- Self-medication practice among preclinical university students in a medical school from the city of Pokhara, Nepal. [Journal Article]
- NJNepal J Epidemiol 2016; 6(2):574-581
- CONCLUSIONS: Medical student should be educated through awareness programme regarding pros and cons of self-medication practice and they should be motivated regarding the rationale use of antibiotics. .
- [Interaction between amoxicillin clavulanic acid and fluindione: Two case reports]. [Letter]
- TTherapie 2016 Oct 19
- Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2016 Oct 19
- Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen involved in bovine mastitis, but knowledge about antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus resulting in bovine ...
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen involved in bovine mastitis, but knowledge about antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus resulting in bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China, is limited. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of Staph. aureus were carried out. A total of 327 milk samples from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in 4 regions of Ningxia were used for the isolation and identification of pathogens according to phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility against 22 antimicrobial agents was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of 8 virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates was tested by PCR. Genotypes of isolates were investigated based on RAPD. Results showed that 35 isolates obtained from mastitis milk samples were identified as Staph. aureus. The isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100%), penicillin G (94.3%), ampicillin (94.3%), erythromycin (68.6%), azithromycin (68.6%), clindamycin (25.7%), amoxicillin (11.4%), and tetracycline (5.7%). All of the isolates contained one or more virulence genes with average (standard deviation) of 6.6 ± 1.6. The most prevalent virulence genes were hlb (97.1%), followed by fnbpA, hla, coa (94.3% each), nuc (85.7%), fnbpB (80%), clfA (77.1%), and tsst-1 (40%). Nine different gene patterns were found and 3 of them were the dominant gene combinations (77.1%). Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 35) were divided into 6 genotypes by RAPD tying, the genotypes III and VI were the most prevalent genotypes. There was great variation in genotypes of Staph. aureus isolates, not only among different farms, but also within the same herd in Ningxia province. The study showed a high incidence of Staph. aureus with genomic variation of resistance genes, which is matter of great concern in public and animal health in Ningxia province of China.
- Kounis syndrome due to antibiotics: A global overview from pharmacovigilance databases. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiol 2016 Dec 1; 224:406-411
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provided a complete picture of the cases of KS associated with antibiotic use and identified a possible association between amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and KS. Since the number of cases is low, especially considering its wide use, further analyses are needed to confirm the association.
- Antimicrobial drug use in primary healthcare clinics: a retrospective evaluation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2016 Sep 14; 52:16-22
- CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the antibiotic usage at three primary healthcare clinics in Klang Province. The most prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin in capsules (250mg), which was mainly prescribed for respiratory infections. Although the national antibiotic guidelines state that amoxicillin is a preferred drug for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, this drug is also being prescribed for other disease conditions, such as acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis. This result shows that current practice is not following the current antibiotic guidelines, which state that phenoxypenicillin should be the preferred drug.
- [Recommendations for management of acute pharyngitis in adults]. [Journal Article]
- EIEnferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2016; 34(9):585-594
- Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is S...
Acute pharyngitis in adults is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in general practitioners' consultations. Viral aetiology is the most common. Among bacterial causes, the main agent is Streptococcus pyogenes or group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), which causes 5%-30% of the episodes. In the diagnostic process, clinical assessment scales can help clinicians to better predict suspected bacterial aetiology by selecting patients who should undergo a rapid antigen detection test. If these techniques are not performed, an overdiagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis often occurs, resulting in unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, most of which are broad spectrum. Consequently, management algorithms that include the use of predictive clinical rules and rapid tests have been set up. The aim of the treatment is speeding up symptom resolution, reducing the contagious time span and preventing local suppurative and non-suppurative complications. Penicillin and amoxicillin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of pharyngitis. The association of amoxicillin and clavulanate is not indicated as the initial treatment of acute infection. Neither are macrolides indicated as first-line therapy; they should be reserved for patients allergic to penicillin. The appropriate diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis and proper use of antibiotics based on the scientific evidence available are crucial. Using management algorithms can be helpful in identifying and screening the cases that do not require antibiotic therapy.
- Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission. [Journal Article]
- DMDiagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Sep 23
- As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-mi...
As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.
- Concomitant, bismuth quadruple, and 14-day triple therapy in the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori: a multicentre, open-label, randomised trial. [Journal Article]
- LctLancet 2016 Oct 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Bismuth quadruple therapy is preferable to 14-day triple therapy in the first-line treatment in the face of rising prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. Concomitant therapy given for 10 days might not be optimum and a longer treatment length should be considered.
- In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2016 Oct 7; 42:119-122
- Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of soli...
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L). The MIC50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents.
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- Bypass graft infection and bacteremia caused by Anaerostipes caccae: First report of human infection caused by a recently described gut anaerobe. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2016 Sep 28; 42:98-100
- We report a case of bypass graft infection and bacteremia caused by Anaerostipes caccae. A review of the literature shows no reported human infection caused by this microorganism to date. The patient...
We report a case of bypass graft infection and bacteremia caused by Anaerostipes caccae. A review of the literature shows no reported human infection caused by this microorganism to date. The patient was initially treated with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam on admission and with amoxicillin-clavulanate upon discharge. The slow-growing organism was subsequently found to be susceptible to metronidazole and ertapenem.