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acidosis metabolic [keywords]
- Prevalence, Severity, and Relationships of Lung Lesions, Liver Abnormalities, and Rumen Health Scores Measured at Slaughter in Beef Cattle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anim Sci 2014 Apr 21.
An array of management tools exists within the beef industry to improve animal welfare and productivity; however, the ability to assess the outcomes of these tools is needed. Deficiencies in management commonly manifest as bovine respiratory disease complex or nutritional disorders such as acidosis; therefore, lung, liver, and rumen gross pathology lesions present at slaughter were measured as part of the Harvest Audit Program (HAP) and associations with performance determined. Individual gross pathology data from 19,229 cattle at commercial packing plants in Kansas and Texas were collected. Corresponding individual pre-harvest and carcass data were obtained on a subset of 13,226 cattle. Associations between lesions and performance were modeled using multivariable mixed effect models. Regression coefficients were used for estimation of lesion associative effects on continuous outcomes, and odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Across the entire population, 67.3% of the cattle had no pulmonary lesions; 22.5% and 9.8% of cattle displayed mild and severe lesions, respectively. Severe pulmonary lesions were associated with a decreased ADG of 0.07 kg and a HCW 7.1 kg less than cohorts with no pulmonary lesions (P < 0.01). Overall, 68.6 % of cattle observed had normal livers. Of cattle severely affected by liver abscesses (A+, 4.6%), 14.9% also displayed severe pulmonary lesions and 28.3 % displayed mild pulmonary lesions. Rumenitis lesions were observed in 24.1% of the overall study population. Of cattle with mildly abscessed livers (A-), moderately abscessed livers (A), and severely abscessed livers, 20.6%, 21.6%, and 9.24 % displayed mild or severe rumenitis lesions at slaughter. Severe rumenitis lesions were associated with a significant decrease in ADG and HCW (0.025 kg and 2.20 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Though the majority of the cattle in this population would be considered low-risk, after adjustments for cattle with multiple lesions, 22.9% of cattle in the overall population were observed with a severe lesion (lung, liver, or rumen). In conclusion, a gross pathology monitoring system is feasible and the 22.9% prevalence of severe lesions (lung, liver, or rumen) indicates that significant opportunity exists to improve beef cattle health, well-being, and productivity. Data generated using HAP may be used to support decisions concerning the implementation or removal of managerial practices and health interventions in beef cattle production systems.
- Higher versus lower protein intake in formula-fed low birth weight infants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Apr 21.:CD003959.
The ideal quantity of dietary protein for formula-fed low birth weight infants is still a matter of debate. Protein intake must be sufficient to achieve normal growth without negative effects such as acidosis, uremia, and elevated levels of circulating amino acids.To determine whether higher (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d) versus lower (< 3.0 g/kg/d) protein intake during the initial hospital stay of formula-fed preterm infants or low birth weight infants (< 2.5 kilograms) results in improved growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes without evidence of short- and long-term morbidity.To examine the following distinctions in protein intake. 1. Low protein intake if the amount was less than 3.0 g/kg/d. 2. High protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 3.0 g/kg/d but less than 4.0 g/kg/d. 3. Very high protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d.If the reviewed studies combined alterations of protein and energy, subgroup analyses were to be carried out for the planned categories of protein intake according to the following predefined energy intake categories. 1. Low energy intake: less than 105 kcal/kg/d. 2. Medium energy intake: greater than or equal to 105 kcal/kg/d and less than or equal to 135 kcal/kg/d. 3. High energy intake: greater than 135 kcal/kg/d.As the Ziegler-Fomon reference fetus estimates different protein requirements for infants based on birth weight, subgroup analyses were to be undertaken for the following birth weight categories. 1. < 800 grams. 2. 800 to 1199 grams. 3. 1200 to 1799 grams. 4. 1800 to 2499 grams.The standard search methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library) were searched.Randomized controlled trials contrasting levels of formula protein intake as low (< 3.0 g/kg/d), high (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d but < 4.0 g/kg/d), or very high (≥ 4.0 g/kg/d) in formula-fed hospitalized neonates weighing less than 2.5 kilograms were included. Studies were excluded if infants received partial parenteral nutrition during the study period or were fed formula as a supplement to human milk. Studies in which nutrients other than protein also varied were added in a post-facto analysis.The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used.Five studies compared low versus high protein intake. Improved weight gain and higher nitrogen accretion were demonstrated in infants receiving formula with higher protein content while other nutrients were kept constant. No significant differences were seen in rates of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, or diarrhea.One study compared high versus very high protein intake during and after an initial hospital stay. Very high protein intake promoted improved gain in length at term, but differences did not remain significant at 12 weeks corrected age. Three of the 24 infants receiving very high protein intake developed uremia.A post-facto analysis revealed further improvement in all growth parameters in infants receiving formula with higher protein content. No significant difference in the concentration of plasma phenylalanine was noted between high and low protein intake groups. However, one study (Goldman 1969) documented a significantly increased incidence of low intelligence quotient (IQ) scores among infants of birth weight less than 1300 grams who received a very high protein intake (6 to 7.2 g/kg).Higher protein intake (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d but < 4.0 g/kg/d) from formula accelerates weight gain. However, limited information is available regarding the impact of higher formula protein intake on long-term outcomes such as neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Available evidence is not adequate to permit specific recommendations regarding the provision of very high protein intake (> 4.0 g/kg/d) from formula during the initial hospital stay or after discharge.
- Evidence for role of acid-sensing ion channels in nucleus ambiguus neurons: essential differences in anesthetized versus awake rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Physiol B 2014 Apr 22.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are widely expressed in several brain regions including medulla; their role in physiology and pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We examined the effect of acidic pH of 6.2 on the medullary neurons involved in parasympathetic cardiac control. Our results indicate that retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus are depolarized by acidic pH. In addition, acidic saline of pH 6.2 increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration by promoting Ca(2+) influx in nucleus ambiguus neurons. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of acidic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (pH 6.2) into the nucleus ambiguus decreases the heart rate in conscious rats, whereas it has no effect in anesthetized animals. Pretreatment with either amiloride or benzamil, two widely used ASIC blockers, abolishes both the in vitro and in vivo effects elicited by pH 6.2. Our findings support a critical role for ASIC in modulation of cardiac vagal tone and provide a potential mechanism for acidosis-induced bradycardia, while identifying important differences in the response to acidic pH between anesthetized and conscious rats.
- Fetal heart rate pattern interpretation in the second stage of labor using the five-tier classification: Impact of the degree and duration on severe fetal acidosis. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2014 May; 40(5):1274-80.
The aim of this study was to clarify the association between fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing interpretation levels in the second stage of labor and poor fetal acid-base balance.The database at one tertiary hospital in Nagoya, Japan, was retrospectively reviewed for women with singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation and vaginal labor at ≥37 + 0 gestational weeks between 1 June 2011 and 30 April 2012. Continuous FHR tracings in the second stage of labor were subdivided into 15-min intervals, each of which we called a window, from the beginning of labor through delivery, and were assessed according to the five-tier classification proposed by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in which level 1 is normal, level 2 is subnormal, and levels 3-5 are abnormal patterns.In total, 777 parturient women were eligible for the study protocol. The numbers of women with maximal levels of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 3, 77, 341, 349, and 7, respectively. No cases of severe fetal acidosis (pH < 7.0 or base excess <-12 mmol/L) were recorded when the maximal levels were below 3. Both the pH and base excess of the umbilical artery decreased with higher levels of FHR tracings interpretation (P < 0.001). Both the summations of level-4 windows and level-3 and level-4 windows were significantly higher in women with severe fetal acidosis than in women without (P < 0.001), indicating that the duration of abnormal levels is associated with severe fetal acidosis.Both the degree and duration of FHR tracing abnormalities correlate with severe fetal acidosis.
- Traumatic brain injury causes platelet adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid receptor inhibition independent of hemorrhagic shock in humans and rats. [Journal Article]
- J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 May; 76(5):1169-76.
