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Xanthomonas maltophilia [keywords]
- Carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by bacteria isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated tropical African soil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014 Apr 15.
Four bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria, displayed extensive degradation abilities on carbazole, an N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Physicochemical analyses of the sampling sites (ACPP, MWO, NESU) indicate gross pollution of the soils with a high hydrocarbon content (157,067.9 mg/kg) and presence of heavy metals. Phylogenetic analysis of the four strains indicated that they were identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4, Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain BA. The rates of degradation of carbazole by the four isolates during 30 days of incubation were 0.057, 0.062, 0.036, and 0.050 mg L(-1) h(-1) for strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of residual carbazole after 30 days of incubation revealed that 81.3, 85, 64.4, and 76 % of 50 mg l(-1) carbazole were degraded by strains SL1, SL4, SL6, and BA, respectively. GC-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of the extracts from the growing and resting cells of strains SL1, SL4, and SL6 cultured on carbazole showed detection of anthranilic acid and catechol while these metabolites were not detected in strain BA under the same conditions. This study has established for the first time carbazole angular dioxygenation and mineralization by isolates from African environment.
- Nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia in a community hospital intensive care unit: a retrospective review and analysis. [Journal Article]
- BMC Res Notes 2014; 7(1):232.
Nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are causes of significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We analyzed a) the incidence and the outcome of pneumonias caused by different pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a medium-sized twenty-four bed community hospital and b) the incidence of complications of such pneumonias requiring surgical intervention such as thoracotomy and decortication.We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients diagnosed with nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia in our ICU. Their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum cultures, antibiograms, and other clinical characteristics, including complications and need for tracheostomy, thoracotomy and decortication were studied. In a span of one year (2011-12), 43 patients were diagnosed with nosocomial pneumonia in our ICU. The median simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) was 39. One or more gram negative organisms as the causative agents were present in 85% of microbiologic samples. The three most prevalent gram negatives were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (34%), Pseudomonas aeurginosa (40%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (32%). Twenty eight percent of bronchoalveolar samples contained Staphylococcus aureus. Eight three percent of patients required mechanical ventilation postoperatively and 37% underwent tracheostony. Thirty five percent underwent thoracotomy and decortication because of further complications such as empyema and non-resolving parapneumonic effusions. A. baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) and P. aeurginosa had the highest prevalence of multi drug resistance (MDR). Fifteen patients required surgical intervention. Mortality from pneumonia was 37% and from surgery was 2%.Nosocomial pneumonias, in particular the ones that were caused by gram negative drug resistant organisms and their ensuing complications which required thoracotomy and decortication, were the cause of significant morbidity in our intensive care unit. Preventative and more intensive and novel infection control interventions in reducing the incidence of nosocomial pneumonias are strongly emphasized.
- Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Apr 2.:CD009249.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most common emerging multi-drug resistant organisms found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and its prevalence is increasing. Chronic infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of pulmonary exacerbation requiring hospitalization and antibiotics. However, the role of antibiotic treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in people with cystic fibrosis is still unclear.The objective of our review is to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. The primary objective is to assess this in relation to lung function and pulmonary exacerbations in the setting of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The secondary objective is to assess this in relation to the eradication of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched a registry of ongoing trials and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of latest search: 20 February 2014.Any randomized controlled trial of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mono-infection or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in either the setting of an acute pulmonary exacerbation or a chronic infection treated with suppressive antibiotic therapy.Both authors independently assessed the trials identified by the search for potential inclusion in the review.The initial search strategy identified only one study of antibiotic treatment of pulmonary exacerbations that included cystic fibrosis patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. However, this study had to be excluded because data was not available per pathogen.This review did not identify any evidence regarding the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. Until such evidence becomes available, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement as to whether or not to treat Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. Randomized clinical trials are needed to address these unanswered clinical questions.
- Degradation Potential of Protocatechuate 3,4-Dioxygenase from Crude Extract of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain KB2 Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Hydrogels and on Glyoxyl Agarose. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:138768.
Microbial intradiol dioxygenases have been shown to have a great potential for bioremediation; however, their structure is sensitive to various environmental and chemical agents. Immobilization techniques allow for the improvement of enzyme properties. This is the first report on use of glyoxyl agarose and calcium alginate as matrixes for the immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the carrier caused maintenance of its initial activity during the 21 days. Immobilization of dioxygenase in calcium alginate or on glyoxyl agarose resulted in decrease in the optimum temperature by 5°C and 10°C, respectively. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel shifted its optimum pH towards high-alkaline pH while immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose did not influence pH profile of the enzyme. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioygenase immobilized in calcium alginate showed increased activity towards 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, caffeic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate. Slightly lower activity of the enzyme was observed after its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel protected it against chelators and aliphatic alcohols while its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose enhanced enzyme resistance to inactivation by metal ions.
- Effects of Green Tea Compound Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection and Biofilm. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e92876.
We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a green tea component, against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm) isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In vitro effects of EGCg and the antibiotic colistin (COL) on growth inhibition, survival, and also against young and mature biofilms of S. maltophilia were determined. Qualitative and quantitative changes on the biofilms were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Further, in vivo effects of nebulized EGCg in C57BL/6 and Cftr mutant mice during acute Sm lung infection were evaluated. Subinhibitory concentrations of EGCg significantly reduced not only biofilm formation, but also the quantity of viable cells in young and mature biofilms. CLSM showed that EGCg-exposed biofilms exhibited either a change in total biofilm biovolume or an increase of the fraction of dead cells contained within the biofilm in a dose depended manner. Sm infected wild-type and Cftr mutant mice treated with 1,024 mg/L EGCg by inhalation exhibited significantly lower bacterial counts than those undergoing no treatment or treated with COL. EGCg displayed promising inhibitory and anti-biofilm properties against CF Sm isolates in vitro and significantly reduced Sm bacterial counts in an acute infection model with wild type and CF mice. This natural compound may represent a novel therapeutic agent against Sm infection in CF.
