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acidosis metabolic [keywords]
- Optimization of Bone Health in Children before and after Renal Transplantation: Current Perspectives and Future Directions. [REVIEW]
- Front Pediatr 2014.:13.
The accrual of healthy bone during the critical period of childhood and adolescence sets the stage for lifelong skeletal health. However, in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), disturbances in mineral metabolism and endocrine homeostasis begin early on, leading to alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume, and impairing growth. Risk factors for CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) include nutritional vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), altered growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, delayed puberty, malnutrition, and metabolic acidosis. After kidney transplantation, nutritional vitamin D deficiency, persistent hyperparathyroidism, tertiary FGF-23 excess, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, immunosuppressive therapy, and alteration of sex hormones continue to impair bone health and growth. As function of the renal allograft declines over time, CKD-MBD associated changes are reactivated, further impairing bone health. Strategies to optimize bone health post-transplant include healthy diet, weight-bearing exercise, correction of vitamin D deficiency and acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities, steroid avoidance, and consideration of recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Other drug therapies have been used in adult transplant recipients, but there is insufficient evidence for use in the pediatric population at the present time. Future therapies to be explored include anti-FGF-23 antibodies, FGF-23 receptor blockers, and treatments targeting the colonic microbiota by reduction of generation of bacterial toxins and adsorption of toxic end products that affect bone mineralization.
- Acute kidney injury in a tropical country: a cohort study of 253 patients in an infectious diseases intensive care unit. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Jan-Feb; 47(1):86-89.
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and potentially fatal complication in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of AKI associated with infectious diseases and the factors associated with mortality. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with AKI who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary infectious diseases hospital from January 2003 to January 2012. The major underlying diseases and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 253 cases were included. The mean age was 46±16 years, and 72% of the patients were male. The main diseases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (30%), tuberculosis (12%), leptospirosis (11%) and dengue (4%). Dialysis was performed in 70 cases (27.6%). The patients were classified as risk (4.4%), injury (63.6%) or failure (32%). The time between AKI diagnosis and dialysis was 3.6±4.7 days. Oliguria was observed in 112 cases (45.7%). The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (57±20, p-value=0.01) and dengue (68±11, p-value=0.01). Death occurred in 159 cases (62.8%). Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (76.6%, p-value=0.02). A multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for death: oliguria, metabolic acidosis, sepsis, hypovolemia, the need for vasoactive drugs, the need for mechanical ventilation and the APACHE II score. Conclusions: AKI is a common complication in infectious diseases, with high mortality. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS, most likely due to the severity of immunosuppression and opportunistic diseases.
- [Severe lactic acidosis in a patient with acute leukemia: a case report and literature review]. [Journal Article]
- Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jan; 35(1):53-5.
- Metformin-induced lactic acidosis associated with multiorganic failure. [Journal Article]
- Med Arh 2013; 67(5):381-2.
Lactic acidosis is a rare but severe complication in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Patients with lactic acidosis show commonly signs of shock, tissue hypoxia, acute hepatic or renal failure and the link between metformin therapy and lactic acidosis may be coincidental, associated or causal. Excessive plasma metformin concentrations show that lactic acidosis is due to a toxicological mechanism. We report a case of severe multiorganic failure in a subject after treatment with high doses of metformin.
- An interesting newborn case of fructose 1-6 diphosphatase deficiency triggered after thyme juice ingestion. [Journal Article]
- Clin Lab 2014; 60(1):151-3.
Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control many diseases. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs and its side effects. Thyme (thymus vulgaris) is a small shrubby plant with a strong, spicy taste, and odor. Thyme has carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, sedative, antibacterial and antifungal properties. It also has antispasmodic effects; tea made by infusing the herb in water or thyme juice ready-to-use is traditionally frequently used for infantile colic in our country. A fourteen-day-old male newborn was admitted to the emergency department with severe respiratory distress. There was a history of 50 mL of thyme juice (added table sugar) ingestion given for his infantile colic two hours before admission. He had hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidosis. Further investigation confirmed fructose 1-6 diphosphatase deficiency in the patient. We thought that lactic acidosis may have been triggered by fructose added to the thyme water to sweeten its taste. However, phenolic compounds of thyme juice may also cause acidosis.
- Metformin and other antidiabetic agents in renal failure patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Kidney Int 2014 Mar 5.
