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- Symptoms, Feelings, Activities and Medication Use in Adolescents With Uncontrolled Asthma: Lessons Learned From Asthma Diaries. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Nurs 2013 May 14.
This study was to describe symptoms, feelings, activities and medical use reported by adolescents with uncontrolled asthma on their 24-hour asthma diaries. Adolescents with uncontrolled asthma (13-17years, N=29) completed asthma diaries and audio-recorded symptom sounds for 24hours. A variety of symptoms were reported, and the most frequently reported symptoms were coughing followed by wheezing. Most self-reported coughing and wheezing were verified by audio-recordings. Participants reported predominantly negative feelings and low levels of activities. High discordance between self-reports and medical records in medications was noted, raising a concern of poor treatment adherence in this vulnerable group.
- Impact of parental smoking on childhood asthma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr (Rio J) 2013 Apr 26.
OBJETIVE: To evaluate the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of the childhood population in this community and its relationship with asthma symptoms.
METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire on children and adolescents in this community. The symptoms "wheezing ever", "current asthma", "severe asthma", and "exercise-induced asthma" were defined by this questionnaire. Parental smoking was classified into four mutually exclusive categories: 1) no parent smokes; 2) only the mother smokes; 3) only the father smokes; and 4) both parents smoke. The odds ratio of the prevalence of asthma symptoms according to ETS exposure was calculated using logistic regression.
RESULTS:A total of 10,314 children and 10,453 adolescents were included. Over 51% of the children and adolescents were exposed to ETS at home. ETS is associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms, particularly if the mother or both parents smoke.
CONCLUSION:The prevalence of ETS is still high in this community, although there has been a decreasing tendency in the last 15 years. ETS is associated with higher prevalence of asthma.
- Propranolol therapy for infantile hemangioma. [Journal Article]
- Indian Pediatr 2013 Mar 8; 50(3):307-13.
There has been widespread interest surrounding the use of beta-blockers (i.e. propranolol, timolol, nadolol, acebutolol) in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IH).To review literature evaluating treatment of IH with propranolol.We conducted a literature search on PubMed and investigated for case reports, case series, and controlled trials by using search terms including hemangioma and propranolol. RESUltS: Data suggest that beta-blockers are efficacious in cutaneous, orbital, subglottic, and hepatic hemangiomas and assist in the resolution of ulcerated hemangiomas. Improvement has also been documented in children with PHACE syndrome. Propranolol produces favorable results in children who do not respond to steroids and with no long-term adverse effects. Propranolol should be administered with caution due to rare but serious side effects including hypoglycemia, wheezing, hypotension, and bradycardia. Additionally, recurrence of lesions following the cessation of treatment has been documented.Although large-scale randomized controlled trials must be conducted in order to further evaluate the safety and the possible role of propranolol in the treatment of IH, the reviewed literature suggests that propranolol carries promise as a potential replacement for corticosteroids as first-line therapy or as a part of a multimodal approach.
- Nutritional status and childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Public Health Nutr 2013 May 17.:1-8.
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association between current childhood nutritional status and current wheezing among pre-school children in rural Bangladesh.
SETTING:Matlab region, rural Bangladesh.
SUBJECTS:Children (n 912) aged 4·5 years. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and their children were taken during a 1-year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Current wheezing was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Serum total IgE was measured by human IgE quantitative ELISA. IgE specific antibody to dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by the CAP-FEIA system (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden).
RESULTS:Wheezing at 4·5 years old was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·22) and underweight (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·94). The association with stunting remained significant after adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth length, gestational age at birth, mother's parity, maternal BMI, family history of asthma, socio-economic status, season of birth and intervention trial arm (OR = 1·74; 95 % CI 1·19, 2·56).
CONCLUSIONS:Stunting was a significant risk factor for wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children. Further studies will be required to confirm the relationship between nutritional status and allergic illnesses in developing countries.
