Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
World Health Organization [keywords]
- Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013 May 16; 13(1):114.
BACKGROUND:Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective.
METHOD:Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards.
RESULTS:The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers.
CONCLUSIONS:Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of support and education of individual women towards a more holistic, family-centred narrative approach, whilst acknowledging that breastfeeding is a practical skill that women and babies have to learn.
- Psychological Characteristics of BDSM Practitioners. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Sex Med 2013 May 16.
INTRODUCTION:It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners.
AIM:The aim of this study was to compare scores of BDSM practitioners and a control group on various fundamental psychological characteristics.
METHODS:For this aim, 902 BDSM and 434 control participants completely filled out online questionnaires. Associations were examined using χ(2) tests of independence with φ and Cramer's V as effect size measures and eta or Pearson's correlation. Group differences were tested using analysis of covariance, with partial η(2) as effect size measure. A priori contrasts were tested using α = 0.01 to correct for multiple testing; for all other tests we used α = 0.05, two tailed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The study used Big Five personality dimensions (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), attachment styles (Attachment Styles Questionnaire), rejection sensitivity (Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire), and subjective well-being (World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index).
RESULTS:The results mostly suggest favorable psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners compared with the control group; BDSM practitioners were less neurotic, more extraverted, more open to new experiences, more conscientious, less rejection sensitive, had higher subjective well-being, yet were less agreeable. Comparing the four groups, if differences were observed, BDSM scores were generally more favorably for those with a dominant than a submissive role, with least favorable scores for controls.
CONCLUSION:We conclude that BDSM may be thought of as a recreational leisure, rather than the expression of psychopathological processes. Wismeijer AAJ and van Assen MALM. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
- Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Healthy growth in utero and after birth is fundamental for lifelong health and wellbeing. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published standards for healthy growth from birth to 6 years of age; analogous standards for healthy fetal growth are not currently available. Current fetal growth charts in use are not true standards, since they are based on cross-sectional measurements of attained size under conditions that do not accurately reflect normal growth. In most cases, the pregnant populations and environments studied are far from ideal; thus the data are unlikely to reflect optimal fetal growth. A true standard should reflect how fetuses and newborns 'should' grow under ideal environmental conditions.
OBJECTIVE:The development of prescriptive intrauterine and newborn growth standards derived from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project provides the data that will allow us for the first time to establish what is 'normal' fetal growth.
METHODS:The INTERGROWTH-21(st) study centres provide the data set obtained under pre-established standardised criteria, and details of the methods used are also published.
DESIGN:Multicentre study with sites in all major geographical regions of the world using a standard evaluation protocol.
RESULTS:These standards will assess risk of abnormal size at birth and serve to evaluate potentially effective interventions to promote optimal growth beyond securing survival.
DISCUSSION:The new normative standards have the potential to impact perinatal and neonatal survival and beyond, particularly in developing countries where fetal growth restriction is most prevalent. They will help us identify intrauterine growth restriction at earlier stages of development, when preventive or corrective strategies might be more effective than at present.
CONCLUSION:These growth standards will take us one step closer to effective action in preventing and potentially reversing abnormal intrauterine growth. Achieving 'optimal' fetal growth requires that we act not only during pregnancy but that we optimize the maternal uterine environment from the time before conception, through embryonic development until fetal growth is complete. The remaining challenge is how 'early' will we be able to act, now that we can better monitor fetal growth.
- Socioeconomic Inequality in Disability Among Adults: A Multicountry Study Using the World Health Survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Public Health 2013 May 16.
Objectives.We compared national prevalence and wealth-related inequality in disability across a large number of countries from all income groups. Methods. Data on 218 737 respondents participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004 were analyzed. A composite disability score (0-100) identified respondents who experienced significant disability in physical, mental, and social functioning irrespective of their underlying health condition. Disabled persons had disability composite scores above 40. Wealth was evaluated using an index of economic status in households based on ownership of selected assets. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality.
Results.Median age-standardized disability prevalence was higher in the low- and lower middle-income countries. In all the study countries, disability was more prevalent in the poorest than in the richest wealth quintiles. Pro-rich inequality was statistically significant in 43 of 49 countries, with disability prevalence higher among populations with lower wealth. Median relative inequality was higher in the high- and upper middle-income countries.
Conclusions.Integrating equity components into the monitoring of disability trends would help ensure that interventions reach and benefit populations with greatest need. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 16, 2013: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301115).
- The objectives, design and implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BJOG 2013 May 17.
