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Zenker's diverticulum [keywords]
- Revision Zenker diverticulum: laser versus stapler outcomes following initial endoscopic failure. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2013 Apr; 122(4):247-53.
We used a retrospective chart review to analyze revision endoscopic carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and staple repairs of recurrent Zenker diverticulum (ZD).The medical records of patients with recurrent ZD after primary endoscopic repair were selected. The chart data included method of repair (CO2 laser or stapler), demographics (age and sex), defect size (in centimeters), preoperative and postoperative symptoms, and complications. Patients' dysphagia was graded on a modified Functional Oral Intake Scale from 1 to 4 (1 being normal intake and 4 being severely limited intake or gastrostomy tube dependence). Regurgitation was also graded on a 1-to-4 scale (1 being no regurgitation and 4 being aspiration).A total of 148 consecutive patients with ZD were treated with endoscopic repair between 2000 and 2010. Twelve of these patients had revisions after failed primary endoscopic management procedures, all done with the stapler. Eight revision surgeries were performed by CO2 laser, and 4 by stapler repair. No difference was noted in patient age or defect size (laser, 3.06-cm defects; stapler, 2.75-cm defects). The length of hospital stay and the time to oral intake for the patients who had a revision stapler procedure were significantly greater (p values of 0.029 and 0.009) than those for the patients in the primary stapler procedure group. Better postoperative regurgitation scores were noted for patients who had a CO2 laser procedure.Secondary endoscopic repair for ZD recurrence is an effective treatment method. Better symptom outcomes were observed with secondary CO2 laser repair than with stapler revision. Patients with revision stapling had longer hospital stays and a longer time to oral intake than did patients with primary staple repairs.
- Clinical relevance and prognostic value of radiographic findings in Zenker's diverticulum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 May 21.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance and prognostic value of preoperative and postoperative oesophagography in patients with Zenker's diverticulum. The medical records of 155 patients who underwent surgical treatment (with an endoscopic or transcervical approach) for Zenker's diverticulum between 1992 and 2010 in a tertiary referral centre were retrospectively evaluated. The size of the diverticula on oesophagography, recognizable muscular septum, and protection of the diverticulum were assessed relative to the surgical procedures performed. The incidence of diverticular remnants on postoperative oesophagography was also assessed relative to the surgical procedure. It was investigated whether the detection of a residual pharyngeal pouch and filling of it with contrast medium were related to the patients' immediate postoperative symptoms and the development of symptomatic recurrence. Larger diverticula (Brombart III-IV) were manageable significantly more often with endoscopic procedures (P = 0.007). Residual diverticulum and filling with contrast medium were strongly associated with prolonged dysphagia immediately postoperatively (P = 0.005 and P = 0.009, respectively). However, these parameters failed to correlate significantly with a symptomatic recurrence. Preoperative oesophagography proved to be extremely important for surgical planning, with the surgeon's personal preference seeming to be the driving indicator in many cases. Postoperative oesophagography is only useful for excluding postoperative complications in the immediate postoperative phase and did not have a prognostic value as to a recurrence of the disease.
- Killian-jamieson diverticula presenting synchronously with thyroid adenoma. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Gastroenterol 2013 Jan; 7(1):188-94.
Killian-Jamieson diverticulum is a rare hypopharyngeal diverticulum, less commonly encountered compared with Zenker's diverticulum. These hypopharyngeal diverticula that cause dysphagia often mimic a thyroid tumor incidentally detected on neck ultrasonography. However, to our knowledge, Killian-Jamieson diverticula complicated by a thyroid tumor have not been previously described. We experienced a rare case of bilateral Killian-Jamieson diverticula synchronously complicated by a thyroid adenoma in a 74-year-old woman who became aware of dysphagia and a tumor in the left side of her neck. Pharyngoesophagography revealed bilateral diverticula protruding from the lateral wall of the esophagopharyngeal junction, but the appearance of the cricopharyngeal bar representing the cricopharyngeus muscle above the diverticula had become unclear because the thyroid tumor was pressing on the diverticula and the cervical esophagus. However, the diverticula were diagnosed as Killian-Jamieson diverticula because cervical computed tomography showed bilateral diverticula arising from the cervical esophagus just below the level of the cricoid cartilage, and operative finding showed that the diverticula were located above the upper esophageal longitudinal muscle. Radiographic imaging is useful for diagnosis as cause of dysphagia and cervical tumor.
