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acidosis metabolic [keywords]
- Intra-operative post-induction hyperthermia, possibly malignant hyperthermia: Anesthetic implications, challenges and management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2014 10; 30(4):555-557.
Malignant Hyperthermia is a pharmacogenetic disorder. Classical manifestations comprise of tachycardia, increase in expired carbon dioxide levels, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia (>38.8°C) and unexpected acidosis. Here we report a case of 16-year-old female patient, ASA-I with chronic rhino-sinusitis and slight strabismus of the left eye posted for functional endoscopic sinus surgery, developing a rise in ETCO2 and temperature immediately following anesthesia induction. She was aggressively managed to an uneventful recovery. We present a case of intra-operative post-induction hyperthermia possibly MH, its anesthetic implications, challenges encountered and its management.
- Presentation of an experimental method to induce in vitro ("organ chambers") respiratory acidosis and its effect on vascular reactivity. [Journal Article]
- Acta Cir Bras 2014 Nov; 29(11):711-4.
To create in vitro a model to generate acidosis by CO2 bubbling "organ chambers", which would be useful for researchers that aim to study the effects of acid-base disturbs on the endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity.Eighteen male Wistar rats (230-280g) were housed, before the experiments, under standard laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle at 21°C), with free access to food and water. The protocol for promoting in vitro respiratory acidosis was carried out by bubbling increased concentrations of CO2. The target was to achieve an ideal way to decrease the pH gradually to a value of approximately 6.6.It was used, initially, a gas blender varying concentrations of the carbogenic mixture (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and pure CO2.1) 100% CO2, pH variation very fast, pH minimum 6.0; 2) 90%CO2 pH variation bit slower, pH minimum6.31; 3) 70%CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6.32; 4) 50% CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6:42; 5) 40 %CO2, Adequate record, pH minimum 6.61, and; 6) 30 %CO2 could not reach values below pH minimum 7.03. Based on these data the gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was adopted,This gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was effective in inducing respiratory acidosis at a speed that made, possible the recording of isometric force.
- Tranexamic acid administration to pediatric trauma patients in a combat setting: The pediatric trauma and tranexamic acid study (PED-TRAX). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Dec; 77(6):852-858.
Early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been associated with a reduction in mortality and blood product requirements in severely injured adults. It has also shown significantly reduced blood loss and transfusion requirements in major elective pediatric surgery, but no published data have examined the use of TXA in pediatric trauma.This is a retrospective review of all pediatric trauma admissions to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Role 3 hospital, Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, from 2008 to 2012. Univariate and logistic regression analyses of all patients and select subgroups were performed to identify factors associated with TXA use and mortality. Standard adult dosing of TXA was used in all patients.There were 766 injured patients 18 years or younger (mean [SD] age, 11  years; 88% male; 73% penetrating injury; mean [SD], Injury Severity Score [ISS], 10 ; mean [SD] Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score, 12 ). Of these patients, 35% required transfusion in the first 24 hours, 10% received massive transfusion, and 76% required surgery. Overall mortality was 9%. Of the 766 patients, 66 (9%) received TXA. The only independent predictors of TXA use were severe abdominal or extremity injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) and a base deficit of greater than 5 (all p < 0.05). Patients who received TXA had greater injury severity, hypotension, acidosis, and coagulopathy versus the patients in the no-TXA group. After correction for demographics, injury type and severity, vitals, and laboratory parameters, TXA use was independently associated with decreased mortality among all patients (odds ratio, 0.3; p = 0.03) and showed similar trends for subgroups of severely injured (ISS > 15) and transfused patients. There was no significant difference in thromboembolic complications or other cardiovascular events. Propensity analysis confirmed the TXA-associated survival advantage and suggested significant improvements in discharge neurologic status as well as decreased ventilator dependence.TXA was used in approximately 10% of pediatric combat trauma patients, typically in the setting of severe abdominal or extremity trauma and metabolic acidosis. TXA administration was independently associated with decreased mortality. There were no adverse safety- or medication-related complications identified.Therapeutic study, level IV.
- Intermittent Cold-Blood Cardioplegia and Its Impact on Myocardial Acidosis during Coronary Bypass Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Nov 25.
Background The purpose of the study was to assess the degree of myocardial acidosis in patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, in whom intermittent cold-blood cardioplegia (ICBC) was used for myocardial protection. The results of this study are presented in comparison to those of a previous trial conducted by the same investigators, using a similar methodology, but with intermittent warm-blood cardioplegia (IWBC). Patients and Methods In 15 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with ICBC for myocardial protection, metabolic changes of global ischemia indicators, lactate and pH values (measured simultaneously in coronary sinus and arterial blood) were analyzed. Lactate concentrations and pH values were measured at the beginning and the end of each cardioplegia administration, and the change-overtime analysis of the values was performed. For comparison with the results of the previous study (IWBC method) consisting of 12 patients, the analysis of variance with repeated measurements, including tests for a crossover, group, and time effect were used. Results Using the ICBC method, as compared with IWBC, no significant difference in the lactate production was observed during the first two successive cardioplegia administrations. During the third and fourth administrations, especially at the end of reperfusions, ICBC patients had a significantly lower lactate release and higher pH values, as compared with IWBC patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that ICBC has an inhibiting effect on potentially progressive myocardial acidosis during cross-clamp period.
- Candida albicans brain abscesses in an injection drug user patient: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Res Notes 2014 Nov 25; 7(1):837.
Fungal brain abscess is an uncommon disease, mostly associated with immunocompromised states and poorly controlled diabetes. However its incidence is rising as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents, corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Candida species have emerged as the most prevalent etiologic agents of brain abscesses in autopsy studies.A 46-year-old male with a history of injection drug abuse, chronic hepatitis C and diabetes mellitus presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure without recovery of mental status. On admission, the patient was in coma, febrile, with severe acidemia with respiratory and metabolic acidosis, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Brain imaging revealed multiple ring-enhancing lesions with oedema and mass effect. Microbiologic studies, including cerebrospinal fluid, blood, sputum and urine cultures, were all negative. A stereotactic brain biopsy was performed and culture of brain specimens revealed Candida albicans. The patient was successfully treated with fluconazole therapy for 48 weeks presenting a good clinical response and a complete radiological resolution of brain abscesses.Despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, fungal brain abscess remains a life-threatening disease with a poor outcome. Successful treatment requires an early diagnosis and usually a combined medical and surgical approach. A long-term antibiotic regimen is a cornerstone of fungal brain abscesses treatment, with the endpoint determined by clinical and neuroimaging response. The authors report an uncommon case of successfully treated Candida albicans brain abscesses with anti-fungal therapy consisting of fluconazole alone. This case illustrates the importance of early recognition of predisposing factors and multidisciplinary approach in timely therapeutic intervention, in order to prevent neurologic sequelae and improve the outcome of the patients with this severe and challenging form of central nervous system infection.
- The added predictive value of biphasic events in ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram for intrapartum fetal monitoring. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2014 Nov 24.
To study the predictive value of biphasic ST-events for interventions for suspected fetal distress and adverse neonatal outcome, when using ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) for intrapartum fetal monitoring.Prospective cohort study.Three academic hospitals in Sweden.Laboring women with a high-risk singleton fetus in cephalic position beyond 36 weeks of gestation.In laboring women who were monitored with conventional cardiotocography, ST-waveform analysis was recorded and concealed. Traces with biphasic ST-events of the FECG (index) were compared with traces without biphasic events of the FECG. The ability of biphasic events to predict interventions for suspected fetal distress and adverse outcome was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.Interventions for suspected fetal distress and adverse outcome (defined as presence of metabolic acidosis (i.e. umbilical cord pH <7.05 and base deficit in extracellular fluid >12mmol), umbilical cord pH <7.00, five-minute Apgar score <7, admittance to neonatal intensive care unit, or perinatal death).Although presence of biphasic events of the FECG was associated with more interventions for fetal distress and an increased risk of adverse outcome compared to cases with no biphasic events, the presence of significant (i.e. intervention advised according to cardiotocography interpretation) biphasic events showed no independent association with interventions for fetal distress (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 0.65-4.50) or adverse outcome (OR 1.96, 95% CI: 0.74-5.24).The presence of significant biphasic events did not discriminate in the prediction of interventions for fetal distress or adverse outcome. Therefore, biphasic events in relation to ST-analysis monitoring during birth should be omitted if future studies confirm our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Effectiveness of midazolam for L-arginine-resistant headaches during stroke-like episodes in MELAS: a case report. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014; 54(11):882-7.
