- Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Intake by Race/Ethnicity and by Hispanic Origin and Nativity Among Women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 2015. [Journal Article]
- Prev Chronic Dis 2016.:E115.
The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics.We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module. Differences in intakes of 100% fruit juice, fruit, cooked or canned beans, and dark green, orange-colored, and other vegetables were assessed by using analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Analyses were controlled for age, pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, food security status, educational attainment, and social desirability trait.The frequency of vegetable intake differed by race/ethnicity (cooked or canned beans were consumed more often among Hispanic than non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white or other participants, orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among Hispanics than non-Hispanic black participants, and other vegetables were consumed more often among non-Hispanic white or other than among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic participants), origin (other vegetables were consumed more often among Columbian and other Hispanics than Dominican participants) and nativity (orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among foreign-born than US-born Hispanics). Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ by language preference among foreign-born Hispanics.Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity may have implications for WIC nutrition policies and nutrition education efforts.
- Factors Associated with Infant Feeding Choices in the Adolescent Population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hum Lact 2016 Aug 22.
Strong recommendations have been made for exclusive breastfeeding of infants for the first 6 months of life, with continuation throughout the first year. In an attempt to optimize support for breastfeeding, particular barriers in populations with decreased rates need to be analyzed.This study aimed to determine if participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food voucher program, involvement of the infant's father, involvement of the adolescent mother's parents or other caregivers, and participation in early skin-to-skin contact after birth are associated with the decision to breastfeed or bottle feed among this adolescent population.A retrospective chart review of 457 adolescent patients who delivered January 2010 through May 2013 at the University of Louisville Hospital was conducted. Nursing documentation was used to determine the patient's intention to breastfeed or bottle feed, participation in WIC, involvement of the infant's father, involvement of the patient's parents, and participation in early skin-to-skin contact after delivery. These factors were compared using Fisher exact test.Three hundred one adolescents reported a plan to breastfeed (65.9%) and 156 reported a plan to bottle feed (34.1%) when questioned pre-delivery. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to WIC participation or involvement of the infant's father. The bottle-feeding group had a significantly higher percentage who reported parental involvement (80.1% vs 67.8%, P = .0059). The breastfeeding group had a significantly higher percentage who participated in early skin-to-skin contact after birth (74.5% vs 58.1%, P = .0064).Involvement of the adolescent mothers' parents or caregivers was associated with the decision to bottle feed. Participation in early skin-to-skin contact after birth was associated with the decision to breastfeed.
- Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0161728.
Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community.This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software.Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources.Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents identified several strategies involving home care and community agents that can be helpful. Future interventions aimed to improve children's oral health must take into consideration the role of families and the communities in which they live.
- Reassessing the Association between WIC and Birth Outcomes Using a Fetuses-at-Risk Approach. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Matern Child Health J 2016 Aug 16.
Objectives Women with longer, healthier pregnancies have more time to enroll in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), biasing associations between WIC and birth outcomes. We examined the association between WIC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and perinatal death (PND) using a fetuses-at-risk approach to address this bias, termed gestational age bias. Methods We linked California Medi-Cal recipients with a singleton live birth or fetal death from the 2010 Birth Cohort to WIC participant data (n = 236,564). We implemented a fetuses-at-risk approach using survival analysis, which compared, in each week of gestation, women whose pregnancies reached the same length and who had the same opportunity to utilize WIC. In each gestational week, we assessed WIC enrollment and the number of food packages redeemed thus far and computed hazard ratios (HR) using survival models with time-varying exposures and effects. Results Adjusting for maternal socio-demographic and health characteristics, WIC enrollment was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 29-36 (HR29 = 0.71; HR36 = 0.52); LBW from week 26-40 (HR26 = 0.77; HR40 = 0.64); and PND from week 29-43 (HR29 = 0.78; HR43 = 0.69) (p < 0.05). The number of food packages redeemed was associated with a lower risk of PTB from week 27-36 (HR27 = 0.90; HR36 = 0.84); LBW from week 25-42 (HR25 = 0.93; HR42 = 0.88); and PND from week 27-46 (HR27 = 0.94; HR46 = 0.91) (p < 0.05). Conclusions for Practice To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between WIC and birth outcomes using this approach. We found that beginning from about 29 weeks, WIC enrollment was associated with a reduced risk of PTB by 29-48 %, LBW by 23-36 %, and PND by 22-31 %.
- The healthfulness of food and beverage purchases after the federal food package revisions: The case of two New England states. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Prev Med 2016 Aug 12.
