- Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals. [Journal Article]
- AAppetite 2016 Oct 14; 108:295-302
- Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to ch...
Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.
- Development and Evaluation of the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Media Literacy (SSB-ML) Scale and Its Relationship With SSB Consumption. [Journal Article]
- HCHealth Commun 2016 Oct 3; :1-8
- Understanding how adults' media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of ma...
Understanding how adults' media literacy skill sets impact their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake provides insight into designing effective interventions to enhance their critical analysis of marketing messages and thus improve their healthy beverage choices. However, a media literacy scale focusing on SSBs is lacking. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from a large randomized controlled trial to (a) describe the psychometric properties of an SSB Media Literacy Scale (SSB-ML) scale and its subdomains, (b) examine how the scale varies across demographic variables, and (c) explain the scale's concurrent validity to predict SSB consumption. Results from 293 adults in rural southwestern Virginia (81.6% female, 94.0% White, 54.1% receiving SNAP and/or WIC benefits, average 410 SSB kcal daily) show that overall SSB-ML scale and its subdomains have strong internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.65 to 0.83). The Representation & Reality domain significantly predicted SSB kilocalories, after controlling for demographic variables. This study has implications for the assessment and inclusion of context-specific media literacy skills in behavioral interventions.
- Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study. [Journal Article]
- PMPrev Med Rep 2016; 4:507-11
- Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The S...
Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in 327 predominantly African American mother-child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE) Study (Memphis, TN). To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months). Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = - 0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively). Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course.
- Alleviated negative rather than positive attentional bias in patients with depression in remission: an eye-tracking study. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2016 Sep 29
- CONCLUSIONS: This present study showed that the negative attentional bias of RD patients was successfully eased, but their positive attentional bias was still insufficient.
- Social Desirability Trait Is Associated with Self-Reported Vegetable Intake among Women Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Acad Nutr Diet 2016 Sep 7
- CONCLUSIONS: Social desirability trait is associated with self-reported vegetable intake among WIC participants generally and non-breastfeeding participants in particular and should be assessed in these groups. Replication studies with comparative measures of "true intake" are needed to determine whether social desirability trait biases self-reports of vegetable intake or whether those with a high social desirability trait consume vegetables more often.
- The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Fresh Start Randomized Controlled Trial: Baseline Participant Characteristics and Reliability of Measures. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Acad Nutr Diet 2016 Sep 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Intervention is warranted to improve participants' vegetable intake. Registered dietitian nutritionists should be aware of F/V intake differences that may require differential intervention strategies.
- Breastfeeding practices, timing of introduction of complementary beverages and foods and weight status in infants and toddlers participants of a WIC clinic in Puerto Rico. [Journal Article]
- SSpringerplus 2016; 5(1):1437
- CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding duration was in general low. Water, formula and juice were introduced later in breastfed infants compared to non-exclusively breastfed or never breastfed infants. Breastfeeding practices or timing of introduction of beverages and solid foods were not significantly associated with weight status. Strategies to support mothers on continuing breastfeeding beyond the hospital and for longer periods are needed among WIC participants to benefit of the protective effect on childhood obesity.
- MIXED-STATUS FAMILIES AND WIC UPTAKE: THE EFFECTS OF RISK OF DEPORTATION ON PROGRAM USE. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Q 2016; 97(3):555-572
- CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides a typology and framework to study mixed-status families and evaluate their usage of social services by including an innovative measure of risk of deportation.
- Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. [Journal Article]
- PHPublic Health Nutr 2016 Sep 19; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.
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- The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood. [Journal Article]
- PSPrev Sci 2016 Sep 13
- This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple e...
This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.