- Changes in fatty acid composition of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 during co-metabolic degradation of monochlorophenols. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Microbiol Biotechnol 2016; 32(12):198
- The changes in the cellular fatty acid composition of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 during co-metabolic degradation of monochlorophenols in the presence of phenol as well as its adaptive mechanism...
The changes in the cellular fatty acid composition of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 during co-metabolic degradation of monochlorophenols in the presence of phenol as well as its adaptive mechanisms to these compounds were studied. It was found that bacteria were capable of degrading 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) completely in the presence of phenol, while 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) they degraded partially. The analysis of the fatty acid profiles indicated that adaptive mechanisms of bacteria depended on earlier exposure to phenol, which isomer they degraded, and on incubation time. In bacteria unexposed to phenol the permeability and structure of their membranes could be modified through the increase of hydroxylated and cyclopropane fatty acids, and straight-chain and hydroxylated fatty acids under 2-CP, 3-CP and 4-CP exposure, respectively. In the exposed cells, regardless of the isomer they degraded, the most important changes were connected with the increase of the contribution of branched fatty acid on day 4 and the content of hydroxylated fatty acids on day 7. The changes, particularly in the proportion of branched fatty acids, could be a good indicator for assessing the progress of the degradation of monochlorophenols by S. maltophilia KB2. In comparison, in phenol-degrading cells the increase of cyclopropane and straight-chain fatty acid content was established. These findings indicated the degradative potential of the tested strain towards the co-metabolic degradation of persistent chlorophenols, and extended the current knowledge about the adaptive mechanisms of these bacteria to such chemicals.
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia outer membrane vesicles elicit a potent inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. [Journal Article]
- PDPathog Dis 2016 Oct 17
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of...
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has become one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. This microorganism secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), but the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia as it relates to OMVs has not been characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of S. maltophilia OMVs and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 and two clinical isolates were found to secrete spherical OMVs during in vitro culture. OMVs from S. maltophilia ATCC 13637 were cytotoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. S. maltophilia OMVs stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in A549 cells. Early inflammatory responses such as congestion and neutrophilic infiltrations and profound expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes were observed in the lungs of mice injected with S. maltophilia OMVs, and were similar to responses elicited by the bacteria. Our data demonstrate that S. maltophilia OMVs are important secretory nanocomplexes that elicit a potent inflammatory response that might contribute to S. maltophilia pathogenesis during infection.
- Stenotrophomonas maltophila cellulitis in an immunocompromised patient presenting with purpura, diagnosed on skin biopsy. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cutan Pathol 2016 Jul 12
- Stenotrophomas maltophilia is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacillus and an important cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals. Although infections with this orga...
Stenotrophomas maltophilia is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacillus and an important cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals. Although infections with this organism are most often in the form of pneumonia, bacteremia and endocarditis, awareness of the impact of S. maltophilia skin infections has been increasing. Here we describe a case of S. maltophilia cellulitis in a 65-year-old man with severe neutropenia and purpuric skin lesions to highlight the critical histopathological findings and correlate them with the clinical manifestations of the skin infection with this organism. Because identification of S. maltophilia can be challenging and infections are difficult to manage, this case illustrates essential considerations regarding the multifaceted histopathological, dermatological, clinical and microbiological aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of S. maltophilia cellulitis in a severely immunocompromised patient. Cognizance of the increasing incidence of nosocomial infections with uncommon microorganisms such as S. maltophilia is necessary when presented with atypical cutaneous manifestations, particularly in immunocompromised patients.
- Biogenic selenium nanoparticles: characterization, antimicrobial activity and effects on human dendritic cells and fibroblasts. [Journal Article]
- MBMicrob Biotechnol 2016; 9(6):758-771
- Tailored nanoparticles offer a novel approach to fight antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. We analysed biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) of bacterial origin to determine their antimicrobial ac...