In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented new food packages to improve dietary intake among WIC participants. This paper examines how the healthfulness of food purchases among low-income households changed following this reform.Point-of-sale data for 2137 WIC-participating and 1303 comparison households were obtained from a regional supermarket chain. The healthfulness of purchased foods and beverages was determined per their saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content. A pre-post assessment (2009-2010) of the product basket healthfulness was completed using generalized estimating equation models. Data were analyzed in 2015.At baseline, healthy products accounted for most of the food volume purchased by WIC participants, but beverages were dominated by moderation (less healthy) items. With new subsidies for fruit, vegetables and whole grains, the WIC revisions increased the volume of healthy food purchases of WIC-participating households by 3.9% and reduced moderation foods by 1.8%. The biggest improvements were reductions in moderation beverages (down by 24.7% in volume), driven by milk fat restrictions in the WIC food package revisions. The healthfulness of the product basket increased post-WIC revisions; mainly due to a reduction in the volume of moderation food and beverages purchased (down by 15.5%) rather than growth in healthy products (up by 1.9%). No similar improvements were seen in a comparison group of low-income nonparticipants.After the WIC revisions, the healthfulness of participant purchases improved, particularly for beverages. Efforts to encourage healthy eating by people receiving federal food assistance are paying off.
- Comparing Weight-for-Length Status of Young Children in Two Infant Feeding Programs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Matern Child Health J 2016 Aug 2.
Objectives A cross-sectional study comparing weight-for-length status of children 6-24 months old who participated in Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) or Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods Secondary analysis of NFP (n = 44,980) and WIC (n = 31,294) national datasets was conducted to evaluate infant and toddler growth trajectories. Weight-for-length status was calculated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months based on World Health Organization criteria. Demographics and breastfeeding rates were also evaluated. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for high weight-for-length (≥97.7 percentile) at each time point. Results At 6 months, approximately 10 % of WIC and NFP children were classified as high weight-for-length. High weight-for-length rates increased for both groups similarly until 24 months. At 24 months, NFP children had significantly lower rates of excess weight (P = 0.03) than WIC children, 15.5 and 17.5 % respectively. At all time points, non-Hispanic white children had lower rates of high-weight for length than Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children. NFP infants were also found to have higher rates of ever being breastfed than WIC infants (P < 0.0001). Conclusions for Practice Infant and toddler populations served by NFP or WIC were found to be at increased risk for high weight-for-length. This study found NFP participation was associated with a small, but significant, protective impact on weight-for-length status at 24 months. Continued efforts need to be made in addressing weight-related racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities during early childhood.
- Variation in WIC Cash-Value Voucher Redemption among American Indian Reservation Communities in Washington State. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hunger Environ Nutr 2016; 11(2):254-262.
- Low-Income Women's Feeding Practices and Perceptions of Dietary Guidance: A Qualitative Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Matern Child Health J 2016 Jul 27.
Objectives Describe themes characterizing feeding behaviors of low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and identify the attitudes, beliefs, and sources of information that inform these practices. Methods Formative research was conducted including focus groups and semi-structured individual phone interviews with a total of 68 low-income women participating in WIC. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed, imported into NVivo 8.0, and analyzed for common themes. Results Mothers reported feeding behaviors inconsistent with guidance from WIC and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Three main themes were identified. First, mothers reported receiving conflicting messaging/advice from medical professionals, WIC nutritionists, and family members, which was confusing. Mothers also reported dissatisfaction with the "one size fits most" approach. Lastly, mothers reported relying on their "instincts" and that "all babies are different" when deciding and rationalizing what feeding guidance to follow. Conclusions Future interventions targeting this high-risk population should consider developing personalized (individualized) messaging, tailored to the needs of each mother-child dyad. Focused efforts are needed to build partnerships between WIC providers and other health care providers to provide more consistent messages about responsive feeding to prevent early obesity.
- Household Food Security Status Is Associated with Anemia Risk at Age 18 Months among Low-Income Infants in Massachusetts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Acad Nutr Diet 2016 Jul 19.
Food insecurity and anemia are prevalent among low-income families and infants. Anemia may reflect iron deficiency anemia (IDA) risk. IDA in infancy and early childhood may have long-lasting developmental effects. Few studies have examined food security status (FSS) as a risk factor for anemia.To examine the association between household FSS, sociodemographic and health-related variables, and anemia incidence at age 18 months among low-income infants in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (MA/WIC).This was a longitudinal study using data from MA/WIC (August 2001 to November 2009) to assess the relationship between household FSS during the 12 months preceding the 1-year visit (age 9 to 15 months) and anemia at age 18 months.Infants included were not anemic at age 12 months and had complete data on household FSS and the following covariates (N=17,831): race/Hispanic ethnicity, maternal education, breastfeeding duration, household size, and child age.Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between household FSS during the prior 12 months and anemia at 18 months, controlling for infant age, sex, and race/Hispanic ethnicity, breastfeeding, maternal education, and household size.A majority of infants (56%) were nonwhite, and 19.9% lived in food-insecure households (4.8% in very-low food security). Of the infants who were not anemic at age 12 months, 11.7% became anemic by age 18 months. Infants living in low-food-secure households were 42% more likely (adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI, 1.27-1.60) to develop anemia at age 18 months than were their food-secure counterparts. Nonwhite race, higher household size, and lower maternal education were also associated with an elevated risk of anemia at age 18 months.Low food security appears to be associated with a significant increased risk of anemia, as do nonwhite ethnicity, lower maternal education, and larger household size. Knowledge of these risk factors can be used to design IDA-prevention interventions in this vulnerable population.