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- Exercise Capacity Affects Quality of Life in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lung 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of exercise capacity, mental disorders, and hemodynamics on quality-of-life (QoL) parameters in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
METHODS:Sixty-three patients with invasively diagnosed PAH (n = 48) or CTEPH (n = 15) underwent a broad panel of assessments, including cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), and assessment of hemodynamics. QoL was evaluated by the 36-item Medical Outcome Study Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Exercise capacity, hemodynamics, age, gender, and mental disorders (anxiety and depression) were assessed for association with QoL subscores by uni- and multivariate regression analyses.
RESULTS:Exercise capacity, WHO-FC, oxygen therapy, symptoms of right heart failure, right atrial pressure, and mental disorders were significantly associated with QoL (p < 0.05). In the stepwise backward selection multivariate analysis, depression remained an independent parameter in seven of eight subscales of the SF-36. Furthermore, peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2) during CPET, 6-MWD, anxiety, long-term oxygen therapy, right heart failure, and age remained independent factors for QoL. Hemodynamic parameters at rest did not independently correlate with any domain of the SF-36 QoL subscores.
CONCLUSIONS:Mental disorders, exercise capacity, long-term oxygen therapy, right heart failure, and age play important role in the quality of life in patients with PAH and CTEPH.
- [Prevalence and factors associated to malnutrition and excess weight among under five year-olds in the six largest cities of Maranhão]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Bras Epidemiol 2013 Mar; 16(1):146-56.
Prevalences of malnutrition and overweight among children under five years and its association with socioeconomic, demographic and health indicators were estimated for the six largest municipalities of Maranhão, in 2006/2007. By means of a household survey, a sample of 1214 children under five years of age was randomly selected. Two-stage cluster sampling was used, representing the six municipalities of Maranhão with over one hundred thousand inhabitants. Standardized questionnaire was administered to mothers or guardians and trained personnel measured weight and height or length. For classification of malnutrition cutoff points of <-2z scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height and length/height-for-age were used. Overweight was considered when weight for heithg was > +2 z score, following World Health Organization guidelines. By weight-for-age malnutrition prevalence was 4.5, by length/height-for-age 8.5% were stunted and by the weight-for-length/height 3.9% were malnourished (wasting), while 6.7% were overweight. Children of families headed by women had lower prevalence of malnutrition (prevalence ratio=0.4). Socioeconomic variables were not associated with malnutrition or overweight. Participation in money transfer programs from the government was not associated with malnutrition or overweight. The prevalence of malnutrition was low, but being overweight was more prevalent than malnutrition. Social inequality was not detected in relation to malnutrition in children under five years of age, suggesting a favorable trend towards greater equity.
- Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma Represents a Poorly Differentiated Form of High-grade Serous or Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Surg Pathol 2013 May 15.
Ovarian transitional cell tumors include Brenner tumors (BTs) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; non-BTs) according to the most recent World Health Organization classification. However, it remains a matter of debate whether TCC represents a distinct entity or a morphologic variant of high-grade serous adenocarcinoma (HG-SC). The purpose of this study was to resolve the above question by clarifying the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of TCC. We reviewed 488 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and reclassified them on the basis of the most recent World Health Organization classification with the modifications proposed by Köbel and colleagues, and 35 cases of TCC were identified; 25 and 6 TCCs were admixed with HG-SC and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EC), respectively, and the remaining 4 cases were pure TCC. TCC components were not observed in any clear cell carcinomas or mucinous adenocarcinomas. Only 2 cases of malignant BT were identified. In addition to TCCs, malignant BTs, and related adenocarcinomas, benign and borderline BTs were included in the following immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. Immunohistochemically, pure TCCs, TCCs admixed with HG-SC, and pure HG-SCs were characterized by frequent aberrant p53 expression (diffuse or null pattern) and WT1/ER/PR/IMP2 immunophenotype, whereas BTs, including benign, borderline, and malignant BTs, were characterized by lack of aberrant p53 expression and WT1/ER/PR/IMP2 immunophenotype. In contrast to the BTs, pure ECs and TCCs admixed with EC showed an ER/PR immunophenotype. Nearly all the tumors with a TP53 gene mutation by molecular analysis showed aberrant p53 staining patterns. In conclusion, TCC is not a distinct entity but a poorly differentiated form of serous or EC, as (1) most TCCs coexist with HG-SC (mostly) or EC (occasionally), and (2) the immunophenotype and molecular features are similar to those of HG-SC or EC but different from those of BTs.
- Predictors of Functional Dependency after Stroke in Nigeria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND:The factors impacting poststroke functional dependency have not been adequately explored in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the risk factors for functional dependency in a group of Nigerian African stroke survivors.
METHODS:One hundred twenty-eight stroke survivors attending a tertiary general hospital in southwestern Nigeria were consecutively recruited and assessed for functional dependency using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Stroke was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Candidate independent variables assessed included the demographic and clinical characteristics of survivors, cognitive dysfunction, and a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Variables with significant relationship to functional dependency were entered into a logistic regression model to identify factors that were predictive of functional dependency among the stroke survivors.
RESULTS:In all, 60.9% of the stroke survivors were functionally dependent (mRS scores ≥3), with mean ± SD mRS scores of 2.71 ± 1.01. Female sex (P = .003; odds ratio [OR] 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-6.44), global cognitive dysfunction (P = .002; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.79-14.16), and major depressive disorder (P < .0001; OR 3.06; 95% CI 1.92-4.87) were strongly associated with functional dependency in univariate analysis. Major depressive disorder was an independent predictor of functional dependency in multivariate analysis (P < .0001; OR 6.89; 95% CI 2.55-18.6; R(2) = 0.19).
