Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
acetylcholine chloride [keywords]
- Phosphodiesterase III inhibitor promotes drainage of cerebrovascular β-amyloid. [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014 Aug; 1(8):519-33.
Brain amyloidosis is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also incorporates cerebrovascular amyloid β (Aβ) in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) involving neurovascular dysfunction. We have recently shown by retrospective analysis that patients with mild cognitive impairment receiving a vasoactive drug cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) III, exhibit significantly reduced cognitive decline. Here, we tested whether cilostazol protects against the disruption of the neurovascular unit and facilitates the arterial pulsation-driven perivascular drainage of Aβ in AD/CAA.We explored the expression of PDE III in postmortem human brain tissue followed by a series of experiments examining the effects of cilostazol on Aβ metabolism in transgenic mice (Tg-SwDI mice) as a model of cerebrovascular β-amyloidosis, as well as cultured neurons.We established that PDE III is abnormally upregulated in cerebral blood vessels of AD and CAA subjects and closely correlates with vascular amyloid burden. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cilostazol treatment maintained cerebral hyperemic and vasodilative responses to hypercapnia and acetylcholine, suppressed degeneration of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, promoted perivascular drainage of soluble fluorescent Aβ1-40, and rescued cognitive deficits in Tg-SwDI mice. Although cilostazol decreased endogenous Aβ production in cultured neurons, C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein expression was not altered in cilostazol-treated Tg-SwDI mice.The predominant action of cilostazol on Aβ metabolism is likely to facilitate Aβ clearance due to the sustained cerebrovascular function in vivo. Our findings mechanistically demonstrate that cilostazol is a promising therapeutic approach for AD and CAA.
- Circulating miRNAs in myasthenia gravis: miR-150-5p as a new potential biomarker. [Journal Article]
- Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2014 Jan; 1(1):49-58.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder where autoantibodies target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR+) in about 85% of cases, in which the thymus is considered to play a pathogenic role. As there are no reliable biomarkers to monitor disease status in MG, we analyzed circulating miRNAs in sera of MG patients to find disease-specific miRNAs.Overall, 168 miRNAs were analyzed in serum samples from four AChR+ MG patients and four healthy controls using Exiqon Focus miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Panel I + II. Specific accumulation pattern of 13 miRNAs from the discovery set was subsequently investigated in the sera of 16 AChR+ MG patients and 16 healthy controls. All patients were without immunosuppressive treatment. Selected specific miRNAs were further analyzed in the serum of nine MG patients before and after thymectomy to assess the effect of thymus removal on the accumulation of the candidate miRNAs in patient sera.Three miRNAs were specifically dysregulated in AChR+ MG patient sera samples. Hsa-miR150-5p, which induces T-cell differentiation, as well as hsa-miR21-5p, a regulator of Th1 versus Th2 cell responses, were specifically elevated in MG sera. Additionally, hsa-miR27a-3p, involved in natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, was decreased in MG. Hsa-miR150-5p levels had the highest association with MG and were significantly reduced after thymus removal in correlation with disease improvement.WE PROPOSE THAT THE VALIDATED MIRNAS: hsa-miR150-5p, hsa-miR21-5p, and hsa-miR27a-3p can serve as novel serum biomarkers in AChR+ MG. Hsa-miR-150-5p could be a helpful marker to monitor disease severity.
- Effects of vagus nerve stimulation via cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activation on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in canine. [Journal Article]
- Int J Clin Exp Med 2014; 7(9):2615-23.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was a type of disease with high mortality rate and high disability rate. And about 50% of the final area of myocardial infarction after AMI was led by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The I/R injury was a kind of systemic inflammatory response, in which the main performance laid in the release of the large quantity of inflammatory cytokines. The basic experiments, clinical studies and the large scaled epidemiology investigations found that the low functions of vagus nerves had close relevance with the occurrence, development and prognosis of the cardiovascular diseases. This study investigate the effects of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway with with vagus never stimulation I/R injury in canine.18 adult mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 6): sham operation group (sham Group), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R group), right vagus nerve stimulation and ischemia/reperfusion group (STM group). The hemodynamic indexes were measured after reperfusion 120 min. Through internal jugular venous blood, serum acetylcholine (Ach), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were detected by ELISA. Alpha 7 subunit Ach acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) expression level was detected with immunohistochemical method. HE staining was used to observe the degree of neutrophil infiltration.After ischemia/reperfusion 120 min, compared with sham group, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, Ach content increased, the expression of α7nAchR protein was significantly reduced in I/R group (P < 0.05). Expression of α7nAchR protein, Ach content, TNF-α and IL-6 level had no significant difference in STM group (P < 0.05). Compared with I/R group, the expression of Ach and α7nAchR protein significantly increased the TNF- and IL-6 levels decreased in STM group (P < 0.05). Compared with the baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 levels significantly increased Ach content decreased in I/R group after ischemia /reperfusion 120 min (P < 0.05). Ach, TNF-α and IL-6 levels had no significant change in sham group and STM group of (P < 0.05). TNF-α and IL-6 were negatively correlated with Ach in I/R group (P < 0.05), and TNF-α, IL-6 were negatively correlated with Ach in group STM (P < 0.05). Massive infiltration of neutrophils were detected in myocardial tissue of I/R group, and a small number of neutrophils infiltration were detected in STM group.Right vagus nerve stimulation could activate anti-inflammatory pathway and inhibit the systemic and local inflammatory reaction to relieve myocardial I/R injury.