- Are community environmental surfaces near hospitals reservoirs for gram-negative nosocomial pathogens? [Journal Article]
- Am J Infect Control 2014 Apr; 42(4):346-8.
Hospital visitors and staff visit neighboring businesses, creating the potential for contamination of surfaces with hospital flora.Cultures were obtained from environmental surfaces in hospital lobbies and the surrounding community of 6 hospitals in Brooklyn, NY. As a control, cultures were taken from surfaces >1.5 miles from any hospital. Screening for β-lactamases was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and select isolates were fingerprinted by the repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-PCR method.Of 493 cultures, most (70%) involved doors from local businesses. Cephalosporin-resistant Citrobacter freundii (n = 3), Escherichia coli (n = 2), and Enterobacter sp (n = 2) were recovered from surfaces near hospitals, but not from control sites. One isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia harbored an integron-associated VIM-2. Acinetobacter baumannii was recovered in 15 samples, including 4.5% of swabs from ≤0.5 miles of the hospitals versus 0% from ≥0.6 miles (P = .004). Eleven A baumannii isolates were clonally related by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-PCR and were also related to a known clinical isolate.Strains of A baumannii and cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae can be recovered from environmental surfaces surrounding hospitals. Finding these pathogens in the perihospital environment suggests hand cleansing should be emphasized for all people entering and leaving hospitals. The finding of integron-associated VIM-2 in our region is disconcerting, and further vigilance is warranted.
- Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Spp. Causing Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Center. [Journal Article]
- J Glob Infect Dis 2013 Oct; 5(4):144-8.
Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. It is important to correctly identify all clinically significant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli considering the intrinsic multidrug resistance exhibited by these bacteria.A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the various nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from respiratory samples (n = 9363), to understand their clinical relevance and to analyze their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 830 (16.4%) samples showing significant growth. Thirty-three (4%) isolates constituted nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15, 45.5%) was the most common isolate followed by Burkholderia cepacia (4, 12.1%), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (3, 9.1%), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (3, 9.1%). On the basis of clinicomicrobiological correlation, pathogenicity was observed in 69.7% (n = 23) isolates. Timely and correct treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 87.9% cases.Any nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from respiratory tract infection should not be ignored as mere contaminant, but correlated clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard methods so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage.
- Life-threatening coagulopathy and hypofibrinogenaemia induced by tigecycline in a patient with advanced liver cirrhosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Mar 24.
Bacterial infections because of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are spreading worldwide. In patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, healthcare-acquired and hospital-acquired infections are common and are frequently sustained by MDR bacteria. In these settings, tigecycline, a new antibiotic, has been shown to be useful in the treatment of MDR bacteria, and it has been proposed for the treatment of hospital-acquired infections in patients with cirrhosis. Nevertheless, poor data exist on the safety profile of tigecycline in patients with cirrhosis. Here, an experience is reported in a female patient with advanced liver cirrhosis, who developed sepsis by an MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and was treated with tigecycline. She experienced life-threatening side effects consisting of severe coagulopathy with hypofibrinogenaemia and subsequent gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The side effect disappeared after the withdrawal of tigecycline. Therefore, a strict monitoring of coagulation parameters in patients with cirrhosis treated with tigecycline is recommended.
- First Report of Digital Skin Ulcer with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient. [Journal Article]
- In Vivo 2014 Mar-Apr; 28(2):259-61.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus that usually causes infection in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of an immunocompetent patient with a distal necrosis of the second and third fingers of the right hand caused by S. maltophilia infection. The patient underwent antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole on the basis of the susceptibility tests and underwent surgical debridement of the necrotic tissues, including of the distal phalanx bone, and further reconstruction with Atasoy flap. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as an important cause of skin infection in immunoresponsive patients. Several community-acquired infections have been reported, however, as far as we are aware of, our case represents the first report of a digital wound of intact skin caused by community-acquired S. maltophilia infection in an immunocompetent patient.
- Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative organisms isolated from patients hospitalised with pneumonia in US and European hospitals: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2009-2012. [Journal Article]
- Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014 Apr; 43(4):328-34.
Here we evaluated the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients hospitalised with pneumonia in medical centres in the USA (n=28) and Europe and the Mediterranean region (EMR) (n=25) in 2009-2012. Susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods. Overall, 12851 isolates were collected (6873/5978 in USA/EMR). The same top 11 organisms were observed in both geographic regions, but in different rank orders, and Gram-negative organisms represented 61.5/76.1% of strains in USA/EMR. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently isolated Gram-negative organism in both regions (20.9/20.9% of cases in USA/EMR) and showed reduced susceptibility to most antimicrobials tested, including ceftazidime (79.6/68.7% susceptibility in USA/EMR), meropenem (76.3/65.8%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (72.9/63.9%). Klebsiella spp. was isolated from 9.7/11.6% of cases and showed extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype rates of 19.5/35.1% in USA/EMR. Meropenem and amikacin were active against 62.3/78.7% and 60.8/85.2% of ESBL phenotype Klebsiella spp. from USA/EMR, respectively. Enterobacter spp. ranked fourth in the USA (5.9%) and sixth in EMR (5.5%), whereas Escherichia coli ranked fifth in the USA (5.5%) and third in EMR (11.8%). Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia combined were isolated from 8.0/10.7% of cases in USA/EMR. A significant increase in P. aeruginosa susceptibility to meropenem and a significant decrease in gentamicin susceptibility among Klebsiella spp. were noted in EMR. These results confirm that very few agents remain broadly active against the most frequently isolated Gram-negative organisms from patients with pneumonia in US and EMR medical centres.