- Short course therapy success in childhood pneumonia. [Journal Article]
- NSNurs Stand 2002 Oct 30; 17(7):10
- A short course of amoxicillin is equally as effective as a longer one in treating children with pneumonia. For most infections, especially acute respiratory infections, the recommended duration of th...
A short course of amoxicillin is equally as effective as a longer one in treating children with pneumonia. For most infections, especially acute respiratory infections, the recommended duration of therapy is not based on strong scientific or clinical criteria.
- Bacteremic renal stone-associated urinary tract infection caused by nontypable Haemophilus influenzae: A rare invasive disease in an immunocompetent patient. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2017; 7:11-13
- Haemophilus species are known to colonize the upper respiratory tract and can cause infections. However Haemophilus influenzae has been rarely described as a cause of genitourinary tract infection. W...
Haemophilus species are known to colonize the upper respiratory tract and can cause infections. However Haemophilus influenzae has been rarely described as a cause of genitourinary tract infection. We report a 44-year-old nonimmunocompromised Japanese man with bacteremic pyelonephritis caused by a nontypable H. influenzae associated with a left ureteral calculus. The organism was isolated from both blood and urine cultures. Treatment consisted of 14 days of intravenous ceftriaxone and oral amoxicillin one after than other and insertion of a left ureteral stent. After discharge, he underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotrity for the left ureteral calculus. He had no recrudescence of the symptoms. H. influenzae should be considered as a genitourinary pathogen among patients with certain risk factors such as anatomical or functional abnormality of genitourinary tract. Collaboration between clinicians and microbiology laboratory personnel is essential for correct identification of the organism and appropriate therapy for genitourinary tract infections due to this organism.
- Chromatographic behavior of selected antibiotic drugs supported by quantitative structure-retention relationships. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2016 Nov 29
- As antibiotic drugs have a wide variety of applications, there is a growing demand for their selective determination, a task for which chromatographic methods seem to be appropriate. With this end in...
As antibiotic drugs have a wide variety of applications, there is a growing demand for their selective determination, a task for which chromatographic methods seem to be appropriate. With this end in view, chromatographic measurements were performed with the use of six different HPLC columns (ACE 5C18, IAM.PC.DD.2, octadecyl, phenyl, alkylamide and cholesteryl-alkylamide) to determine the logkw of selected antibiotic drugs (amoxicillin, cefatoxime, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, gentamicin, clindamycin, linezolid and metronidazole). The retention behavior of the analytes was investigated as a function of different binary hydro-organic mobile phases containing 10-45% (v/v) acetonitrile. The studied compounds were separated under isocratic conditions. The best results of separation of the tested biologically active compounds were obtained on the commercially available C18 column. Special attention was dedicated to the study of interactions among the stationary phase, mobile phase and the analytes. Another goal was to selecting the best column for separation of the tested biologically active compounds. Finally, QSRR models together with stationary phase characterization provided reliable information on the properties and characteristics of studied columns.
- A review of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Indian water bodies. [Review]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2016 Dec 01; 137:113-120
- Little information exists on the occurrence and the ultimate fate of pharmaceuticals in the water bodies in India despite being one of the world leaders in pharmaceutical production and consumption. ...
Little information exists on the occurrence and the ultimate fate of pharmaceuticals in the water bodies in India despite being one of the world leaders in pharmaceutical production and consumption. This paper has reviewed 19 published reports of pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment in India [conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), hospital WTPs, rivers, and groundwater]. Carbamazepine (antipsychoactive), atenolol (antihypertensive), triclocarban and triclosan (antimicrobials), trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (antibacterials), ibuprofen and acetaminophen (analgesics), and caffeine (stimulant) are the most commonly detected at higher concentrations in Indian WTPs that treat predominantly the domestic sewage. The concentration of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin in Indian WTPs were up to 40 times higher than that in other countries in Europe, Australia, Asia, and North America. A very few studies in Indian rivers reported the presence of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, ketoprofen, erythromycin, naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac and enrofloxacin. Similar compounds were reported in rivers in China, indicating a similar usage pattern in both of these developing countries. In a study reported from an open well in southern India, the groundwater showed the presence of cetirizine, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, citalopram and terbinafine, which was close to a WTP receiving effluents from pharmaceutical production.
- Surveillance of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Susceptibility in Indonesia: Different Resistance Types among Regions and with Novel Genetic Mutations. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(12):e0166199
- Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the associatio...
Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the association between virulence genes or genetic mutations and antibiotic resistance. We recruited 849 dyspeptic patients who underwent endoscopy in 11 cities in Indonesia. E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics. PCR-based sequencing assessed mutations in 23S rRNA, rdxA, gyrA, gyrB, and virulence genes. Next generation sequencing was used to obtain full-length sequences of 23S rRNA, infB, and rpl22. We cultured 77 strains and identified 9.1% with clarithromycin resistance. Low prevalence was also found for amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance (5.2% and 2.6%, respectively). In contrast, high resistance rates to metronidazole (46.7%) and levofloxacin (31.2%) were demonstrated. Strains isolated from Sumatera Island had significantly higher metronidazole resistance than those from other locations. Metronidazole resistant strains had highly distributed rdxA amino acid substitutions and the 23S rRNA A2143G mutation was associated with clarithromycin resistance (42.9%). However, one strain with the highest MIC value had a novel mutation in rpl22 without an A2143G mutation. Mutation at Asn-87 and/or Asp-91 of gyrA was associated with levofloxacin-resistance and was related to gyrB mutations. In conclusions, although this is a pilot study for a larger survey, our current data show that Indonesian strains had the high prevalence of metronidazole and levofloxacin resistance with low prevalence of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline resistance. Nevertheless, clarithromycin- or metronidazole-based triple therapy should be administered with caution in some regions of Indonesia.
- The oral cavities of healthy infants harbor high proportions of Streptococcus salivarius strains with phenotypic and genotypic resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2016 Oct 24
- Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating pediatric populations. In this study, we ...
Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating pediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined. ARG profiles were assessed in a sub-set of 21 strains by next-generation sequencing of genomes (Illumina MiSeq), followed by searches of assembled reads against the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD). Strains resistant to erythromycin, penicillins and tetracyclines were isolated from 83.3, 33.3 and 16.6%, respectively, of infants aged 2-8 months with no prior antibiotic treatment. These percentages were, respectively, 100.0, 66.6 and 50.0% by 13 to 16 months of age. ARG or polymorphisms associated with antibiotic resistance were the most prevalent, and included macrolide efflux (mel, mefA/E, macB), ribosomal protection [erm(B), tet(M), tet(O)], and beta lactamase-like proteins. Phylogenetically related strains showing multidrug resistance phenotypes harbored multidrug efflux ARG. Polymorphic genes associated with antibiotic resistance to drugs affecting DNA replication, folate synthesis, RNA/protein synthesis, and regulators of antibiotic stress responses were detected. These data imply that S. salivarius strains established during maturation of the oral microbiota harbor a diverse array of functional ARG, even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressures, highlighting a potential role for this species in shaping antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oropharyngeal communities.
- Amoxicillin, a potential epileptogenic drug. [Journal Article]
- EDEpileptic Disord 2016 Nov 29
- Beta-lactams are known to cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic manifestations including epileptic seizures. The neurotoxicity of penicillin was first reported in 1945 by Johnson and Walker and is beli...
Beta-lactams are known to cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic manifestations including epileptic seizures. The neurotoxicity of penicillin was first reported in 1945 by Johnson and Walker and is believed to exert an inhibitory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission of cortical pyramidal cells, due to its beta-lactam ring structure. Epileptogenicity is also a feature of the semisynthetic beta-lactams including aminopenicillins. In this report, we present a patient with a recurrent history of discrete body twitching/jerks of epileptic nature in the context of amoxicillin exposure. The EEG revealed intermittent generalized short bursts of beta-frequency polyspikes. This electro-clinical picture was reversed by amoxicillin discontinuation.
- Neither 10- nor 14-Day Sequential Treatment is better than Standard Triple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication. [Journal Article]
- PRP R Health Sci J 2016; 35(4):203-208
- CONCLUSIONS: Sequential-therapy treatment regimens are not better than standard triple therapy for the eradication of H. pylori infection, regardless of the treatment duration.
- Effect of β-Lactamase inhibitors on in vitro activity of β-Lactam antibiotics against Burkholderia cepacia complex species. [Journal Article]
- ARAntimicrob Resist Infect Control 2016; 5:44
- CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences in susceptibility of Bcc strains to β-lactam antibiotics were observed. Results obtained in the present study suggest that resistance of Bcc strains against β-lactam antibiotics is mediated by both β-lactamases and non-β-lactamase-mediated resistance mechanisms.
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- Antibiotics as part of the management of severe acute malnutrition. [Journal Article]
- MMMalawi Med J 2016; 28(3):123-130
- CONCLUSIONS: The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (Funded by the Hickey Family Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01000298.).