- Traction esophageal diverticulum: a rare cause of gastro-intestinal bleeding. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Springerplus 2012 Dec; 1(1):50.
Esophageal diverticula are uncommon lesions that are usually classified according to their location (cervical, thoracic, or epiphrenic), or underlying pathogenesis (pulsion or traction), and their morphology (true or false).The majority of esophageal diverticula are acquired lesions that occur predominantly in elderly adults. Pulsion, or false, diverticula are the most commonly encountered type of esophageal diverticula noticed at the level of cricopharyngeus muscle, occur as a localized outpouchings that lacks a muscular coat, and as such their wall is formed entirely by mucosa and submucosa. True, or traction, esophageal diverticulum (TED) is seen in the middle one third of the thoracic esophagus in a peribronchial location, occurs secondary to mediastinal inflammatory lesions such as tuberculosis or histoplasmosis. The resultant desmoplastic reaction in the paraesophageal tissue causes full thickness pinching on the esophageal wall, producing a conical, broad-mouthed true diverticulum. They often project to the right side because subcarinal lymph nodes in this area are closely associated with the right anterior wall of the esophagus. TED usually presents with symptoms such as dysphagia, postural regurgitation, belching, retrosternal pain, heartburn, and epigastric pain. As in patients with pharyngoesophageal (Zenker's) diverticula, pulmonary symptoms are often present but underestimated in TED patients. These symptoms range from mild nocturnal cough to life-threatening massive aspiration. In this particular report we describe a rare case of TED presenting as a symptomatic upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnostic evaluation of TED includes chest X-ray, barium esophagogram and manometry. A significant proportion of lower esophageal diverticula are associated with motility disorders. Management of TED include treating the underlying cause sometimes a surgical resection of diverticulum along with esophageal myotomy is necessitated in symptomatic patients.
- Laser diverticulotomy for Zenker's diverticulum-does it improve quality of life? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Apr 19.
To determine quality of life (QoL) in individuals with dysphagia related to identified Zenker's diverticulum before (T1) and one year after undergoing endoscopic laser diverticulotomy surgery (T2). A total of 43 individuals (18 women and 25 men) were included at T1 and 37 of these responded at T2 (13 women and 24 men). Health-related QoL (HRQoL) was determined with the short form 36 (SF-36) and disease-specific QoL (DSQoL) was assessed with the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). In addition, two questions about specific symptoms related to Zenker's diverticulum were added and ordered as a fifth subscale of MDADI. Comparisons were made between patients and an age- and gender-adjusted normative sample from the Norwegian population. Significant differences were found in all subscales on MDADI, but none between T1 and T2 on SF-36. Compared to the normative sample, the component score MCS of SF-36 was significantly lower in the dysphagia patients at both T1 and T2. The attrition sample had significantly lower PCS than the completers. The results substantiate that disease severity is associated with poorer disease-related QoL, and that the disease-specific QoL is significantly improved one year after laser diverticulotomy.
- Transoral flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker's diverticulum: is it time for gastroenterologists to stick their necks out? [Editorial]
- Gastrointest Endosc 2013 May; 77(5):708-10.
- [Diverticulopexy for the treatment of Zenker's diverticulum]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Col Bras Cir 2013 Jan-Feb; 40(1):72-5.
Zenker's diverticulum is a pseudodiverticulum through a muscular defect in the posterior pharyngeal wall at the area between the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles of the pharynx and the cricopharyngeus muscle. Although endoscopic techniques have made significant progress, the surgical treatment remains the gold standard. There are two main techniques: diverticulectomy (resection of the diverticulum) and diverticulopexy. The main advantages of diverticulopexy are mostly linked to the absence of an esophageal anatomosis and its possible complications: cervical fistulae, mediastinitis, esophageal stenosis and wound infection, which allows a rapid recover with satisfactory oral intake. The purpose of this article is to describe in details the technique for diverticulopexy to the prevertebral ligament in association with a miotomy of the cricopharyngeus muscle.
