual function and quality of life. The most common urogenital symptoms associated with menopause are dryness, followed by irritation or itching, and discharge, with a substantial number of post-menopausal women also being affected by dysuria. These symptoms are the result of vaginal atrophy which is in turn caused by reduced transudation through the vaginal epithelium and reduced cervical gland secretions resulting from post-menopausal estrogen depletion. Vaginal atrophy generally occurs 4-5 years after the last menstrual period and progressively increases in prevalence in the subsequent years. Importantly vaginal atrophy is strongly associated with sexual dysfunction, and lower urinary tract symptoms, such as frequency urgency nocturia and dysuria, as well as incontinence and recurrent infection are reported more frequently in the presence of vaginal atrophy Those symptoms, apart from being bothersome for the patients also negatively impact their quality of life. Consequently before irreversible changes occur, early detection and treatment of vaginal atrophy should be implemented. Estrogen therapy is the most commonly prescribed treatment. Estrogens restore the cytology pH and vascularity of the vagina, resulting in symptom resolution for the majority of treated women. Because vaginal atrophy symptoms tend to occur later than vasomotor symptoms, many women do not necessarily require or wish to take systemic estrogen treatment if their symptoms are restricted to the urogenital tract. Vaginal estrogen products deliver estrogen locally to vaginal tissues with little or no systemic absorption and provide an effective alternative to systemic estrogen therapy for these women. Various vaginal estrogen preparations such as conjugated equine estrogens, estradiol and estriol vaginal creams, a sustained-release intra-vaginal estradiol ring and a low-dose estradiol and estriol tablets are useful therapeutic options in the treatment of this condition. Moreover; a low dose treatment with a minimised systemic absorption rate may be considered in women with a history of breast cancer and associated severe vulvovaginal atrophy. It should be mentioned that vaginal lubricants once applied on a regular basis may also be effective in alleviating the symptoms of vaginal atrophy and should be offered to women wishing to avoid the use of local vaginal estrogen preparations and in cases where local estrogen therapy is contraindicated. Vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), vaginal testosterone, and tissue selective estrogen complexes are new, emerging therapies; however more clinical studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy and safety in the treatment of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.
- X-Plate Technology: a new method for detecting fluconazole resistance in Candida species. [Journal Article]
- J Med Microbiol 2013 May; 62(Pt 5):720-6.
Candida species are responsible for many opportunistic fungal infections. Fluconazole is a well-tolerated antifungal drug, commonly used in the treatment of candidiasis. However, with fluconazole resistance ever increasing, rapid detection and antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida is imperative for proper patient treatment. This paper reports a cost-effective, simple and rapid chromogenic agar dilution method for simultaneous Candida species identification and fluconazole susceptibility testing. The results obtained by X-Plate Technology were in absolute concordance with standard microbroth dilution assays. Analysis of 1383 clinical patient samples with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis revealed that this technology was able to detect and speciate the Candida isolate and determine the fluconazole susceptibility. The prevalence and susceptibility profiles of the clinical isolates using this method were highly similar to published reports using the microbroth dilution method.
- Genetic basis for recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Curr Infect Dis Rep 2013 Apr; 15(2):136-42.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent disease affecting more than 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime. Up to 8% of them suffer from recurrent VVC (RVVC) characterized by at least three episodes each year. Several risk factors, such as antibiotic use, diabetes, or pregnancy, are known, but the vast majority of women with RVVC develop the infection without having any risk factor, implying that a genetic component most likely plays an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. This review summarizes the immunogenetic alterations that lead to an increased susceptibility to vaginal infections with Candida albicans. Different mutations and polymorphisms in innate immune genes alter the mucosal immune response against fungi and are likely to have an important role in susceptibility to RVVC. A better understanding of the genetic and immunological mechanisms leading to RVVC is important for both the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the design of novel therapeutic strategies.
- Assessment of self taken swabs versus clinician taken swab cultures for diagnosing gonorrhoea in women: single centre, diagnostic accuracy study. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMJ 2012.:e8107.
To compare gonorrhoea detection by self taken vulvovaginal swabs (tested with nucleic acid amplification tests) with the culture of urethral and endocervical samples taken by clinicians.Prospective study of diagnostic accuracy.1 sexual health clinic in an urban setting (Leeds Centre for Sexual Health, United Kingdom), between March 2009 and January 2010.Women aged 16 years or older, attending the clinic for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and consenting to perform a vulvovaginal swab themselves before routine examination. During examination, clinicians took urethral and endocervical samples for culture and an endocervical swab for nucleic acid amplification testing.Urethra and endocervix samples were analysed by gonococcal culture. Vulvovaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were analysed by the Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) assay; positive results from this assay were confirmed with a second nucleic acid amplification test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES : Positive confirmation of gonorrhoea.Of 3859 women with complete data and test results, 96 (2.5%) were infected with gonorrhoea (overall test sensitivities: culture 81%, endocervical swabs with AC2 96%, vulvovaginal swabs with AC2 99%). The AC2 assays were more sensitive than culture (P<0.001), but the endocervical and vulvovaginal assays did not differ significantly (P=0.375). Specificity of all Aptima Combo 2 tests was 100%. Of 1625 women who had symptoms suggestive of a bacterial STI, 56 (3.4%) had gonorrhoea (culture 84%, endocervical AC2 100%, vulvovaginal AC2 100%). The AC2 assays were more sensitive than culture (P=0.004), and the endocervical and vulvovaginal assays were equivalent to each other. Of 2234 women who did not have symptoms suggesting a bacterial STI, 40 (1.8%) had gonorrhoea (culture 78%, endocervical AC2 90%, vulvovaginal AC2 98%). The vulvovaginal swab was more sensitive than culture (P=0.008), but there was no difference between the endocervical and vulvovaginal AC2 assays (P=0.375) or between the endocervical AC2 assay and culture (P=0.125). The endocervical swab assay performed less well in women without symptoms of a bacterial STI than in those with symptoms (90% v 100%, P=0.028), whereas the vulvovaginal swab assay performed similarly (98% v 100%, P=0.42).Self taken vulvovaginal swabs analysed by nucleic acid amplification tests are significantly more sensitive at detecting gonorrhoea than culture of clinician taken urethral and endocervical samples, and are equivalent to endocervical swabs analysed by nucleic acid amplification tests. Self taken vulvovaginal swabs are the sample of choice in women without symptoms and have the advantage of being non-invasive. In women who need a clinical examination, either a clinician taken or self taken vulvovaginal swab is recommended.