This review mainly focuses on metformin, and considers oral antidiabetic therapy in kidney transplant patients and the potential benefits and risks of antidiabetic agents other than metformin in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In view of the debate concerning lactic acidosis associated with metformin, this review tries to solve a paradox: metformin should be prescribed more widely because of its beneficial effects, but also less widely because of the increasing prevalence of contraindications to metformin, such as reduced renal function. Lactic acidosis appears either as part of a number of clinical syndromes (i.e., unrelated to metformin), induced by metformin (involving an analysis of the drug's pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action), or associated with metformin (a more complex situation, as lactic acidosis in a metformin-treated patient is not necessarily accompanied by metformin accumulation, nor does metformin accumulation necessarily lead to lactic acidosis). A critical analysis of guidelines and literature data on metformin therapy in patients with CKD is presented. Following the present focus on metformin, new paradoxical issues can be drawn up, in particular: (i) metformin is rarely the sole cause of lactic acidosis; (ii) lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin therapy is erroneously still considered a single medical entity, as several different scenarios can be defined, with contrasting prognoses. The prognosis for severe lactic acidosis seems even better in metformin-treated patients than in non-metformin users.Kidney International advance online publication, 5 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.19.
- Scientific and clinical evidence for the use of fetal ECG ST segment analysis (STAN). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2014 Mar 5.
Fetal electrocardiogram waveform analysis has been studied for many decades, but it is only in the last 20 years that computerisation has made real-time analysis practical for clinical use. Changes in the ST segment have been shown to correlate with fetal condition, in particular acid-base status. Meta-analysis of randomised trials (5 in total, 4 using the computerised system) have shown that use of computerised ST segment analysis (STAN) reduces the need for fetal blood sampling by about 40%. However, although there are trends to lower rates of low Apgar scores and acidosis, the differences are not statistically significant. There is no effect on cesarean section rates. Disadvantages include the need for amniotic membranes to be ruptured so that a fetal scalp electrode can be applied, and the need for STAN values to be interpreted in conjunction with detailed fetal heart rate pattern analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [The treatment of mitochondrial disorders, present and future]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nihon Rinsho 2014 Jan; 72(1):175-84.
Mitochondrial disorder has an inherited multi-system mitochondrial dysfunction that often involves the nervous, endocrine, renal and cardiac system. Although many molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial cytopathy have been discovered, clinical management of the disorders remains largely supportive. Many therapeutic drugs and reagents have been published effective in the past 20 years, however, none of those have been approved their efficacy by a double blind randomized placebo-controlled, or open labeled trial. In this review, we describe the current situation for developing the therapeutic drugs in mitochondrial disorders by clinical trial registry. We also describe the investigator-mediated clinical trial of L-arginine, and taurin for MELAS, and new project for developing the therapeutic drug of sodium pyruvate for lactic acidosis associated with mitochondrial disorders in Japan.
- Why are dairy cows not able to cope with the subacute ruminal acidosis? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Pol J Vet Sci 2013; 16(4):813-21.
One of the largest challenges for the dairy industry is to provide cows with a diet which is highly energetic but does not negatively affect their rumens' functions. In highly productive dairy cows, feeding diets rich in readily fermentable carbohydrates provides energy precursors needed for maximum milk production, but simultaneously decreases ruminal pH, leading to a widespread prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis. Maximizing milk production without triggering rumen acidosis still challenges dairy farmers, who try to prevent prolonged bouts of low ruminal pH mainly by proper nutrition and management practices. The animals try to avoid overeating fermentable feeds, as it causes negative consequences by disturbing digestive processes. The results of several experiments show that ruminants, including sheep and beef cattle, are able to modify some aspects of feeding behaviour in order to adjust nutrient intake to their needs and simultaneously prevent physiological disturbances. Particularly, such changes (e.g., increased preference for fibrous feeds, reduced intake of concentrates) were observed in animals, which were trying to prevent the excessive drop of rumen fluid pH. Thanks to a specific mechanism called "the postingestive feedback", animals should be able to work out such a balance in intake, so they do not suffer either from hunger or from negative effects of over-ingesting the fermentable carbohydrates. This way, an acidosis should not be a frequent problem in ruminants. However, prolonged periods of excessively decreased rumen pH are still a concern in dairy cows. It raises a question, why the regulation of feed intake by postingestive feedback does not help to maintain stable rumen environment in dairy cows?
- Rhabdomyolysis. The role of diagnostic and prognostic factors. [REVIEW]
- Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 2013 10; 3(4):303-312.
Rhabdomyolysis, literally meaning the breakdown of muscle tissue, is a common syndrome with many causes, acquired ones such as exertion, trauma, infections, temperature extremes, drugs, toxins, electrolyte and endocrine abnormalities, and congenital ones such as myopathies and connective tissue disorders. All results in a common pathophysiologic pathway which ends with the dispersing of muscle tissue content into the circulation. Rhabdomyolysis has characteristic clinical, laboratory and radiologic features, but does require a high index of suspicion so that the diagnosis would not be missed. The sensitivity and specificity of the various characteristics, as well as clinical guidelines, are discussed in this paper. The syndrome may present with several complications, e.g. arrhythmias, electrolyte abnormalities, acute renal injury, acidosis, volume depletion, compartment syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The prognosis is highly variable and depends on the underlying etiologies and complications, but is in general considered as good. The milestone of treatment is vigorous fluid resuscitation. Treatment options, in practice and in research, are discussed in the following pages.