Please cite this paper as: Villar J, Altman D, Purwar M, Noble J, Knight H, Ruyan P, Cheikh Ismail L, Barros F, Lambert A, Papageorghiou A, Carvalho M, Jaffer Y, Bertino E, Gravett M, Bhutta Z, Kennedy S, for the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ). The objectives, design and implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. BJOG 2013; DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12047. INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a multicentre, multiethnic, population-based project, being conducted in eight geographical areas (Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, UK and USA), with technical support from four global specialised units, to study growth, health and nutrition from early pregnancy to infancy. It aims to produce prescriptive growth standards, which conceptually extend the World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to cover fetal and newborn life. The new international standards will describe: (1) fetal growth assessed by clinical and ultrasound measures; (2) postnatal growth of term and preterm infants up to 2 years of age; and (3) the relationship between birthweight, length and head circumference, gestational age and perinatal outcomes. As the project has selected healthy cohorts with no obvious risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction, these standards will describe how all fetuses and newborns should grow, as opposed to traditional charts that describe how some have grown at a given place and time. These growth patterns will be related to morbidity and mortality to identify levels of perinatal risk. Additional aims include phenotypic characterisation of the preterm and impaired fetal growth syndromes and development of a prediction model, based on multiple ultrasound measurements, to estimate gestational age for use in pregnant women without access to early/frequent antenatal care.
- Reflections on psychiatry and international mental health. [Journal Article]
- Mens Sana Monogr 2013 Jan; 11(1):59-67.
This paper reflects on the needs for close interaction between psychiatry and all partners in international mental health for the improvement of mental health and advancement of the profession, with a particular view to the relationships between mental health, development and human rights. The World Health Organisation identifies strong links between mental health status and development for individuals, communities and countries. In order to improve population mental health, countries need effective and accessible treatment, prevention, and promotion programmes. Achieving adequate support for mental health in any country requires a unified approach. Strong links between psychiatrists, community leaders and patients and families that are based on negotiation and respect, are vital for progress. When strong partnerships exist, they can contribute to community understanding and advancement of psychiatry. This is the first step towards scaling up good quality care for those living with mental illnesses, preventing illnesses in those at risk, and promoting mental health through work with other community sectors. Partnerships are needed to support education and research in psychiatry, and improvements in quality of care wherever psychiatry is practiced, including primary health and community mental health services, hospitals and private practice. There are important roles for psychiatry in building the strength of organisations that champion the advocacy and support roles of service users and family carers, and encouraging partnerships for mental health promotion in the community.
- Policy coherence for improved medical innovation and access. [Journal Article]
- Bull World Health Organ 2013 May 1; 91(5):315-315A.
- Ischemic Heart Disease and Its Related Factors in Mongolia: A Nationwide Survey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Community Health 2013 May 16.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains one of the most important disorders associated with disability and mortality worldwide, and is one of the major causes of cardiovascular diseases in Mongolia. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of IHD and its related factors in a general population in Mongolia. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey between March and September, 2009. General participants were recruited from urban to rural regions in a multistage random cluster sampling method. The diagnosis of IHD was based on the Rose questionnaire (World Health Organization) and electrocardiographic findings. A total of 369 (16.2 %) subjects with IHD were diagnosed among 2,280 participants. The prevalence of subjects with IHD was significantly increased by age: from 9.9 % in individuals age 40-44 years compared to 17.7 % in those over 60 years. Smoking habits (former and current) and non-frequent intake of fruits and vegetables were significantly positively associated with IHD in men, while heavy alcohol drinking habits and lower education period of time were significantly positively associated with IHD in women. IHD was found to be prevalent, especially among people aged over 40 years, in Mongolia. Statistical factors related to IHD were found to be significantly different based on sex. The current data may provide relevant information to prevent IHD in the Mongolian population.
- Seroprevalence of anti-polio antibodies among children <15 years of age in border provinces, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013 May 15.
Background:Despite remarkable progression toward polio eradication worldwide, wild poliovirus (WPV) importation has been a great challenge for China, as it shares borders with WPV-endemic countries. The objective of this study was to estimate poliovirus antibody seroprevalance among children < 15 years of age in 3 border provinces (Yunnan Province, Tibet Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) in China.
Methods:A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in 3 border provinces in 2010. Subjects, aged <15 years old who visited hospitals at prefecture level or above to have their blood drawn for any reason, were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing antibody titers to polio serotypes 1 (P1), 2 (P2) and 3 (P3) were assayed according to World Health Organization manual for the virological investigation of polio. Antibody titers ≥ 8 were considered positive.
Results:Among the 1,360 subjects enrolled, 1,220 (89.7%), 1,259 (92.6%), and 1,112 (81.8%) were seropositive to P1, P2 and P3 respectively, and 1,051 (77.3%) subjects were seropositive to all the three serotypes. The highest seropositive rates were observed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. By age, 3 - 5 year olds had the highest rate of seroposivity, and seropositivity decreased significantly with increasing age.
Conclusion:The risk of WPV importation will continue until WPV transmission has been interrupted worldwide. Consistent with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's polio endgame strategy, China must maintain its polio--free status by ensuring adequate population immunity against polio. Because immunity wanes with increasing age, a booster dose with bivalent types 1 and 2 oral poliovirus vaccine could be considered for teenagers in China.
- Disability in saudi arabia. [Journal Article]
- Saudi Med J 2013 May; 34(5):453-60.
Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world's population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature.