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acetylcholine chloride [keywords]
- Experimental coronary artery stenosis accelerates kidney damage in renovascular hypertensive swine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kidney Int 2014 Oct 22.
The impact of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) on renal injury is unknown. Here we tested whether the existence of CAS, regardless of concurrent atherosclerosis, would induce kidney injury and magnify its susceptibility to damage from coexisting hypertension (HT). Pigs (seven each) were assigned to sham, left-circumflex CAS, renovascular HT, and CAS plus HT groups. Cardiac and nonstenotic kidney functions, circulating and renal inflammatory and oxidative markers, and renal and microvascular remodeling were assessed 10 weeks later. Myocardial perfusion declined distal to CAS. Systemic levels of PGF2-α isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, increased in CAS and CAS plus HT, whereas single-kidney blood flow responses to acetylcholine were significantly blunted only in CAS plus HT compared with sham, HT, and CAS, indicating renovascular endothelial dysfunction. Tissue expression of inflammatory and oxidative markers were elevated in the CAS pig kidney, and further magnified in CAS plus HT, whereas angiogenic factor expression was decreased. Bendavia, a mitochondria-targeted peptide, decreased oxidative stress and improved renal function and structure in CAS. Furthermore, CAS and HT synergistically amplified glomerulosclerosis and renal fibrosis. Thus, mild myocardial ischemia, independent of systemic atherosclerosis, induced renal injury, possibly mediated by increased oxidative stress. Superimposed HT aggravates renal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction caused by CAS, and synergistically promotes kidney fibrosis, providing impetus to preserve cardiac integrity in order to protect the kidney.Kidney International advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.343.
- Intravenous colistin-induced acute respiratory failure: A case report and a review of literature. [Journal Article]
- Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2014 Jul; 4(3):266-70.
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant gram negative bacillary infections has regained popularity of ancient drugs such as polymyxins. We report a case of acute respiratory failure induced by use of intravenous colistimethate, which is one of the forms of polymyxin. The patient is a 31 year old female with paraplegia due to spina bifida who underwent excisional debridement of large lumbosacral decubitus ulcer with osteomyelitis infected with pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA. Six days after initiation of intravenous colistimethate and vancomycin, she developed acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Pan-culture was negative including a chest radiograph. V/Q scan showed low probability for pulmonary embolism. Echocardiogram showed normal right ventricle with no strain or pulmonary hypertension. Colistimethate was discontinued. Within 24 hours, she was extubated. In the early years after introduction of polymyxin, there were several reports of acute respiratory paralysis. The mechanism is thought to be noncompetitive myoneuronal presynaptic blockade of acetylcholine release. Though a direct causal relationship for respiratory failure is often difficult to establish in current era with multiple co morbidities, the timeframe of apnea, acuity of onset as well as rapid recovery in our case clearly point out the causal relationship. In addition, our patient also developed acute renal failure, presumably due to colistimethate induced nephrotoxicity, a possible contributing factor for her acute respiratory failure. In summary, colistimethate can induce acute neurotoxicity including respiratory muscular weakness and acute respiratory failure. Clinicians should consider its toxicity in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure especially in critically ill patients.
- Bufotenine is able to block rabies virus infection in BHK-21 cells. [Journal Article]
- J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2014; 20(1):45.
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic neglected disease that occurs in more than 150 countries, and kills more than 55.000 people every year. It is caused by an enveloped single stranded RNA virus that affects the central nervous system, through an infection initiated by the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, according to many authors. Alkaloids, such as acetylcholine, are widespread molecules in nature. They are present in numerous biological fluids, including the skin secretion of many amphibians, in which they act (together with proteins, peptides and steroids) as protection agents against predators and/or microorganisms. Among those amphibians that are rich in alkaloids, there is the genus Rhinella.Bufotenine was isolated from Rhinela jimi skin secretion after a liquid-liquid partition (H2O:CH2Cl2) and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses (RP-HPLC). Bufotenine was also extracted from seeds of Anadenanthera colubrina in acetone solution and purified by RP-HPLC, as well. Structural characterization was performed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cytotoxic tests of bufotenine were performed over baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells using MTT test. For the antiviral activity, Rabies virus strain Pasteur vaccine (PV) was used on fluorescence inhibition test and fluorescent foci inhibition test, with both simultaneous and time course treatment of the cells with the virus and bufotenine.In the present work we describe the effects of bufotenine, obtained either from toads or plants, that can inhibit the penetration of rabies virus in mammalian cells through an apparent competitive mechanism by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Moreover, this inhibition was dose- and time-dependent, pointing out to a specific mechanism of action.This work do not present or propose bufotenine as a drug for the treatment of rabies due to the hallucinogen and psychotropic effects of the molecule. However, continued studies in the elucidation of the antiviral mechanism of this molecule, may lead to the choice or development of a tryptamine analogue presenting potential clinical use.