- Congenital esophageal diverticulum - a case report and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Surg 2013 Mar; 48(3):665-8.
Zenker's Diverticulum (ZD) is a false diverticulum located in the posterior esophagus between the cricopharyngeus and inferior constrictor. Few cases have been reported in the pediatric population. Congenital esophageal diverticulum is commonly associated with additional esophageal anatomical deformities or iatrogenic injury in the early post-natal period. TD was born at 39 5/7 weeks gestational age and did well at home with the exception of "choking during feeds 2-4 times per day" with mild cyanosis. Flexible bronchoscopy performed under sedation revealed a retropharyngeal mass protruding towards the epiglottis resulting in upper airway obstruction. Esophogram demonstrated upper esophageal diverticulum. Patient underwent left neck dissection with cervical myotomy from the cricopharyngeus to the level of the thoracic inlet. A postoperative repeat esophogram illustrated resolution of the diverticulum. Currently, the patient is 9 months postoperative and is tolerating feeds by mouth, gaining weight and has no pulmonary symptoms. There have been a few reports of ZD in children occurring in combination with anatomical abnormalities or esophageal manipulation. This case is one of the youngest reported and occurs in a patient without any previous manipulation of the esophagus. This condition is exceedingly rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis for both pharyngoesophageal and tracheal symptoms.
- Endoscopic treatment for Zenker's diverticulum: long-term results (with video). [Journal Article]
- Gastrointest Endosc 2013 May; 77(5):701-7.
Diverticulotomy is a standard treatment for Zenker's diverticulum (ZD). This technique was adapted to flexible endoscopy.We report our long-term results of ZD treatment by using flexible endoscopy assisted by a soft diverticuloscope.Follow-up study.Academic hospital. Tertiary-care referral center.A total of 150 patients with ZD were treated with the same technique from July 2002 to June 2011.The procedure was performed by using a soft diverticuloscope to expose the septum, which was then cut with a needle-knife, and the procedure was completed by use of endoclip placement at the bottom of the section.Symptoms were compared before and after the procedure, 1 month later, and at the end of follow-up.The median size of the ZD was 3 cm (range 1-8 cm). The endoscopic incision was performed in one session (range 1-3 sessions). Clinical success at 1 month was 90.3%. Four adverse events (2.2%) occurred and were managed conservatively. Symptom evaluation at 1 month and at the end of follow-up was obtained in 103 and 134 patients, respectively. The dysphagia score dropped from 1.88 to 0.29 (P < .01) and 0.34 (P < .05) at 1 month and at the end of follow-up, respectively (median 43 months, range 13-121 months). Regurgitations and chronic cough dropped from 73% and 27% to 11% and 2% at the end of follow-up, respectively. Symptom recurrence occurred in 31 patients (23.1%); among them 23 had a second treatment, and only 5 required a third one.Retrospective study, single center.Endoscopic incision of ZD by using a soft diverticuloscope and completed by endoclips is safe and efficient at short term and long term.
- Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum surgical therapy using linear stapling device. [Journal Article]
- Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012 Apr-Jun; 25(2):91-5.
Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum presents itself as an uncommon disorder. Thus, choosing the most effective treatment method may be challenging. Surgical treatment remains as the main option. However, establishing the best surgical technique is still controversial.To evaluate the results of diverticulecomy with chricopharyngeal miotomy and linear stapler closure of the pharynx in a patient sample with Zenker`s diverticulum regarding local and systemic complications.Nineteen patients with pharyngoesophageal diverticulum were admitted. All of them presented the clinical conditions required to indicate the surgical procedure. Patients were evaluated with regard to any post-operative complications. This study was conducted retrospectively with patients' data analysis.Patients showed satisfactory results, with no evidence of fistula at the level of the pharyngeal suture. Two out of 19 lost post-operative follow-up and one of them had pharyngeal stenosis reverted with endoscopic dilation. The entire sample reported being satisfied with the procedure emphasizing improvement of the quality of life mainly due to the return of physiological deglutition.The diverticulectomy with myotomy and posterior pharyngeal closure with linear surgical stapler proved to be an effective technique, offering a lower risk of post-operative complications and improving the overall quality of life.