Coagulopathy in traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is a well-established phenomenon, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Various studies implicate protein C activation related to the global insult of hemorrhagic shock or brain tissue factor release with resultant platelet dysfunction and depletion of coagulation factors. We hypothesized that the platelet dysfunction of CTBI is a distinct phenomenon from the coagulopathy following hemorrhagic shock.We used thrombelastography with platelet mapping as a measure of platelet function, assessing the degree of inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) receptor pathways. First, we studied the early effect of TBI on platelet inhibition by performing thrombelastography with platelet mapping on rats. We then conducted an analysis of admission blood samples from trauma patients with isolated head injury (n = 70). Patients in shock or on clopidogrel or aspirin were excluded.In rats, ADP receptor inhibition at 15 minutes after injury was 77.6% ± 6.7% versus 39.0% ± 5.3% for controls (p < 0.0001). Humans with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤ 8) showed an increase in ADP receptor inhibition at 93.1% (interquartile range [IQR], 44.8-98.3%; n = 29) compared with 56.5% (IQR, 35-79.1%; n = 41) in milder TBI and 15.5% (IQR, 13.2-29.1%) in controls (p = 0.0014 and p < 0.0001, respectively). No patient had significant hypotension or acidosis. Parallel trends were noted in AA receptor inhibition.Platelet ADP and AA receptor inhibition is a prominent early feature of CTBI in humans and rats and is linked to the severity of brain injury in patients with isolated head trauma. This phenomenon is observed in the absence of hemorrhagic shock or multisystem injury. Thus, TBI alone is shown to be sufficient to induce a profound platelet dysfunction.
- Serotonin neurons and central respiratory chemoreception: where are we now? [Journal Article]
- Prog Brain Res 2014.:207-33.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons are widely considered to play an important role in central respiratory chemoreception. Although many studies in the past decades have supported this hypothesis, there had been concerns about its validity until recently. One recurring claim had been that 5-HT neurons are not consistently sensitive to hypercapnia in vivo. Another belief was that 5-HT neurons do not stimulate breathing; instead, they inhibit or modulate respiratory output. It was also believed by some that 5-HT neuron chemosensitivity is dependent on TASK channels, but mice with genetic deletion of TASK-1 and TASK-3 have a normal hypercapnic ventilatory response. This review explains why these principal arguments against the hypothesis are not supported by existing data. Despite repeated challenges, a large body of evidence now supports the conclusion that at least a subset of 5-HT neurons are central chemoreceptors.
- Structure, Function, and Trafficking of SLC4 and SLC26 Anion Transporters. [Journal Article]
- Curr Top Membr 2014.:1-67.
The structure and function of the red cell anion exchanger 1 (AE1, Band 3, SLC4A1), the truncated kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1), and the other members of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters are reviewed. Mutations in the AE1 gene cause human diseases like Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and hereditary spherocytosis in the red cell and distal renal tubular acidosis in the kidney. These mutations affect the folding, trafficking, and functional expression of these membrane glycoproteins. In the SLC26 family of anion transporters, mutations also cause trafficking defects and human disease. Membrane glycoproteins are cotranslationally N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when properly folded, traffic via the secretory pathway to their final destination such as the plasma membrane. Misfolded glycoproteins are retained in ER and are targeted for degradation by the proteasome following retrotranslocation and ubiquitinylation. ER chaperones, like membrane-bound calnexin, interact transiently with glycoproteins and are part of the quality control system that monitors the folding of glycoproteins during their biosynthesis. Recent results have indicated that it is possible to "correct" trafficking defects caused by some mutations in the SLC4 and 26 families through the use of small molecules that interfere with the interaction of glycoproteins with the components of the quality control system. This review summarizes the current knowledge on structure and function of anion transporters from the SLC4 and SLC26 families, and the effect of mutations on their trafficking and functional expression.
- Congenital genetic inborn errors of metabolism presenting as an adult or persisting into adulthood: neuroimaging in the more common or recognizable disorders. [Journal Article]
- Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2014 Apr; 35(2):160-91.
Numerous congenital-genetic inborn errors of metabolism (CIEMs) have been identified and characterized in detail within recent decades, with promising therapeutic options. Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly utilized in earlier stages of CIEMs, and even in asymptomatic relatives of patients with a CIEM, so as to monitor disease progress and treatment response. This review attempts to summarize in a concise fashion the neuroimaging findings of various CIEMs that may present in adulthood, as well as those that may persist into adulthood, whether because of beneficial therapy or a delay in diagnosis. Notably, some of these disorders have neuroimaging findings that differ from their classic infantile or earlychildhood forms, whereas others are identical to their early pediatric forms. The focus of this review is their appearance on routine magnetic resonance imaging sequences, with some basic attention to the findings of such CIEMs on specialized neuroimaging, based on recent or preliminary research. The general classes of disorders covered in this complex review are: peroxisomal disorders (adrenoleukodystrophy), lysosomal storage disorders (including metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe or globoid cell leukodystrophy, Fabry, Niemann-Pick, GM1, GM2, Gaucher, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Salla diseases), mitochondrial disorders (including mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers, Leigh disease, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome), urea cycle disorders, several organic acidemias (including phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl colyase deficiency, glutaric acidurias, methylmalonic academia, proprionic academia, 3-methylglucatonic aciduria, and 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias), cytoskeletal or transporter molecule defects (including Alexander or fibrinoid leukodystrophy, proteolipid protein-1 defect or Pelizaeus Merzbacher, Wilson, and Huntington diseases), and several neurodegenerative disorders of brain iron accumulation. Additionally, an arbitrary "miscellaneous" category of 5 recognizable disorders that may present in or persist into adulthood is summarized, which include megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (megancephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts or van der Knaap disease), polymerase-III gene defect ("4H syndrome"), childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination ("vanishing white matter disease"), striopallidodentate calcinosis ("Fahr disease"), and Cockayne syndrome.