- Clinical characteristics of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection hospitalized during the Danish 2010-2012 epidemic. [Journal Article]
- Dan Med J 2013 May; 60(5):A4632.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia may be the most severe manifestation of respiratory M. pneumoniae infection. The most typical symptoms in children are cough and wheezing, which are often accompanied by upper respiratory tract manifestations mimicking viralrespiratory syndromes.This was a retrospective descriptive study. We included all children hospitalized at the Department of Paediatrics, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 1 August 2010 through May 2012 who tested positive for M. pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical data were obtained from the medical charts.A total of 671 PCR analyses for M. pneumoniae were performed of which 102 tested positive (15%). Our study included 101 M. pneumoniae-positive children with a median age of six years (range: 57 days-16 years). The cases were distributed throughout the year, but with a peak from October to January. 43% were five years or younger, with 18% being 0-1 years old and almost 7% being less than one year old. Only 17% were 11-16 years old. 58% of the patients reported more than seven days of fever and/or cough prior to admission. In all, 65 of 101 M. pneumoniae-positive children were discharged within 24 hours of admission.M. pneumoniae should be kept in mind as a cause not only of community-acquired pneumonia, but also of milder respiratory infections in children younger than five years. PCR from a nasal or throat swap is an easy, reliable and quick diagnostic test in infants and children.not relevant.not relevant.
- T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 deficiency eliminates airway hyperreactivity triggered by the recognition of airway cell death. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 May 11.
BACKGROUND:Studies of asthma have been limited by a poor understanding of how nonallergic environmental exposures, such as air pollution and infection, are translated in the lung into inflammation and wheezing.
OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to understand the mechanism of nonallergic asthma that leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma independent of adaptive immunity.
METHOD:We examined mouse models of experimental asthma in which AHR was induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection or ozone exposure using mice deficient in T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM1/HAVCR1), an important asthma susceptibility gene.
RESULTS:TIM1(-/-) mice did not have airways disease when infected with RSV or when repeatedly exposed to ozone, a major component of air pollution. On the other hand, the TIM1(-/-) mice had allergen-induced experimental asthma, as previously shown. The RSV- and ozone-induced pathways were blocked by treatment with caspase inhibitors, indicating an absolute requirement for programmed cell death and apoptosis. TIM-1-expressing, but not TIM-1-deficient, natural killer T cells responded to apoptotic airway epithelial cells by secreting cytokines, which mediated the development of AHR.
CONCLUSION:We defined a novel pathway in which TIM-1, a receptor for phosphatidylserine expressed by apoptotic cells, drives the development of asthma by sensing and responding to injured and apoptotic airway epithelial cells.
- Neonatal, atopic and infectious disease outcomes among children born to mothers with latent tuberculosis infection. [Journal Article]
- J Asthma Allergy 2013.:61-6.
Exposure to microbes may result in maternal immune responses that can affect fetal immune development. Several lines of evidence have shown that mycobacterial antigens can change the onset of atopic disease. We hypothesized that infants born to mothers with a positive tuberculosis (TB) test and a negative chest radiograph, may exhibit differential development of atopic disease during early childhood. The study was designed as a case control study. Birth records for infants born to untreated mothers with a positive TB skin test (TST), as defined by ≥10 mm induration were reviewed (n = 145 cases) and compared to a randomly selected unmatched control cohort of 46 women with a negative TST who delivered during the same time period at Scripps Hospital in San Diego, CA, USA. Childhood outcome parameters reviewed were: (1) the onset of physician diagnosed asthma; (2) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) with wheezing, latent tuberculosis infection/wheezing diagnosed on physical examination; (3) nonsurgical hospitalization; (4) atopic disease (eye/skin/nasal-sinus disease); (5) infections: ear, LRTI, sinus. LRTI was defined as an infection of the lower airways, eg, pneumonia. Outcomes at the end of years 1, 2, and 3-5 years combined were analyzed. Fisher exact test, Chi-square analysis or Poisson regression analysis were used as appropriate and a P-value of <0.05 was defined as significant. The cases and controls had similar birth weights, gestational ages, maternal ages: 3.34 versus 3.35 kg; 38.3 versus 39.2 weeks, 27.4 versus 26 years (P = non-significant). The childhood outcome parameters of the new onset of asthma was significantly higher than controls by age 2 years, but not at other ages studied, based on available clinic follow up data (P = 0.02). There was a difference in the risk for lung infection at age 2 and 3-5 years (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in the other outcome parameters studied (P = ns). There were no cases of infants with a positive TST, maternal Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination or active maternal TB, based on our study findings. There was a higher occurrence of asthma and lung infections at age 2 years among controls (P = 0.02). Our study defines for the first time a possible influence of maternal latent TB infection on fetal and childhood illness.
- Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Bras Pneumol 2013 Apr; 39(2):128-137.
OBJECTIVE:To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007.
METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions.
RESULTS:Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 20062007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all).
CONCLUSIONS:Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among females and private school students.
- Exacerbation of symptoms in agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2013 May 14.
PURPOSE:Exacerbation is a critical event in asthma management. We investigated whether exacerbation of symptoms is associated with farming exposures among agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma.
METHODS:Participants were pesticide applicators with active asthma (wheezing and breathing problems in past 12 months) who completed enrollment questionnaires for the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Exacerbation of asthma was defined as having visited a hospital emergency room or doctor for an episode of wheezing or whistling in the past 12 months. Exposures of interest were using 36 specific pesticides in the past 12 months and conducting various agricultural activities. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders.
RESULTS:The 926 AHS adult pesticide applicators with active asthma included 202 (22 %) with exacerbation. Inverse associations with exacerbation were observed for two herbicides [glyphosate, odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.3, 0.8, and paraquat, OR = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.1, 0.9] and several agricultural activities (repairing engines, grinding metal, driving diesel tractors, and performing veterinary procedures). Only asthma cases with allergies (i.e., doctor-diagnosed hay fever or eczema, 46 %) had positive exacerbation-pesticide associations, with OR = 2.1 (95 % CI 1.1, 4.1) for the herbicide pendimethalin and OR = 10.2 (95 % CI 1.9, 55) for the insecticide aldicarb.
CONCLUSIONS:The inverse associations with two pesticides and specific farm activities are consistent with the possibility that asthma cases prone to exacerbation may avoid exposures that trigger symptoms. Although limited by small sample size and a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that use of specific pesticides may contribute to exacerbation of asthma among individuals with allergies.
- Respiratory syncytial virus and asthma: speed-dating or long-term relationship? [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Pediatr 2013 Jun; 25(3):344-9.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has been accumulating that RSV lower respiratory tract infection in infants may be linked to subsequent development of recurrent wheezing and asthma in childhood. This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking RSV and asthma and some new hypotheses of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of postviral airway inflammation and hyperreactivity that have been proposed to explain the epidemiological link.New epidemiological studies have suggested that viral pathogens other than RSV, especially human rhinoviruses (HRV), may play an important role in the inception of atopic asthma. Also, recent experimental evidence is challenging the widely accepted axiom that RSV is cleared from immunocompetent hosts within weeks from the onset of the infection. In particular, bone marrow stromal cells may be a frequent target of human RSV infection, develop structural and functional changes when infected, participate actively in the pathogenesis of the acute disease, and harbor the virus chronically, allowing persistence of the infection.RSV - and possibly other common respiratory pathogens - play an important role not only in the exacerbation, but also in the inception of asthma. The latter effect may involve the persistence of latent virus in extrapulmonary tissues, similar to what has been recently found for some bacterial species. The most immediate consequence of these discoveries is that future prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for common infections caused by viral or bacterial pathogens may have to address the coverage of remote sites of latent persistence or replication, in order to avoid chronic sequelae-recurrent wheezing and asthma.