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acetylcholine chloride [keywords]
- Ginsenoside Re and Rd enhance the expression of cholinergic markers and neuronal differentiation in Neuro-2a cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Pharm Bull 2014 Mar 5.
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive neuronal loss and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) are the major characteristics during pathogenesis in the brain. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether representative ginsenosides from ginseng can regulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are required for cholinergic neurotransmission. Our results revealed that Re and Rd induced effectively the expression of ChAT/VAChT genes in Neuro-2a cells as well as ACh elevation. Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), nerve growth factor receptor (p75), p21, and TrkA genes and proteins were also significantly expressed. Moreover, both activated extracelullar signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Akt were inhibited by K252a, a selective Trk receptor inhibitor. These findings strongly indicate that Re and Rd play an important role in neuronal differentiation and the NGF-TrkA signaling pathway. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that Re and Rd administered orally were transported successfully into brain tissue and increased the level of ChAT and VAChT mRNA. The present study demonstrates that Re and Rd are selective candidates for upregulation of the expression of cholinergic markers, which may counter the symptoms and progress of AD.
- GRK5 dysfunction accelerates tau hyperphosphorylation in APP (swe) mice through impaired cholinergic activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroreport 2014 Mar 4.
Recent studies have suggested that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) deficiency plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of early Alzheimer's disease. Mild soluble β-amyloid accumulation can result in reduced membrane (functional) and elevated cytosolic levels of GRK5. Dysfunction of GRK5 impairs the desensitization of presynaptic muscarinic 2 (M2) autoreceptors, which results in presynaptic M2 hyperactivity and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release. GRK dysfunction also promotes a deleterious cycle that further increases β-amyloid accumulation and exaggerates tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus. However, the pathogenic effect of GRK5 dysfunction through targeting tau hyperphosphorylation remains unclear. Here we examined not only the reduced membrane (functional) and elevated cytosolic levels of GRK5 but also the increased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampi of aged APP(swe) mice (11 months of age). Moreover, western blotting analyses revealed the changes in the location of activity of both protein kinase C (PKC) and glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) in the hippocampus of aged APP(swe) mice in which GRK5 translocation occurred. Moreover, treatment with methoctramine, a selective M2 antagonist, partially corrected the difference between wild-type control mice and GRK5-dysfunctional APP (swe) mice in hippocampal ACh release, PKC and GSK3β activities, as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. In contrast, the GSK3β inhibitor lithium chloride significantly reduced tau hyperphosphorylation in GRK5-defective APP (swe) mice, but failed to enhance PKC activity and ACh release in the hippocampi of GRK5-defective APP (swe) mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that GRK5 dysfunction accelerated tau hyperphosphorylation in APP(swe) mice by activating GSK3β through impaired cholinergic activity.
- Immunohistochemical characteristics and distribution of neurons in the intramural ganglia supplying the urinary bladder in the male pig. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pol J Vet Sci 2013; 16(4):629-38.
This study investigated the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (UBT-IG) and cervix (UBC-IG) in the male pig using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Additionally, immunoblotting was used to confirm the presence of marker enzymes for main populations of autonomic neurons. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone, cervix and apex during laparotomy performed under thiopental anaesthesia. Twelve tm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). UBT-IG and UBC-IG neurons in both parts of the organ formed characteristic clusters (from few to tens of neuronal cells) found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed several subpopulations in UBT-IG and UBC-IG neurons, namely noradrenergic (ca. 76% and 76%), cholinergic (ca. 22% and 20%), non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 1.5% and 3.8%), NPY- (ca. 66% and 58%), SOM- (ca. 39% and 39 %), VIP- (ca. 5% and 0%) and NOS- immunoreactive (IR) (ca. 1.5% and 3.8%), respectively. Immunoblotting using antibodies to TH and VAChT showed the presence of studied proteins as revealed by the presence of protein bands of the correct molecular weight. This study has revealed a relatively large population of differently coded UBT- and UBC- IG neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuroendocrine system involved in the regulation of the male urogenital organs function.
- Effects of the nicotinic α7 receptor partial agonist GTS-21 on NMDA-glutamatergic receptor related deficits in sensorimotor gating and recognition memory in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2014 Mar 5.
Disturbances in information processing and cognitive function are key features of schizophrenia. Nicotinic α7 acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) are involved in sensory gating and cognition, thereby representing a viable therapeutic strategy.We investigated the effects of GTS-21, an α7-nAChR partial agonist, on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in two pharmacologic impairment models in Wistar male rats: NMDA-glutamate receptor antagonism by MK-801 and dopamine receptor agonism by apomorphine. The cognitive effects of GTS-21 were assessed using the object recognition task (ORT) at short (3 h) and long (48 h) delays in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Pharmacological specificity was assessed by methyllycaconitine (MLA) coadministration with GTS-21.In the PPI task, GTS-21 (1-10 mg/kg) alone did not alter the PPI response or startle amplitude. Coadministration of GTS-21 with MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg) abolished the pharmacologic-induced PPI impairment as did the antipsychotics clozapine (5.0 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.3 mg/kg). MK-801 alone increased startle amplitude which was blocked by GTS-21. In the ORT, GTS-21 (0.1-10 mg/kg) reversed the MK-801 (0.08 mg/kg)-induced memory deficit at the 3 h delay and enhanced memory at the 48 h delay, an effect abolished by MLA (0.313-5 mg/kg).The results extend our preclinical pharmacological understanding of GTS-21 to include the ability of GTS-21 to modulate NMDA-glutamate receptor function, in vivo. Given the role of NMDA-glutamate receptor involvement in schizophrenia, α7-nAChR agonists may represent a novel treatment strategy for the pathophysiological deficits of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.
- mGlu5 receptors and cellular prion protein mediate amyloid-β-facilitated synaptic long-term depression in vivo. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Nat Commun 2014.:3374.
NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are currently regarded as paramount in the potent and selective disruption of synaptic plasticity by Alzheimer's disease amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Non-NMDAR mechanisms remain relatively unexplored. Here we describe how Aβ facilitates NMDAR-independent long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus in vivo. Synthetic Aβ and Aβ in soluble extracts of Alzheimer's disease brain usurp endogenous acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-dependent long-term depression, to enable long-term depression that required metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGlu5Rs). We also find that mGlu5Rs are essential for Aβ-mediated inhibition of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in vivo. Blocking Aβ binding to cellular prion protein with antibodies prevents the facilitation of long-term depression. Our findings uncover an overarching role for Aβ-PrP(C)-mGlu5R interplay in mediating both LTD facilitation and LTP inhibition, encompassing NMDAR-mediated processes that were previously considered primary.
- Dissociation of Tolerance and Nicotine Withdrawal-Associated Deficits in Contextual Fear. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Res 2014 Mar 1.
Nicotine addiction is associated with the development of tolerance and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of chronic nicotine administration. Changes in cognition, including deficits in learning, are one of the most common withdrawal symptoms reported by smokers. However, the neural substrates of tolerance to the effects of nicotine on learning and the substrates of withdrawal deficits in learning are unknown, and in fact it is unclear whether a common mechanism is involved in both. The present study tested the hypothesis that tolerance and withdrawal are separate processes and that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) upregulation underlies changes in learning associated with withdrawal but not tolerance. C57BL/6 male mice were administered a dose of nicotine (3, 6.3, 12, or 24mg/kg/d) chronically for varying days and tested for the onset of tolerance to the effects of nicotine on learning. Follow up experiments examined the number of days of chronic nicotine treatment required to produce withdrawal deficits in learning and a significant increase in [(3)H]epibatidine in the hippocampus indicative of receptor upregulation. The results indicate that tolerance onset was influenced by dose of chronic nicotine, that tolerance occurred before withdrawal deficits in learning emerged, and that nAChR upregulation in the dorsal hippocampus was associated with withdrawal but not tolerance. This suggests that for the effects of nicotine on learning, tolerance and withdrawal involve different substrates. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for development of therapeutics that target symptoms of nicotine addiction and for theories of addiction.
- Discovery of Potent Positive Allosteric Modulators of the α3β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor by a Chemical Space Walk in ChEMBL. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- ACS Chem Neurosci 2014 Mar 4.