CONCLUSIONS:Depression, female sex, and cognitive dysfunction were strongly associated with poorer functioning after stroke. Interventions aimed at depression and cognitive dysfunction after stroke may improve functional independence in stroke survivors.
- The use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in indigenous healthcare: a systematic literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Equity Health 2013 May 16; 12(1):32.
INTRODUCTION:The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was endorsed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2001 to obtain a comprehensive perspective of health and functioning of individuals and groups. Health disparities exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and there is a need to understand the health experiences of Indigenous communities from Indigenous Australian's perspectives in order to develop and implement culturally appropriate and effective intervention strategies to improve Indigenous health. This systematic review examines the literature to identify the extent and context of use of the ICF in Indigenous healthcare, to provide the foundation on which to consider its potential use for understanding the health experiences of Indigenous communities from their perspective.
METHODS:The search was conducted between May and June 2012 of five scientific and medical electronic databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete and PsychInfo and six Indigenous-specific databases: AIATSIS, APAIS-health, ATSI-health, health and society, MAIS-ATSIS and RURAL. Reference lists of included papers were also searched. Articles which applied the ICF within an Indigenous context were selected. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted and analysed by two independent reviewers. Agreement was reached by consensus.
RESULTS:Five articles met the inclusion criteria however two of the articles were not exclusively in an Indigenous context. One article applied the ICF in the context of understanding the health experience and priorities of Indigenous people and a second study had a similar focus but used the revised version of the International Classification of Impairments, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2), the predecessor to the ICF. Four of the five papers involved Indigenous Australians, and one of the paper's participants were Indigenous (First Nation) Canadians.
CONCLUSION:Literature referring to the use of the ICF with Indigenous populations is limited. The ICF has the potential to help understand the health and functioning experience of Indigenous persons from their perspective. Further research is required to determine if the ICF is a culturally appropriate tool and whether it is able to capture the Indigenous health experience or whether modification of the framework is necessary for use with this population.
- The saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE) randomized controlled trial (RCT): methodological issues and participant characteristics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Public Health 2013 May 16; 13(1):479.
BACKGROUND:Mental health problems and risk behaviours among young people are of great public health concern. Consequently, within the VII Framework Programme, the European Commission funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in eleven European countries, with Sweden as the coordinating centre, and was designed to identify an effective way to promote mental health and reduce suicidality and risk taking behaviours among adolescents.
OBJECTIVE:To describe the methodological and field procedures in the SEYLE RCT among adolescents, as well as to present the main characteristics of the recruited sample.
METHODS:Analyses were conducted to determine: 1) representativeness of study sites compared to respective national data; 2) response rate of schools and pupils, drop-out rates from baseline to 3 and 12 month follow-up, 3) comparability of samples among the four Intervention Arms; 4) properties of the standard scales employed: Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS),Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5), Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI) and Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS).
RESULTS:Participants at baseline comprised 12,395 adolescents (M/F: 5,529/6,799; mean age=14.9+/-0.9) from Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain. At the 3 and 12 months follow up, participation rates were 87.3% and 79.4%, respectively. Demographic characteristics of participating sites were found to be reasonably representative of their respective national population. Overall response rate of schools was 67.8%. All scales utilised in the study had good to very good internal reliability, as measured by Cronbach's alpha (BDI-II: 0.864; Z-SAS: 0.805; SDQ: 0.740; WHO-5: 0.799).
CONCLUSIONS:SEYLE achieved its objective of recruiting a large representative sample of adolescents within participating European countries. Analysis of SEYLE data will shed light on the effectiveness of important interventions aimed at improving adolescent mental health and well-being, reducing risk-taking and self-destructive behaviour and preventing suicidality.Trial registration: US National Institute of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry (NCT00906620) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000214).
- Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pediatr 2013 May 16; 13(1):77.
BACKGROUND:Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months.
METHODS:This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected.
RESULTS:Even though there was a high rate of "ever having breastfed" (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95%CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95%CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95%CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding is less likely to take place among lower-educated, primiparous women may help health practitioners focus their support and education for this group.
- Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013 May 16; 13(1):114.
BACKGROUND:Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective.
METHOD:Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards.
RESULTS:The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers.
CONCLUSIONS:Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of support and education of individual women towards a more holistic, family-centred narrative approach, whilst acknowledging that breastfeeding is a practical skill that women and babies have to learn.
- Psychological Characteristics of BDSM Practitioners. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sex Med 2013 May 16.
INTRODUCTION:It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners.
AIM:The aim of this study was to compare scores of BDSM practitioners and a control group on various fundamental psychological characteristics.
METHODS:For this aim, 902 BDSM and 434 control participants completely filled out online questionnaires. Associations were examined using χ(2) tests of independence with φ and Cramer's V as effect size measures and eta or Pearson's correlation. Group differences were tested using analysis of covariance, with partial η(2) as effect size measure. A priori contrasts were tested using α = 0.01 to correct for multiple testing; for all other tests we used α = 0.05, two tailed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The study used Big Five personality dimensions (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), attachment styles (Attachment Styles Questionnaire), rejection sensitivity (Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire), and subjective well-being (World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index).
RESULTS:The results mostly suggest favorable psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners compared with the control group; BDSM practitioners were less neurotic, more extraverted, more open to new experiences, more conscientious, less rejection sensitive, had higher subjective well-being, yet were less agreeable. Comparing the four groups, if differences were observed, BDSM scores were generally more favorably for those with a dominant than a submissive role, with least favorable scores for controls.
CONCLUSION:We conclude that BDSM may be thought of as a recreational leisure, rather than the expression of psychopathological processes. Wismeijer AAJ and van Assen MALM. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
- Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2013 May 17.