Tailored nanoparticles offer a novel approach to fight antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. We analysed biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) of bacterial origin to determine their antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in their planktonic and biofilm states. SeNPs synthesized by Gram-negative Stenotrophomonas maltophilia [Sm-SeNPs(-)] and Gram-positive Bacillus mycoides [Bm-SeNPs(+)] were active at low minimum inhibitory concentrations against a number of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa but did not inhibit clinical isolates of the yeast species Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. However, the SeNPs were able to inhibit biofilm formation and also to disaggregate the mature glycocalyx in both P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. The Sm-SeNPs(-) and Bm-SeNPs(+) both achieved much stronger antimicrobial effects than synthetic selenium nanoparticles (Ch-SeNPs). Dendritic cells and fibroblasts exposed to Sm-SeNPs(-), Bm-SeNPs(+) and Ch-SeNPs did not show any loss of cell viability, any increase in the release of reactive oxygen species or any significant increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory cytokines. Biogenic SeNPs therefore appear to be reliable candidates for safe medical applications, alone or in association with traditional antibiotics, to inhibit the growth of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa or to facilitate the penetration of P. aeruginosa and Candida spp. biofilms by antimicrobial agents.
- Infective endocarditis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A report of two cases and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- IHIndian Heart J 2016; 68 Suppl 2:S267-S270
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is known for nosocomial habitat. Infective endocarditis due to this organism is rare and challenging because of resistance to multiple broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens....
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is known for nosocomial habitat. Infective endocarditis due to this organism is rare and challenging because of resistance to multiple broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic based on culture sensitivity reports are the key to its management. We report the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of two cases of infective endocarditis caused by S. maltophilia.
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity during a 10-year Colonization in the Lungs of a Cystic Fibrosis Patient. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2016; 7:1551
- The present study was carried out to understand the adaptive strategies developed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for chronic colonization of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. For this purpose, 13 tempo...
The present study was carried out to understand the adaptive strategies developed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for chronic colonization of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. For this purpose, 13 temporally isolated strains from a single CF patient chronically infected over a 10-year period were systematically characterized for growth rate, biofilm formation, motility, mutation frequencies, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenicity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed over time the presence of two distinct groups, each consisting of two different pulsotypes. The pattern of evolution followed by S. maltophilia was dependent on pulsotype considered, with strains belonging to pulsotype 1.1 resulting to be the most adapted, being significantly changed in all traits considered. Generally, S. maltophilia adaptation to CF lung leads to increased growth rate and antibiotic resistance, whereas both in vivo and in vitro pathogenicity as well as biofilm formation were decreased. Overall, our results show for the first time that S. maltophilia can successfully adapt to a highly stressful environment such as CF lung by paying a "biological cost," as suggested by the presence of relevant genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity within bacterial population. S. maltophilia populations are, therefore, significantly complex and dynamic being able to fluctuate rapidly under changing selective pressures.
- Coexistence of free-living amoebae and bacteria in selected South African hospital water distribution systems. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2016 Oct 12
- Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, ey...
Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, eye and skin human infections. They also allow the survival, growth and transmission of bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria and Vibrio species in water systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and their associated bacteria in hospital water networks in Johannesburg, South Africa. A total of 178 water (n = 95) and swab (n = 83) samples were collected from two hospital water distribution systems. FLA were isolated using the amoebal enrichment technique and identified using PCR and 18S rDNA sequencing. Amoebae potentially containing intra-amoebal bacteria were lysed and cultured on blood agar plates. Bacterial isolates were characterized using the VITEK®2 compact System. Free-living amoebae were isolated from 77 (43.3 %) of the samples. Using microscopy, PCR and 18S rRNA sequencing, Acanthamoeba spp. (T3 and T20 genotypes), Vermamoeba vermiformis and Naegleria gruberi specie were identified. The Acanthamoeba T3 and T20 genotypes have been implicated in eye and central nervous system infections. The most commonly detected bacterial species were Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Delftia acidovorans, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Comamonas testosteroni. These nosocomial pathogenic bacteria are associated with systematic blood, respiratory tract, the urinary tract, surgical wounds and soft tissues infections. The detection of FLA and their associated opportunistic bacteria in the hospital water systems point out to a potential health risk to immune-compromised individuals.