While a plethora of ligands are known for the well studied α7 and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), only very few ligands address the related α3β2 nAChR expressed in the central nervous system and at the neuromuscular junction. Starting with the public database ChEMBL organized in the chemical space of Molecular Quantum Numbers (MQN, a series of 42 integer value descriptors of molecular structure), a visual survey of nearest neighbors of the α7 nAChR partial agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide (PNU-282,987) pointed to N-(2-halobenzyl)-3-aminoquinuclidines as possible nAChR modulators. This simple "chemical space walk" was performed using a web-browser available at www.gdb.unibe.ch . Electrophysiological recordings revealed that these ligands represent a new and to date most potent class of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α3β2 nAChR, which also exert significant effects in vivo. The present discovery highlights the value of surveying chemical space neighbors of known drugs within public databases to uncover new pharmacology.
- Pharmacological chaperoning of nAChRs: A therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease. [REVIEW]
- Pharmacol Res 2014 Mar 1.
Chronic exposure to nicotine results in an upregulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the cellular plasma membrane. nAChR upregulation occurs via nicotine-mediated pharmacological receptor chaperoning and is thought to contribute to the addictive properties of tobacco as well as relapse following smoking cessation. At the subcellular level, pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and nicotinic ligands causes profound changes in the structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER exit sites, the Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles of cells. Chaperoning-induced changes in cell physiology exert an overall inhibitory effect on the ER stress/unfolded protein response. Cell autonomous factors such as the repertoire of nAChR subtypes expressed by neurons and the pharmacological properties of nicotinic ligands (full or partial agonist versus competitive antagonist) govern the efficiency of receptor chaperoning and upregulation. Together, these findings are beginning to pave the way for developing pharmacological chaperones to treat Parkinson's disease and nicotine addiction.
- Deterministic functions of cortical acetylcholine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurosci 2014 Mar 4.
Traditional descriptions of the basal forebrain cholinergic projection system to the cortex have focused on neuromodulatory influences, that is, mechanisms that modulate cortical information processing but are not necessary for mediating discrete behavioral responses and cognitive operations. This review summarises and conceptualises the evidence in support of more deterministic contributions of cholinergic projections to cortical information processing. Through presynaptic receptors expressed on cholinergic terminals, thalamocortical and corticocortical projections can evoke brief cholinergic release events. These acetylcholine (ACh) release events occur on a fast, sub-second to seconds-long time scale ('transients'). In rats performing a task requiring the detection of cues as well as the report of non-cue events cholinergic transients mediate the detection of cues specifically in trials that involve a shift from a state of monitoring for cues to cue-directed responding. Accordingly, ill-timed cholinergic transients, generated using optogenetic methods, force false detections in trials without cues. We propose that the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that cholinergic transients reduce detection uncertainty in such trials. Furthermore, the evidence on the functions of the neuromodulatory component of cholinergic neurotransmission suggests that higher levels of neuromodulation favor staying-on-task over alternative action. In other terms, higher cholinergic neuromodulation reduces opportunity costs. Evidence indicating a similar integration of other ascending projection systems, including noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, into cortical circuitry remains sparse, largely because of the limited information about local presynaptic regulation and the limitations of current techniques in measuring fast and transient neurotransmitter release events in these systems.
- The vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons of a ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rat exhibit heterogeneous firing properties and the expression of various neurotransmitter receptors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurosci 2014 Mar 5.
Cerebellar function is regulated by cholinergic mossy fiber inputs that are primarily derived from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN). In contrast to the growing evidence surrounding cholinergic transmission and its functional significance in the cerebellum, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cholinergic projection neurons (ChPNs) have not been clarified. In this study, we generated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-tdTomato transgenic rats, which specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato in cholinergic neurons, and used them to investigate the response properties of ChPNs identified via retrograde labeling using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices. In response to current pulses, ChPNs exhibited two afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) profiles and three firing patterns; the predominant AHP and firing properties differed between the MVN and PHN. Morphologically, the ChPNs were separated into two types based on their soma size and dendritic extensions. Analyses of the firing responses to time-varying sinusoidal current stimuli revealed that ChPNs exhibited different firing modes depending on the input frequencies. The maximum frequencies in which each firing mode was observed were different between the neurons that exhibited distinct firing patterns. Analyses of the current responses to the application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists revealed that the ChPNs expressed (i) AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, (ii) GABAA and glycine receptors, and (iii) muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The current responses mediated by these receptors of MVN ChPNs were not different from those of PHN ChPNs. These findings suggest that ChPNs receive various synaptic inputs and encode those inputs appropriately across different frequencies.