- Efficient and Cost-Effective Generation of Mature Neurons From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stem Cells Transl Med 2014 Oct 29.
For years, our ability to study pathological changes in neurological diseases has been hampered by the lack of relevant models until the recent groundbreaking work from Yamanaka's group showing that it is feasible to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human somatic cells and to redirect the fate of these iPSCs into differentiated cells. In particular, much interest has focused on the ability to differentiate human iPSCs into neuronal progenitors and functional neurons for relevance to a large number of pathologies including mental retardation and behavioral or degenerative syndromes. Current differentiation protocols are time-consuming and generate limited amounts of cells, hindering use on a large scale. We describe a feeder-free method relying on the use of a chemically defined medium that overcomes the need for embryoid body formation and neuronal rosette isolation for neuronal precursors and terminally differentiated neuron production. Four days after induction, expression of markers of the neurectoderm lineage is detectable. Between 4 and 7 days, neuronal precursors can be expanded, frozen, and thawed without loss of proliferation and differentiation capacities or further differentiated. Terminal differentiation into the different subtypes of mature neurons found in the human brain were observed. At 6-35 days after induction, cells express typical voltage-gated and ionotrophic receptors for GABA, glycine, and acetylcholine. This specific and efficient single-step strategy in a chemically defined medium allows the production of mature neurons in 20-40 days with multiple applications, especially for modeling human pathologies.
- Identification of a mammalian vesicular polyamine transporter. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6836.
Spermine and spermidine act as neuromodulators upon binding to the extracellular site(s) of various ionotropic receptors, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. To gain access to the receptors, polyamines synthesized in neurons and astrocytes are stored in secretory vesicles and released upon depolarization. Although vesicular storage is mediated in an ATP-dependent, reserpine-sensitive fashion, the transporter responsible for this process remains unknown. SLC18B1 is the fourth member of the SLC18 transporter family, which includes vesicular monoamine transporters and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Proteoliposomes containing purified human SLC18B1 protein actively transport spermine and spermidine by exchange of H(+). SLC18B1 protein is predominantly expressed in the hippocampus and is associated with vesicles in astrocytes. SLC18B1 gene knockdown decreased both SLC18B1 protein and spermine/spermidine contents in astrocytes. These results indicated that SLC18B1 encodes a vesicular polyamine transporter (VPAT).
- Comparative brain transcriptomic analyses of scouting across distinct behavioural and ecological contexts in honeybees. [Journal Article]
- Proc Biol Sci 2014 Dec 22; 281(1797)
Individual differences in behaviour are often consistent across time and contexts, but it is not clear whether such consistency is reflected at the molecular level. We explored this issue by studying scouting in honeybees in two different behavioural and ecological contexts: finding new sources of floral food resources and finding a new nest site. Brain gene expression profiles in food-source and nest-site scouts showed a significant overlap, despite large expression differences associated with the two different contexts. Class prediction and 'leave-one-out' cross-validation analyses revealed that a bee's role as a scout in either context could be predicted with 92.5% success using 89 genes at minimum. We also found that genes related to four neurotransmitter systems were part of a shared brain molecular signature in both types of scouts, and the two types of scouts were more similar for genes related to glutamate and GABA than catecholamine or acetylcholine signalling. These results indicate that consistent behavioural tendencies across different ecological contexts involve a mixture of similarities and differences in brain gene expression.
- Myasthenia gravis and risks for comorbidity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurol 2014 Oct 30.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder leading to skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability. MG subgroups are defined according to pathogenetic autoantibody (against acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase or lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4), thymus pathology and clinical manifestations. MG patients have an increased risk for concordant autoimmune disease, in particular with early onset MG. Most common comorbidities are thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Cardiomyositis and subclinical heart dysfunction have been described in patients with thymoma MG and late onset MG but represent no major threat. A thymic lymphoepithelioma implies an increased risk for another cancer. Autoimmune MG represents no distinct cancer risk factor, although lymphomas and a few other cancer types have been reported with slightly increased frequency. Severe MG-related muscle weakness means a risk for respiratory failure and respiratory tract infection. Drug MG treatment can lead to side-effects. Thymectomy is regarded as a safe procedure both short and long term. Non-MG-related comorbidity represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially in elderly patients. Diagnostic accuracy and optimal follow-up is necessary to identify and treat all types of coexisting disease in MG.
- HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2014.:6841.
Muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) is an essential postsynaptic transmembrane molecule that mediates clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR). MUSK exon 10 is alternatively skipped in human, but not in mouse. Skipping of this exon disrupts a cysteine-rich region (Fz-CRD), which is essential for Wnt-mediated AChR clustering. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of alternative splicing, we exploited block-scanning mutagenesis with human minigene and identified a 20-nucleotide block that contained exonic splicing silencers. Using RNA-affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting, we identified that hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L are bound to MUSK exon 10. siRNA-mediated knockdown and cDNA overexpression confirmed the additive, as well as the independent, splicing suppressing effects of hnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L. Antibody-mediated in vitro protein depletion and scanning mutagenesis additionally revealed that binding of hnRNP C to RNA subsequently promotes binding of YB-1 and hnRNP L to the immediate downstream sites and enhances exon skipping. Simultaneous tethering of two splicing trans-factors to the target confirmed the cooperative effect of YB-1 and hnRNP L on hnRNP C-mediated exon skipping. Search for a similar motif in the human genome revealed nine alternative exons that were individually or coordinately regulated by hnRNP C and YB-1.
- IL22 Regulates Human Urothelial Cell Sensory and Innate Functions through Modulation of the Acetylcholine Response, Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Antimicrobial Peptides: Assessment of an In Vitro Model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e111375.
Human urinary disorders are generally studied in rodent models due to limitations of functional in vitro culture models of primary human urothelial cells (HUCs). Current HUC culture models are often derived from immortalized cancer cell lines, which likely have functional characteristics differ from healthy human urothelium. Here, we described a simple explant culture technique to generate HUCs and assessed their in vitro functions. Using transmission electron microscopy, we assessed morphology and heterogeneity of the generated HUCs and characterized their intercellular membrane structural proteins relative to ex vivo urothelium tissue. We demonstrated that our cultured HUCs are free of fibroblasts. They are also heterogeneous, containing cells characteristic of both immature basal cells and mature superficial urothelial cells. The cultured HUCs expressed muscarinic receptors (MR1 and MR2), carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), immunoregulatory cytokines IL7, IL15, and IL23, as well as the chemokine CCL20. HUCs also expressed epithelial cell-specific molecules essential for forming intercellular structures that maintain the functional capacity to form the physiological barrier of the human bladder urothelium. A subset of HUCs, identified by the high expression of CD44, expressed the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) along with its co-receptor CD14. We demonstrated that HUCs express, at the mRNA level, both forms of the IL22 receptor, the membrane-associated (IL22RA1) and the secreted soluble (IL22RA2) forms; in turn, IL22 inhibited expression of MR1 and induced expression of CarAT and two antimicrobial peptides (S100A9 and lipocalin-2). While the cellular sources of IL22 have yet to be identified, the HUC cytokine and chemokine profiles support the concept that IL22-producing cells are present in the human bladder mucosa tissue and that IL22 plays a regulatory role in HUC functions. Thus, the described explant technique is clearly capable of generating functional HUCs suitable for the study of human urinary tract disorders, including interactions between urothelium and IL22-producing cells.
- [The perioperative management of myasthenia gravis patients.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ugeskr Laeger 2014 Oct 27; 176(44)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease affecting the acetylcholine receptor in the neuromuscular junction. Symptoms of MG are muscle weakness and fatigue. Anaesthesia and operation to MG patients need collaboration among the MG patients' health-care professionals. It is recommended that pyridostigmine is continued on the day of surgery. Most anaesthetic drugs are well tolerated by MG patients, but benzodiazepines and opiates may only be used with caution. For neuromuscular blockade rocuronium seems to be the best choice as it can be antagonized with sugammadex at the end of the surgical procedure.