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Zollinger Ellison Syndrome [keywords]
- Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study: Comparison of 106 MEN1/Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Patients With 1613 Literature MEN1 Patients With or Without Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2013 May; 92(3):135-81.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking.To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%-14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature series, the main causes of MEN1-related deaths were due to the malignant nature of the PETs, followed by the malignant nature of thymic carcinoid tumors. These results differ from the results of a number of the literature series, especially those reported before the 1990s. The causes of non-MEN1-related death for the 2 series, in decreasing frequency, were cardiovascular disease, other nonendocrine tumors > lung diseases, cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent non-MEN1-related tumor deaths were colorectal, renal > lung > breast, oropharyngeal. Although both overall and disease-related survival are better than in the past (30-yr survival of NIH series: 82% overall, 88% disease-related), the mean age at death was 55 years, which is younger than expected for the general population.Detailed analysis of causes of death correlated with clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics of patients in the 2 series allowed identification of a number of prognostic factors. Poor prognostic factors included higher fasting gastrin levels, presence of other functional hormonal syndromes, need for >3 parathyroidectomies, presence of liver metastases or distant metastases, aggressive PET growth, large PETs, or the development of new lesions.The results of this study have helped define the causes of death of MEN1 patients at present, and have enabled us to identify a number of prognostic factors that should be helpful in tailoring treatment for these patients for both short- and long-term management, as well as in directing research efforts to better define the natural history of the disease and the most important factors determining long-term survival at present.
- Biochemical markers for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs). [Journal Article]
- Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2012 Dec; 26(6):791-802.
Biochemical markers are applied in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) for diagnostic, prognostic or predictive purposes. Chromogranin A is the most important general marker and it is recommended to be measured in every patient with a suspected NET, whereas Neuron Specific Enolase is elevated mainly in poorly differentiated NETs. Pancreatic Polypeptide is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic non-functioning NETs, whereas Chorionic Gonadotrophin has an adjunctive role. In the case of functioning tumours, specific markers should be sought and monitored during follow up. Endogenous hyperinsulinemia is suggested in the presence of non-suppressible insulin and proinsulin levels during hypoglycemia, whereas high fasting or stimulated gastrin levels along with elevated gastric acid output are diagnostic for the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Glucagon, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and somatostatin are markers for glucagonoma, VIP-oma and somatostatinoma syndromes respectively. In case of ectopic paraneoplastic syndrome, the relevant hormone serves as a diagnostic and prognostic marker.
- Gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumours. [Journal Article]
- Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2012 Dec; 26(6):719-35.
Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are increasing in frequency and have a varied spectrum with regard to histology, clinicopathologic background, stage, and prognosis. They are usually discovered incidentally, are for the most part benign and are associated with hypergastrinaemia (secondary either to chronic atrophic gastritis or rarely Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; types 1 and 2, respectively) or more rarely sporadic type 3. Applications of recent staging and grading systems - namely using Ki-67 proliferative indices - (from ENETS and WHO 2010) can be particularly helpful in further categorising these tumours. The natural history of Type 1 gastric carcinoids is generally (>95%) favourable and simple surveillance is usually recommended for small (<1 cm) T1 tumours, with local (endoscopic or surgical) resection for larger lesions. Other potential therapies such as somatostatin analogues and gastrin receptor antagonists may offer newer therapeutic possibilities. Rarely, gastric NENs have a malignant course and this is usually confined to Type 2 and especially Type 3 tumours; the latter mimic the biological course of gastric adenocarcinoma and require radical oncological therapies. Most duodenal NENs, apart from gastrinomas (that are not dealt with here) are sporadic and non functional. They are also increasing in frequency probably due to incidental discovery at endoscopy or imaging for other reasons and this may account for their overall good prognosis. Peri-ampullary and ampullary NENs may have a more aggressive outcome and should be carefully appraised and treated (often with surgical resection).
- A neuroendocrine tumor syndrome from cholecystokinin secretion. [Case Reports, Letter]
- N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 21; 368(12):1165-6.
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation: a case report and review. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastroenterol 2013 Feb 28; 19(8):1322-6.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary syndrome known to predispose subjects to endocrine neoplasms in a variety of tissues such as the parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. We herein report a patient with a past history of pituitary adenoma, presenting with symptoms of chronic diarrhea for nearly one year and a sudden upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage as well as perforation without signs. Nodules in the duodenum and in the uncinate process and tail of pancreas and enlargement of the parathyroid glands were detected on preoperative imaging. Gastroscopy revealed significant ulceration and esophageal reflux diseases. The patient underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation, pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and pancreatic tail resection and recovered well. The results observed in our patient suggest that perforation and bleeding of intestine might be symptoms of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome in patients with MEN1.
- An unusual presentation of zollinger-ellison syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Gastroenterol 2013 Jan; 7(1):1-6.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is an often progressive, persistent and frequently life-threatening disease, described for the first time as characterized by ulceration of the upper jejunum, hypersecretion of gastric acid and non-beta islet cell tumors of the pancreas; this syndrome is due to the hypersecretion of gastrin. We report a case of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome presenting as severe esophagitis evolving in stenosis, which demonstrates how a delayed diagnosis may induce risk of disease spreading. In this setting new diagnostic approaches, such as somatostatin receptor scanning and positron emission tomography with 68 Ga-labeled octreotide, could be particularly useful, as well as further new therapeutic options, such as molecular targeted treatments and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, though surgery is currently the only form of curative treatment, and the role of the therapeutic options mentioned needs to be clarified by forthcoming studies.
- Gastric non-secreting neuroendocrine tumor and hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia: a case report. [Journal Article]
- J Med Case Rep 2013; 7(1):53.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is characterized by recurrent peptic ulcers and diarrhea that result from gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; nevertheless, severe hypergastrinemia may also have alternative pathogenetic explanations.A 61-year-old woman of Caucasian origin presented with a history of epigastric pain and early satiety, severe hypergastrinemia (approximately 2000 pg/mL) and a neuroendocrine polyp in the corpus of her stomach. Chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia was present, but she denied use of acid suppressant drugs and the results of tests for Helicobacter pylori as well as gastric parietal cell and intrinsic factor antibodies were negative. She underwent a radical gastric tangential resection. Six months later, serum gastrin was still elevated despite lack of recurrence of tumor.The clinical picture was suggestive for a hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia with subsequent development of a non-secreting carcinoid. We suggest a periodic endoscopic follow-up in patients with severe hypochlorhydria-related hypergastrinemia in order to earlier detect neuroendocrine polyps.
- Metastatic Gastrinoma in a Pediatric Patient With Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013 Feb 15.
Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of childhood are extremely rare, and as such present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Here, we report a case of gastrinoma with extensive hepatic metastases in a pediatric patient with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome who underwent orthotopic liver transplant followed by cytotoxic chemotherapy, somatostatin analog therapy, and immune modulation.
- Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 6-2013. A 54-year-old man with recurrent diarrhea. [Case Reports, Clinical Conference, Journal Article]
- N Engl J Med 2013 Feb 21; 368(8):757-65.