Xanthomonas maltophilia [keywords]
- Pulmonary exacerbation due to colistin-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in a Bulgarian cystic fibrosis patient. [Journal Article]
- Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2016 Apr-Jun; 58(2):136-40.
In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung damage secondary to chronic infection is the main cause of death. Treatment of lung disease to reduce the impact of infection, inflammation and subsequent lung injury is therefore of major importance. As Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen in CF patients it has been the major target of all treatment strategies, possible antibiotic regimens and recommendations for years. More sophisticated antibiotic therapies introduced over the last decades have helped to improve the prognosis in cystic fibrosis, but then new multidrug-resistant pathogens emerged. We present a case of cystic fibrosis in a 16-year-old boy with pulmonary exacerbation due to colistin-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This case raises some interesting questions regarding the antibiotic policy and treatment options in our country for patients with CF and multidrug-resistant strains. Colistin is used at present in Bulgaria as a strategic last option for the CF patients but with the advent of new more drug-resistant strains therapeutic approach should change - for instance, there should be restrictions imposed on the use of levofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole which are regarded as "cheap and not so potent" antibiotics suitable for any infection and use them only in strict dependence on the respective culture results.
- Successful Treatment of Bloodstream Infection Due to Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in a Renal Transplant Patient. [Journal Article]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Sep; 60(9):5130-4.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) opportunistic pathogen for which new antibiotic options are urgently needed. We report our clinical experience treating a 19-year-old renal transplant recipient who developed prolonged bacteremia due to metallo-β-lactamase-producing S. maltophilia refractory to conventional treatment. The infection recurred despite a prolonged course of colistimethate sodium (colistin) but resolved with the use of a novel drug combination with clinical efficacy against the patient's S. maltophilia isolate.
- Draft Genome Sequences of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, Isolated from Different Manures in France. [Journal Article]
- Genome Announc 2016; 4(4)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a major opportunistic human pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Sm32COP, Sm41DVV, Sm46PAILV, SmF3, SmF22, SmSOFb1, and SmCVFa1, isolated from different manures in France, which provide insights into the genetic determinism of intrinsic or acquired antibiotic resistance in this species.
- Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Prod Commun 2016 Jun; 11(6):861-4.
Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.
- Rhizobacterial characterization for quality control of eucalyptus biogrowth promoter products. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Braz J Microbiol 2016 Jul 26.
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strains from special formulations have been used to optimize eucalyptus cutting production. To undertake quality control for the formulated products, the rhizobacterial strains should be characterized to assess their purity and authentication. In the present study, we characterized nine strains of rhizobacteria, including three Bacillus subtilis (S1, S2 and 3918), two Pseudomonas sp. (MF4 and FL2), P. putida (MF2), P. fulva (Ca), Frateuria aurantia (R1), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CIIb). The strains were differentiated by colony morphology after 24h of incubation in three different solid state culture media (glucose-nutritive agar, 523 medium and yeast extract-mannitol agar), sensitivity to a panel of 28 antibiotics (expressed according to the formation of inhibition halos of bacterial growth in the presence of antibiotics), and PCR-RFLP profiles of the 16S rDNA gene produced using nine restriction enzymes. It was possible to differentiate all nine strains of rhizobacteria using their morphological characteristics and sensitivity to antibiotics. The molecular analysis allowed us to separate the strains CIIb, FL2 and R1 from the strains belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. By using these three methods concomitantly, we were able to determine strain purity and perform the authentication.
- Clinical outcomes using minocycline for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. [LETTER]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 Aug 11.
- Inactivation of SmeSyRy Two-Component Regulatory System Inversely Regulates the Expression of SmeYZ and SmeDEF Efflux Pumps in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(8):e0160943.