- Administration of an amino Acid-based regimen for the management of autonomic nervous system dysfunction related to combat-induced illness. [Journal Article]
- J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2014.:93-8.
The etiology and pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains poorly understood. The nutritional deficiencies associated with the altered metabolic processes of PTSD have not previously been studied in detail. This pilot study measured the reduction in symptoms in 21 military veterans reporting moderate to severe symptoms associated with PTSD. Two amino acid-based medical foods specifically formulated with biogenic amines and other nutrients were administered to study subjects targeting specific neurotransmitter deficiencies resulting from altered metabolic activity associated with PTSD. This study included the Physician Checklist - Military (PCL-M), Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to measure the change in each subject's score after 30 days of administration. An average decrease of 17 points was seen in the PCL-M, indicating a reduction in PTSD symptoms (P < 0.001). The mental health component of the SF-36 showed an average 57% increase in the subjects' mental health rating (P < 0.001). The results of this initial study demonstrate that addressing the increased dietary requirements of PTSD can improve symptoms of the disease while eliminating significant side effects. A larger, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is warranted.
- Recent Advances in Botulinum Neurotoxin Inhibitor Development. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Top Med Chem 2014 Oct 21.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are endopeptidases that target motor neurons and block acetylcholine neurotransmitter release. This action results in the muscle paralysis that defines the disease botulism. To date, there are no FDA-approved therapeutics to treat BoNT-mediated paralysis after intoxication of the motor neuron. Importantly, the rationale for pursuing treatments to counter these toxins is driven by their potential misuse. Current drug discovery efforts have mainly focused on small molecules, peptides, and peptidomimetics that can directly and competitively inhibit BoNT light chain proteolytic activity. Although this is a rational approach, direct inhibition of the Zn2+ metalloprotease activity has been elusive as demonstrated by the dearth of candidates undergoing clinical evaluation. Therefore, broadening the scope of viable targets beyond that of active site protease inhibitors represents an additional strategy that could move the field closer to the clinic. Here we review the rationale, and discuss the outcomes of earlier approaches and highlight potential new targets for BoNT inhibition. These include BoNT uptake and processing inhibitors, enzymatic inhibitors, and modulators of neuronal processes associated with toxin clearance, neurotransmitter potentiation, and other pathways geared towards neuronal recovery and repair.
- 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Hydroxamic Acid Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxin BoNT/A. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Top Med Chem 2014 Oct 21.
We describe here the state of the art of certain aspects concerning potential small molecule therapy directed toward botulism, by inhibition of the zinc-protease containing light chain (LC) of botulinum neurotoxin BoNT/A from the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are comprised of eight serologically-distinct proteins (A - H), several of which are further divided, such as BoNT/A which has five subtypes. The BoNTs are the most toxic substances known to mankind, causing a form of flaccid paralysis that can be rapid and is often lethal. BoNT/A is comprised of a ~100 kDa heavy chain (HC) attached via a single disulfide Cys-Cys bond to a ~50 kDa LC. The HC mediates transport to and uptake by presynaptic glutamatergic neurons, where the LC cleaves the protein SNAP-25 and thus prevents vesicular trafficking and release of acetylcholine. The Zn-endoprotease activity of the LC of BoNT/A is a target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-mediated toxicity. A variety of BoNT/A LC inhibitors have been described to date and we focus here primarily on the Zn-binding 8-hydroxyquinoline structural type as well as some of the previously-described hydroxamic acids.
- Effect of diabetes on the cutaneous microcirculation of the feet in patients with intermittent claudication. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Oct 20.
Aims: To evaluate endothelial-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilator responses in the feet of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with or without Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Cutaneous microvascular responses in the dorsum of both lower limbs were measured in the supine position using Laser Doppler Fluximetry combined with iontophoretic administration of endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine, Ach) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) vasodilators in diabetic (n = 19) and non diabetic (n = 17) patients with PAD (presenting as unilateral calf intermittent claudication (IC). Results: In patients with diabetes and IC, endothelial-dependent vasodilation was significantly impaired in the symptomatic limb [74 (57,105) vs 68 (24,81) PU, Z = -2.79, p = 0.005] compared to the asymptomatic limb. Patients without diabetes showed no impairment of vasodilation. Resting ankle-brachial pressure index did not identify the presence of abnormalities in microvascular function. Conclusions: The combination of diabetes and PAD is associated with a reduction in endothelial-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in the feet without an associated reduction in endothelial independent vasodilation.
- Effects of chronic administration of ethanolic extract of kolanut (Cola nitida) and caffeine on vascular function. [Journal Article]
- Afr J Med Med Sci 2014 Mar; 43(1):17-27.