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endocarditis: A rare case report. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Assoc Physicians India 2016; 64(1):76
- Determination of crystal structures of proteins of unknown identity using a marathon molecular replacement procedure: structure of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia phosphate-binding protein. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2016 Oct 1; 72(Pt 10):1081-1089
- During the past decade, the authors have collected a few X-ray diffraction data sets from protein crystals that appeared to be easy cases of molecular replacement but failed to yield structures even ...
During the past decade, the authors have collected a few X-ray diffraction data sets from protein crystals that appeared to be easy cases of molecular replacement but failed to yield structures even after extensive trials. Here, the use of a large-scale molecular replacement method that explores all structurally characterized domains as phasing models to determine the structure corresponding to two data sets collected at 1.9 and 2.3 Å resolution is reported. These two structures were of the same protein independently crystallized in 2007 and 2011. The structures derived are virtually identical and were found to consist of two compact globular domains connected by a hinge. The high resolution of one of these data sets enabled inference of the amino-acid sequence from the electron-density map. The deduced sequence is nearly identical to that of a protein from the multidrug-resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Although the structure of this protein has not been determined previously, it is homologous to the well studied DING proteins which mediate the cellular uptake of phosphate ions. The final electron-density maps from both of the data sets revealed a large density at the interface of the two globular domains that is likely to represent a phosphate ion. Thus, the structure is likely to be that of a phosphate-binding protein encoded by the S. maltophilia genome (SmPBP; PDB entry 5j1d). The nature of the phosphate-binding site of SmPBP closely resembles that of Pseudomonas fluorescens DING (PfluDING), which displays remarkable discrimination between the closely similar phosphate and arsenate ions. The results presented here illustrate that routine crystallization trials may occasionally lead to the serendipitous crystallization of a protein of unknown identity and brute-force molecular replacement through `fold space' might allow the identification of the unknown protein.
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- Bulgecin A as a β-lactam enhancer for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates containing various resistance mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Des Devel Ther 2016; 10:3013-3020
- Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One...
Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One such target is lytic transglycosylase. Bulgecin A (BlgA) is a natural product of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila and a lytic transglycosolase inhibitor that works synergistically with β-lactams targeting PBP3 for Enterobacteriaceae. BlgA also weakly inhibits di-Zn(2+) metallo-β-lactamases like L1 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We hypothesized that because of its unique mechanism of action, BlgA could restore susceptibility to carbapenems in carbapenem-resistant PSDA (CR-PSDA) and carbapenem-resistant ACB, as well as ACB resistant to sulbactam. A BlgA-containing extract was prepared using a previously published protocol. CR-PSDA clinical isolates demonstrating a variety of carbapenem resistance mechanisms (VIM-2 carbapenemases, efflux mechanisms, and AmpC producer expression) were characterized with agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing and polymerase chain reaction. Growth curves using these strains were prepared using meropenem, BlgA extract, and meropenem plus BlgA extract. A concentrated Blg A extract combined with low concentrations of meropenem, was able to inhibit the growth of clinical strains of CR-PSDA for strains that had meropenem MICs ≥8 mg/L by agar dilution, and a clinical strain of an OXA-24 producing ACB that had a meropenem MIC >32 mg/L and intermediate ampicillin/sulbactam susceptibility. Similar experiments were conducted on a TEM-1 producing ACB strain resistant to sulbactam. BlgA with ampicillin/sulbactam inhibited the growth of this organism. As in Enterobacteriaceae, BlgA appears to restore the efficacy of meropenem in suppressing the growth of CR-PSDA and carbapenem-resistant ACB strains with a variety of common carbapenem resistance mechanisms. BlgA extract also inhibits VIM-2 β-lactamase in vitro. BlgA may prove to be an exciting adjunctive compound to extend the life of carbapenems against these vexing pathogens.