- Design of smart nanogels that respond to physiologically relevant pH values and temperatures. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014 Mar; 14(3):2557-62.
Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of monodisperse 'smart' nanogels that exhibit a sharp volume phase transition at physiologically relevant temperatures and pH values. The nanogels were prepared by precipitation copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and propylacrylic acid (PAA). Briefly, the reaction was performed using a PAA feed of between 0 and 10 mol% in the presence of a crosslinker at 70 degrees C. The size of the nanogel particles was determined as a function of pH and temperature using dynamic light scattering (DLS). At room temperature, the NIPAAm-PAA nanogels were discrete, spherical structures with diameters ranging from 200 to 250 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter of the nanogels decreased to ca. 100-150 nm when the solution temperature was increased to 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, when the pKa was below that of the NIPAAm-PAA (ca. 6.0), the gels collapsed and aggregated. However, at 37 degrees C and a physiological pH of 7.4, the nanogels did not fully collapse due to the charge-charge repulsion derived from the ionized carboxyl groups of the PAA. Similar phase transition behavior was observed with the corresponding linear copolymers. Thus, such nanogel particles could be useful for releasing drugs in regions of local acidosis, including sites of infection, tumors, ischemia, and intracellular endosomes.
- A unique mode of tissue oxygenation and the adaptive radiation of teleost fishes. [Journal Article]
- J Exp Biol 2014 Apr 15; 217(Pt 8):1205-14.
Teleost fishes constitute 95% of extant aquatic vertebrates, and we suggest that this is related in part to their unique mode of tissue oxygenation. We propose the following sequence of events in the evolution of their oxygen delivery system. First, loss of plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the gill and venous circulations slowed the Jacobs-Stewart cycle and the transfer of acid between the plasma and the red blood cells (RBCs). This ameliorated the effects of a generalised acidosis (associated with an increased capacity for burst swimming) on haemoglobin (Hb)-O2 binding. Because RBC pH was uncoupled from plasma pH, the importance of Hb as a buffer was reduced. The decrease in buffering was mediated by a reduction in the number of histidine residues on the Hb molecule and resulted in enhanced coupling of O2 and CO2 transfer through the RBCs. In the absence of plasma CA, nearly all plasma bicarbonate ultimately dehydrated to CO2 occurred via the RBCs, and chloride/bicarbonate exchange was the rate-limiting step in CO2 excretion. This pattern of CO2 excretion across the gills resulted in disequilibrium states for CO2 hydration/dehydration reactions and thus elevated arterial and venous plasma bicarbonate levels. Plasma-accessible CA embedded in arterial endothelia was retained, which eliminated the localized bicarbonate disequilibrium forming CO2 that then moved into the RBCs. Consequently, RBC pH decreased which, in conjunction with pH-sensitive Bohr/Root Hbs, elevated arterial oxygen tensions and thus enhanced tissue oxygenation. Counter-current arrangement of capillaries (retia) at the eye and later the swim bladder evolved along with the gas gland at the swim bladder. Both arrangements enhanced and magnified CO2 and acid production and, therefore, oxygen secretion to those specialised tissues. The evolution of β-adrenergically stimulated RBC Na(+)/H(+) exchange protected gill O2 uptake during stress and further augmented plasma disequilibrium states for CO2 hydration/dehydration. Finally, RBC organophosphates (e.g. NTP) could be reduced during hypoxia to further increase Hb-O2 affinity without compromising tissue O2 delivery because high-affinity Hbs could still adequately deliver O2 to the tissues via Bohr/Root shifts. We suggest that the evolution of this unique mode of tissue O2 transfer evolved in the Triassic/Jurassic Period, when O2 levels were low, ultimately giving rise to the most extensive adaptive radiation of extant vertebrates, the teleost fishes.