Kolanut (Cola nitida) is consumed in virtually every part of the world. The caffeine content of kolanut is scarce and the number of investigations studying the health benefits of kolanut is negligible compared to coffee.The present study was designed to identify the caffeine content of kolanut and evaluate the effect of its chronic consumption on cardiovascular functions in rats.The caffeine content of kolanut was determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (10 Rats/group). Kolanut extract (11.9 mg/kg), caffeine extracted from kolanut (7.5 mg/kg), decaffeinated of kolanut extract (6 mg/kg) and distilled water (control) was administered orally to each group for six-weeks. Effect of treatment on body weight, blood pressure and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of the aortic rings was assessed.The total caffeine content of kolanut extract was found to be 51% and it was 96% pure from GC-MS analysis. Chronic consumption of kolanut and caffeine significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body weight. Similarly, kolanut extract decaffeinated kolanut and caffeine significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the contractile response to noradrenaline and higher potassium solution. Kolanut extract and caffeine also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mean arterial blood pressure. Caffeine and kolanut consumption reduced the relaxation response to both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Atropine and L-NAME considerably inhibit the ACh-induced relaxation of the rat aortic ring suggesting the involvement of cholinergic mechanism. However, indomethacin (10(-4)M) also attenuated the ACh response indicating involvement of protanoids.The results suggest that treatment with both kolanut extract and caffeine had similar characteristics between the two groups with no significant differences in the ACh-induced relaxation of thering suggesting that the action of kolanut extract is due to its caffeine content.
- [Protection and mechanism of shenqi compound for diabetic angiopathy model rats]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2014 Sep; 34(9):1078-85.
To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Shenqi Compound on diabetic angiopathy modeled rats.Totally 18 SD rats were randomized into 3 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the diabetic mellitus (DM) group, and Shenqi Compound group, 6 in each group. The DM rat model was established by feeding high-fat diet (to induce hyperlipidemia) +intraperitoneal injection of small dose streptozotocin (STZ). Shenqi Compound was given to rats in the Shenqi Compound group at the daily dose of 2 g/kg. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the model group and the normal control group by gastrogavage. All treatment was lasted for 12 weeks. Then 2-D and ultrasonic integrated backscatter technique were used to evaluate structural and functional changes of abdominal aorta in the progression of diabetic macroangiopathy. The fibrosis degree of the aorta vessel and myocardium capillaries were observed by using HE and Masson trichrome staining. The tension of the aortic vascular ring was determined. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA expression was detected by real time PCR (RT-PCR). The protein expression of TGF-beta, collagen I, collagen III, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and phosphorylation P38 MAPK were detected by Western blot.Compared with the normal control group, abdominal aortic systolic inner diameter, diastolic inner diameter, Peterson elastic modulus, stiffness index, and backscatter integral significantly increased; the rangeability of integral backscatter and the extension coefficient of cross section significantly decreased in the DM group (all P < 0.05). After 12 weeks aforesaid indices were obviously improved in the Shenqi Compound group (P < 0.05). Results of HE and Masson staining showed that the fibrosis degree of the aorta vessel and myocardium capillaries was obviously alleviated in rats of the Shenqi Compound group (P < 0.05). Results of the aortic vascular ring tension showed that acetylcholine induced vasodilatation and maximum diastolic percent were obviously elevated in the Shenqi Compound group (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal control group, the mRNA expression of TGF-beta, and the protein expression of TGF-beta, collagen I, and collagen III, and phosphorylation of P38 MAPK all significantly increased in the DM group (P < 0.05). Compared with the DM group, the mRNA expression of TGF-beta, and the protein expression of TGF-beta, collagen I, and collagen III, and phosphorylation of P38 MAPK all decreased (P < 0.05).Shenqi Compound could effectively improve the arterial function in diabetic marcoangiopathy and microvascular dysfunction. The mechanism might be due to the down-regulating the expression of TGF-beta, and further suppressing the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, reducing the synthesis of collagen I and collagen III, therefore, ameliorating arterial and myocardial interstitial fibrosis.
- [The influence of stimulation and blockade of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on learning of female rats in key phases of ovary cycle]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fiziol Zh 2014; 60(4):80-6.
The present work was devoted to the comparative analysis of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in learning/ memory processes during ovary cycle assessed in adult female rats. RJR-2403 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), alpha4beta2 nAChRs agonist and mecamylamine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), alpha4beta2 nAChRs antagonist were injected chronically during 14 days. The processes of learning/memory were assessed in different models of learning: passive avoidance performance and Morris water maze. Chronic RJR-2403 administration to female rats improved the passive avoidance performance in proestrous and estrous as compared to the control animals. Also, RJR-2403 restored spatial learning during proestrous phases in Morris water maze, and stimulated the dynamics of spatial learning during estrous phases. On the contrary, chronic mecamylamine administration impaired non-spatial, and especially, spatial learning in females during key phases of ovary cycle. The results of the study suggest positive effect of alpha4beta2 nAChRs stimulation in learning/ memory processes during ovary cycle in the adult female rats.