SmeYZ efflux pump is a critical pump responsible for aminoglycosides resistance, virulence-related characteristics (oxidative stress susceptibility, motility, and secreted protease activity), and virulence in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. However, the regulatory circuit involved in SmeYZ expression is little known. A two-component regulatory system (TCS), smeRySy, transcribed divergently from the smeYZ operon is the first candidate to be considered. To assess the role of SmeRySy in smeYZ expression, the smeRySy isogenic deletion mutant, KJΔRSy, was constructed by gene replacement strategy. Inactivation of smeSyRy correlated with a higher susceptibility to aminoglycosides concomitant with an increased resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and macrolides. To elucidate the underlying mechanism responsible for the antimicrobials susceptibility profiles, the SmeRySy regulon was firstly revealed by transcriptome analysis and further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and promoter transcription fusion constructs assay. The results demonstrate that inactivation of smeRySy decreased the expression of SmeYZ pump and increased the expression of SmeDEF pump, which underlies the ΔsmeSyRy-mediated antimicrobials susceptibility profile. To elucidate the cognate relationship between SmeSy and SmeRy, a single mutant, KJΔRy, was constructed and the complementation assay of KJΔRSy with smeRy were performed. The results support that SmeSy-SmeRy TCS is responsible for the regulation of smeYZ operon; whereas SmeSy may be cognate with another unidentified response regulator for the regulation of smeDEF operon. The impact of inverse expression of SmeYZ and SmeDEF pumps on physiological functions was evaluated by mutants construction, H2O2 susceptibility test, swimming, and secreted protease activity assay. The increased expression of SmeDEF pump in KJΔRSy may compensate, to some extents, the SmeYZ downexpression-mediated compromise with respect to its role in secreted protease activity.
- An investigation of the bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine digluconateagainst multidrug-resistant hospital isolates. [Journal Article]
- Turk J Med Sci 2016; 46(3):903-9.
Hospital infections are among the most prominent medical problems around the world. Using proper biocides in an appropriate way is critically important in overcoming this problem. Several reports have suggested that microorganisms may develop resistance or reduce their susceptibility to biocides, similar to the case with antibiotics. In this study we aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine digluconate against clinical isolates.The susceptibility of 120 hospital isolated strains of 7 bacterial genera against chlorhexidine digluconate was determined by agar dilution test, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and the EN 1040 Basic Bactericidal Activity Test to determine the bactericidal activity. According to MIC values, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were found to be less susceptible to chlorhexidine digluconate.Quantitative suspension test results showed that 4% chlorhexidine digluconate was effective against antibiotic resistant and susceptible bacteria after 5 min of contact time and can be safely used in our hospital. However, concentrations below 4% chlorhexidine digluconate caused a decrease in bactericidal activity, especially for Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa.It is crucial to use biocides at appropriate concentrations and to perform surveillance studies to trace resistance or low susceptibility patterns of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and other hospital isolates.
- Differentiation of pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis by volatile metabolites emitted by their in vitro cultures: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex. [Journal Article]
- J Breath Res 2016; 10(3):037102.
As a contribution to the continuing search for breath biomarkers of lung and airways infection in patients with cystic fibrosis, CF, we have analysed the volatile metabolites released in vitro by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria involved in respiratory infections in these patients, i.e. those belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These opportunistic pathogens are generally harmless to healthy people but they may cause serious infections in patients with severe underlying disease or impaired immunity such as CF patients. Volatile organic compounds emitted from the cultures of strains belonging to the above-mentioned four taxa were analysed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In order to minimize the effect of differences in media composition all strains were cultured in three different liquid media. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that the four taxa can be well discriminated by the differences in the headspace VOC concentration profiles. The compounds that should be targeted in breath as potential biomarkers of airway infection were identified for each of these taxa of CF pathogens.
- ICU Pathogens: A Continuous Challenge. [Journal Article]
- J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Jul; 26(7):577-80.
To determine the frequency and antibiogram of pathogens in an intensive care unit (ICU).Cross-sectional, observational study.Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014.Clinical samples, received from patients admitted in ICU, were inoculated on various medias like blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar and urine samples on CLED. These were then incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Isolates were identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test, oxidase test. Species identification in case of Gram Negative Rods was done by using API 20E (BioMérieux). Antibiotic susceptibility was done by using modified KirbyBauer disc diffusion technique. Bacterial isolates were prepared and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of various antibiotic disc (Oxoid, UK) as per manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37°C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Zone diameters were measured and interpreted as sensitive and resistant, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.Out of the 367 positive cultures, 116 (31.08%) were Acinetobacter baumanniisusceptible to minocycline and tigecycline followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=71, 16%) susceptible to tigecycline and meropenem. Others were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli,Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,and Candida spp.Acinetobacter baumanniiwas the most frequently isolated pathogen. Most of the cultures yielding pathogens were from respiratory tract samples. Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistant but most were tigecycline and susceptible to meropenem.