- Severe hyperphosphatemia after oral laxative administration in a 7-year-old patient. [Case Reports]
- TJTurk J Pediatr 2016; 58(1):116-118
- Sodium phosphate based laxatives are commonly used for constipation and pre-procedural bowel cleansing. Phosphate intoxication related with these preparations is well recognized. Herein, we present a...
Sodium phosphate based laxatives are commonly used for constipation and pre-procedural bowel cleansing. Phosphate intoxication related with these preparations is well recognized. Herein, we present a case of severe hyperphosphatemia and seizure in a 7-year-old male patient after administration of an oral sodium phosphate based laxative. At the time of admission, serum phosphorus level was 25.6 mg/dl. Aggressive fluid therapy was started. Although serum phosphorus level decreased to 20.9 mg/dl eight hours after admission, hemodialysis was performed because of the preexisting renal disease and declined glomerular filtration rate. Serum phosphorus level and blood gas analysis returned to normal after hemodialysis and the patient was discharged on hospital day two. In conclusion, sodium phosphate based laxatives should be used carefully in patients with preexisting renal diseases. Intravenous hydration and correction of hypocalcemia are important components of treatment. Hemodialysis is indicated in patients with renal failure.
- Coagulopathy related to hemodilution and acidosis. [Letter]
- JAJ Anesth 2016 Dec 05
- Migratory stroke-like lesions in a case of adult-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome and a review of imaging findings. [Journal Article]
- RCRadiol Case Rep 2016; 11(4):425-429
- Imaging findings of adult-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is poorly documented. The authors present a 48-year-old woman with subacute...
Imaging findings of adult-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is poorly documented. The authors present a 48-year-old woman with subacute onset of word-finding difficulties and right arm stiffness. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 2 weeks prior revealed left temporal lobe diffusion and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity predominantly involving the cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient map showed preserved signal in the temporal cortex. Subsequent magnetic resonance imagings demonstrated a new diffusion signal abnormality extending to the left parietal cortex and occipital cortex with resolving diffusion hyperintensity in the temporal lobe. MR spectroscopy showed scattered areas of lactate deposition. Diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was confirmed by genetic analysis. Fluctuating, migratory stroke-like lesions with a predilection for the parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex that do not conform to a vascular territory and a lactate spike at 1.3 ppm on MR spectroscopy are characteristic of MELAS syndrome. Preserved signal intensity on apparent diffusion coefficient is useful to distinguish MELAS syndrome from ischemic infarction where the signal is typically reduced.
- Movement Patterns and Metabolic Responses During an International Rugby Sevens Tournament. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Sports Physiol Perform 2016 Dec 05; :1-23
- CONCLUSIONS: Significant alterations in blood metabolite indices from pre-match to post-match sampling suggest that players were required to tolerate a substantial level of acidosis related to metabolite accumulation. Also, the ability to produce energy via the glycolytic energy pathway seems to be a major determinant in match-related running performance.
- Mutations of mtDNA polymerase-γ and hyperlactataemia in the HIV-infected Zulu population of South Africa. [Journal Article]
- SAS Afr Med J 2016 Dec 01; 106(12):1254-1259
- CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that our sample of the Zulu-speaking population does not exhibit a genetic predisposition to SHL/LA associated with known monogenic POLG1 mutations, indicating another possible predisposing factor for increased risk of SHL/LA.
- Update: Clinical Use of Plasma Lactate. [Review]
- VCVet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2016 Nov 30
- Lactate is an essential, versatile metabolic fuel in cellular bioenergetics. In human emergency and critical care, lactate is used as a biomarker and therapeutic endpoint and evidence is growing in v...
Lactate is an essential, versatile metabolic fuel in cellular bioenergetics. In human emergency and critical care, lactate is used as a biomarker and therapeutic endpoint and evidence is growing in veterinary medicine supporting its clinical utility. Lactate production is a protective response providing ongoing cellular energy during tissue hypoperfusion or hypoxia and mitigating acidosis. Hence, hyperlactatemia is closely associated with disease severity but it is an epiphenomenon as the body attempts to protect itself. This article reviews lactate biochemistry, kinetics, pathophysiology, some practical aspects of measuring lactate, as well as its use in diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring.
- Succinyl-CoA synthetase (SUCLA2) deficiency in two siblings with impaired activity of other mitochondrial oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle without mitochondrial DNA depletion. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Metab 2016 Nov 12
- Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associate...
Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associated with this gene defect is largely encephalomyopathy. We describe two siblings compound heterozygous for SUCLA2 mutations, c.985A>G (p.M329V) and c.920C>T (p.A307V), with parents confirmed as carriers of each mutation. We developed a new LC-MS/MS based enzyme assay to demonstrate the decreased SCS activity in the siblings with this unique genotype. Both siblings shared bilateral progressive hearing loss, encephalopathy, global developmental delay, generalized myopathy, and dystonia with choreoathetosis. Prior to diagnosis and because of lactic acidosis and low activity of muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), sibling 1 (S1) was placed on dichloroacetate, while sibling 2 (S2) was on a ketogenic diet. S1 developed severe cyclic vomiting refractory to therapy, while S2 developed Leigh syndrome, severe GI dysmotility, intermittent anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and eventually succumbed to his disorder. The mitochondrial DNA contents in skeletal muscle (SM) were normal in both siblings. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and several mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activities were low or at the low end of the reference range in frozen SM from S1 and/or S2. In contrast, activities of PDC, other mitochondrial enzymes of pyruvate metabolism, ETC and, integrated oxidative phosphorylation, in skin fibroblasts were not significantly impaired. Although we show that propionyl-CoA inhibits PDC, it does not appear to account for decreased PDC activity in SM. A better understanding of the mechanisms of phenotypic variability and the etiology for tissue-specific secondary deficiencies of mitochondrial enzymes of oxidative metabolism, and independently mitochondrial DNA depletion (common in other cases of A-SCS deficiency), is needed given the implications for control of lactic acidosis and possible clinical management.
- Hyperglycemic, high anion-gap metabolic acidosis in patients receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors for diabetes management. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Complications 2016 Nov 09
- Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use ...
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy. Risk for ketoacidosis in our case series was mediated predominately by reduction of insulin dose and insulinopenia. None of the patients reported a history of low carbohydrate diet or alcohol use, and all but one patient had negative glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. Resolution of DKA in SGLT-2i treated patients took longer than for T1DM patients with DKA based on literature data. The mechanisms by which SGLT-2i are associated with ketoacidosis are not fully understood and likely involve hyperglucagonemia and other factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism.
- Managing Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders in Kidney Disease. [Review]
- VCVet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2016 Nov 28
- Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic cr...
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening. Treatment of metabolic acidosis and nutritional support is frequently needed.
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- Individual clotting factor contributions to mortality following trauma. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Trauma Acute Care Surg 2016 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: PCA identified 2 distinct phenotypes within the entirety of global clotting factor abnormalities, and these findings substantiate the crucial association of factors V and VIII on mortality following trauma. This may be the first step toward identifying unique phenotypes after injury and personalizing hemostatic resuscitation.