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- Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans from Canine Pyoderma Cases in Grenada, West Indies, and Their Susceptibility to Beta-Lactam Drugs. [Journal Article]
- Vet Med Int 2014.:850126.
Over a 2-year period 66 cases of canine pyoderma in Grenada, West Indies, were examined by aerobic culture in order to ascertain the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Of the 116 total bacterial isolates obtained, the majority belonged to Gram-positive species, and the most common organism identified through biochemical and molecular methods was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Additionally, identification of a Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans isolate was confirmed by molecular methods. All isolates of staphylococci were susceptible to beta-lactam drugs: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, and cephalothin. They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Resistance was highest to tetracycline. Methicillin resistance was not detected in any isolate of S. pseudintermedius or in S. schleiferi. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, the most common species was Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus. The only drug to which all Gram-negative isolates were susceptible was enrofloxacin. This report is the first to confirm the presence of S. pseudintermedius and S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans, in dogs with pyoderma in Grenada, and the susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates to the majority of beta-lactam drugs used in veterinary practice.
- Antimicrobial resistance trends among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in Greece, 2009-2012. [Journal Article]
- ScientificWorldJournal 2014.:941564.
The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009-2012). A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%). Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4%) penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for β -lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.
- The Problem of Helicobacter pylori Resistance to Antibiotics: A Systematic Review in Latin America. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Gastroenterol 2014 Mar 4.
OBJECTIVES:Latin America has a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated diseases, including gastric cancer. Antibiotic therapy can eradicate the bacterial infection and decrease associated morbidity and mortality. To tailor recommendations for optimal treatments, we summarized published literature and calculated region- and country-specific prevalences of antibiotic resistance.METHODS:Searches of PubMed and regional databases for observational studies evaluating H. pylori antibiotic resistance yielded a total of 59 independent studies (56 in adults, 2 in children, and 1 in both groups) published up to October 2013 regarding H. pylori isolates collected between 1988 and 2011. Study-specific prevalences of primary resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics were summarized using random-effects models. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by meta-regression. As a sensitivity analysis, we extended our research to studies of patients with prior H. pylori-eradication therapy.RESULTS:Summary prevalences of antimicrobial primary resistance among adults varied by antibiotic, including 12% for clarithromycin (n=35 studies), 53% for metronidazole (n=34), 4% for amoxicillin (n=28), 6% for tetracycline (n=20), 3% for furazolidone (n=6), 15% for fluoroquinolones (n=5), and 8% for dual clarithromycin and metronidazole (n=10). Resistance prevalence varied significantly by country, but not by year of sample collection. Analyses including studies of patients with prior therapy yielded similar estimates. Pediatric reports were too few to be summarized by meta-analysis.CONCLUSIONS:Resistance to first-line anti-H. pylori antibiotics is high in Latin American populations. In some countries, the empirical use of clarithromycin without susceptibility testing may not be appropriate. These findings stress the need for appropriate surveillance programs, improved antimicrobial regulations, and increased public awareness.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 4 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.24.
- Letter to the editor: re: the clinical effect of scaling and root planing and the concomitant administration of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole: a systematic review; re: effectiveness of systemic amoxicillin/metronidazole as adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis; re: effectiveness of systemic amoxicillin/metronidazole as an adjunctive therapy to full-mouth scaling and root planing in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Periodontol 2014 Mar; 85(3):374-84.
- Systematic Review of Evidence-Based Guidelines on Medication Therapy for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with AGREE Instrument. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(2):e87711.
To summarize recommendations of existing guidelines on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these guidelines.We searched seven databases and web sites of relevant academic agencies. Evidence-based guidelines on pediatric URTIs were included. AGREE II was used to assess the quality of these guidelines. Two researchers selected guidelines independently and extracted information on publication years, institutions, target populations, recommendations, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendations. We compared the similarities and differences of recommendations and their strength. We also analyzed the reasons for variation.Thirteen guidelines meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Huge differences existed among these 13 guidelines concerning the categorization of evidence and recommendations. Nearly all of these guidelines lacked the sufficient involvement of stake holders. Further, the applicability of these guidelines still needs to be improved. In terms of recommendations, penicillin and amoxicillin were suggested for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were recommended for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). An observation of 2-3 days prior to antibiotic therapy initiation for mild acute otitis media (AOM) was recommended with amoxicillin as the suggested first choice agent. Direct evidence to support strong recommendations on the therapy for influenza is still lacking. In addition, the antimicrobial durations for pharyngitis and ABRS were still controversial. No consensus was reached for the onset of antibiotics for ABRS in children.Future guidelines should use a consistent grading system for the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. More effort needs to be paid to seek the preference of stake holders and to improve the applicability of guidelines. Further, there are still areas in pediatric URTIs that need more research.
- Sequential, Concomitant and Hybrid first-line therapies for H. pylori eradication: a prospective, randomized study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Microbiol 2014 Feb 28.