A 14-year-old girl was referred to us with severe migraine-like headaches associated with vomiting and right homonymous hemianopsia. On admission, MRI examination showed high signals in the left occipital cortex and subcortex on T2-weighted images, without reduction of apparent diffusion coefficient suggestive of cerebral infarction. Her EEG demonstrated periodic sharp waves in the left posterior region, and laboratory tests revealed she had increased levels of lactic and pyruvic acid both in blood plasma and CSF. Gene analysis confirmed mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation. Based on this data, we diagnosed her as having mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and a stroke-like episode (MELAS). L-arginine infusion was unsuccessful for her severe headaches, which remained prolonged. She received a low dose (0.05 mg/kg/h) midazolam infusion, resulting in immediate improvement and the disappearance of headaches and abnormal EEG findings. By the age of 18, she had been readmitted eight times for stroke-like episodes accompanied by headaches. While L-arginine infusions alleviated her headaches when administered on day 1 of her episodes, they were not effective when started on or after day 2. Her L-arginine-resistant headaches were relieved by midazolam. Although the pathogenesis of headaches in MELAS is still unknown, neuronal hyperexcitability and trigeminovascular activation are considered important. Midazolam may play a role in suppressing neuronal hyperexcitability and trigeminovascular activation. Treatment with midazolam is advisable for headaches in patients with MELAS, in the event that L-arginine therapy is unsuccessful.
- Ileal Neobladder With Mucous Plugs as a Cause of Obstructive Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Emergent Hemodialysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Ther 2014 Nov 21.
Ileal neobladder is the preferred technique in the management of urinary diversion postradical cystectomy for bladder malignancy. The common complications associated with this procedure are atrophied kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, decreased renal function, ureteroileal or urethral anastomotic site stricture, urinary tract stones, incontinence, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Mucous plugs are also seen in 2%-3% patients. We present a rare presentation of a patient who required hemodialysis for severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury caused by mucous plugging of ileal neobladder.
- CD20-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with lactic acidosis. [LETTER]
- Am J Hematol 2014 Nov 22.
- Hypoxia, not pulmonary vascular pressure induces blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Physiol 2014 Nov 21.
Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) is increased with exposure to acute hypoxia and has been associated with pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). We aimed to determine the direct relationship between blood flow through IPAVA and PASP in 10 participants with no detectable intracardiac shunt by comparing: (1) isocapnic hypoxia (control); (2) isocapnic hypoxia with oral administration of acetazolamide (AZ; 250 mg, three times-a-day for 48 h) to prevent increases in PASP, and (3) isocapnic hypoxia with AZ and 8.4% NaHCO3 infusion (AZ+HCO3 (-)) to control for AZ-induced acidosis. Isocapnic hypoxia (20 min) was maintained by end-tidal forcing, blood flow through IPAVA was determined by agitated saline contrast echocardiography and PASP was estimated by Doppler ultrasound. Arterial blood samples were collected at rest before each isocapnic-hypoxia condition to determine pH, [HCO3 (-)], and PaCO2. AZ decreased pH (-0.08 ± 0.01), [HCO3 (-)] (-7.1 ± 0.7 mmol/l), and PaCO2 (-4.5 ± 1.4 mmHg; p<0.01), while intravenous NaHCO3 restored arterial blood gas parameters to control levels. Although PASP increased from baseline in all three hypoxic conditions (p<0.05), a main effect of condition expressed an 11 ± 2% reduction in PASP from control (p<0.001) following AZ administration while intravenous NaHCO3 partially restored the PASP response to isocapnic hypoxia. Blood flow through IPAVA increased during exposure to isocapnic hypoxia (p<0.01) and was unrelated to PASP, cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance for all conditions. In conclusion, isocapnic hypoxia induces blood flow through IPAVA independent of changes in PASP and the influence of AZ on the PASP response to isocapnic hypoxia is dependent upon the H(+) concentration or PaCO2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.