Summary H. pylori eradication remains a challenge for physicians. Sequential, concomitant, and the hybrid regimens have been proposed as novel, more effective therapies. We compare the efficacy of these therapies. Dyspeptic patients referred for upper endoscopy with H. pylori infection were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive: a) Sequential therapy: omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 g for 5 days followed by omeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 for the successive 5 days; b) Concomitant therapy: omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg for either 5 days (5-day concomitant) or 14 days (14-day concomitant); or c) Hybrid therapy: omeprazole 20 mg and amoxicillin 1 g for 7 days followed by omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and tinidazole 500 mg for successive 7 days. All drugs were given twice daily. Bacterial eradication was checked by using a 13C-urea breath test. At ITT analysis, sequential therapy achieved the highest eradication rate, which was higher than that of 5-day concomitant therapy (90% vs. 78.1%; p=0.02). The success rate did not statistically differ among the sequential and either 14-day concomitant (90% vs. 86.3%; p=NS) or hybrid therapy (90% vs. 82.7%; p=NS). The 10-day sequential, 14-day concomitant and 14-day hybrid therapies, but not 5-day concomitant regimen, achieved similarly high eradication rates. The lower therapeutic cost coupled with the lower number of tablets needed would favor the sequential therapy as first-line H. pylori treatment in clinical practice.
- Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomed Chromatogr 2014 Mar 3.
The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Insights into the relationship between antimicrobial residues and bacterial populations in a hospital-urban wastewater treatment plant system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Water Res 2014 Feb 11.:327-336.
The relationship between antimicrobial residues, antibiotic resistance prevalence and bacterial community composition in hospital effluent and in the receiving wastewater treatment plant was studied. Samples from hospital effluent, raw inflow and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant were characterized for amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance prevalence, content of heavy metals and antimicrobial residues and bacterial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE analysis. The concentration of fluoroquinolones, arsenic and mercury was in general higher in hospital effluent than in raw inflow, while the opposite was observed for tetracyclines, sulfonamides and penicillin G. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly higher in hospital effluent than in raw inflow. The concentration of antimicrobial residues was observed to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and with variations in the bacterial community. Hospital effluent was confirmed as a relevant, although not unique, source of antimicrobial residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria to the wastewater treatment plant. Moreover, given the high loads of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria that may occur in hospital effluents, these wastewater habitats may represent useful models to study and predict the impact of antibiotic residues on bacterial communities.
- Ceftaroline activity against organisms isolated from respiratory tract infections in USA hospitals: results from the AWARE program, 2009-2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Nov 6.
The Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program monitors the activity of ceftaroline and comparator agents tested against pathogens causing either respiratory or skin and soft tissue infections. A total of 7733 isolates from patients in 80 medical centers across the United States (USA) identified as respiratory tract pathogens by the infection type and/or specimen site recorded by the submitting laboratory during 2009-2011 were evaluated. There were 3360 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1799 Haemophilus influenzae, 1087 Staphylococcus aureus, 678 Moraxella catarrhalis, 459 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 223 Escherichia coli, and 127 Klebsiella oxytoca. Annual penicillin resistance among S. pneumoniae ranged from 21.9 to 24.3%. All S. pneumoniae strains were inhibited at a ceftaroline MIC of ≤0.5 μg/mL with 100.0% of isolates categorized as susceptible. Ceftaroline was 16-fold more active than ceftriaxone and 32-fold more active than amoxicillin-clavulanate against penicillin-resistant pneumococci. Only 49.8% of the penicillin-resistant isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. There were a total of 1087 S. aureus (48.9% methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) isolates, and the yearly MRSA rate ranged from 47.9 to 49.7%. The ceftaroline MIC50/90 for S. aureus was at 0.25/1 μg/mL; 98.2% susceptible and no resistant strains (≥4 μg/mL). Ceftaroline activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 0.25 μg/mL, respectively; 100% susceptible) was 2- to 4-fold greater than for MRSA (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/mL; 96.2% susceptible). The ceftriaxone MIC90 for MSSA was 4 μg/mL. Ceftaroline was active against H. influenzae (MIC50/90 ≤0.015/0.03 μg/mL; 100.0% susceptible) and against M. catarrhalis (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 μg/mL). Ceftaroline was active against non-extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype strains of Enterobacteriaceae but not against ESBL-positive phenotype strains. In summary, ceftaroline was highly active against a large collection of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections in the USA during 2009 through 2011.
- Amoxicillin and 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash may not be better than placebo for reducing bacteremia in third molar extractions. [Journal Article]
- J Evid Based Dent Pract 2014 Mar; 14(1):34-5.
The comparative efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine and amoxicillin to reduce the incidence and magnitude of bacteremia during third molar extractions: a prospective, blind, randomized clinical trial. Duvall NB, Fisher TD, Hensley D, Hancock RH, Vandewalle KS. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;115(6):752-63.Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi, DDS, PhD, Fábio André Santos, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: The study purpose was to compare the incidence and magnitude of bacteremia after four third-molar extractions using three protocols: pre-procedure 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse, prophylaxis regimen of 2 g of amoxicillin given orally, and placebo.Government Funding: 59th Clinical Research Training Division, Lackland Air Force Base, TexasRandomized controlled trialLevel 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidenceNot applicable.