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- Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nanotechnology 2013 May 21; 24(24):245604.
Plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry is used to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) without using any reducing or capping agents. The morphology and optical properties of the synthesized AuNPs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma processing parameters affect the particle shape and size and the rate of the AuNP synthesis process. Particles of different shapes (e.g. spherical, triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, etc) are synthesized in aqueous solutions. In particular, the size of the AuNPs can be tuned from 5 nm to several hundred nanometres by varying the initial gold precursor (HAuCl4) concentration from 2.5 μM to 1 mM. In order to reveal details of the basic plasma-liquid interactions that lead to AuNP synthesis, we have measured the solution pH, conductivity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of the liquid after plasma processing, and conclude that H2O2 plays the role of the reducing agent which converts Au(+3) ions to Au(0) atoms, leading to nucleation growth of the AuNPs.
- Cost Effectiveness of Biologic Therapies for Plaque Psoriasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Dermatol 2013 May 22.
BACKGROUND:During the last decade, the implementation of biologic agents has changed the therapeutic management of severe psoriasis. Biologic agents have clinically proven efficacy, but their use is associated with a much higher cost compared with traditional treatment options. Therefore, when assessing the use of these drugs for the treatment of psoriasis, it is important to consider their cost effectiveness.
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine and compare the cost effectiveness of biologic agents with regard to the cost per patient achieving a minimally important difference (MID) in the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the cost per patient achieving a 75 % improvement in the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI-75).
METHODS:A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify studies describing the efficacy of all currently US FDA-approved biologic therapies. The cost effectiveness of each agent over a 12-week period was determined and a sensitivity analysis was performed. Based on clinical efficacy at 12 weeks, treatment paradigms were extrapolated to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios after 1 year of treatment. Pooled data on each biologic agent at different doses were compared in a one-way sensitivity analysis and in an extreme case scenario analysis.
RESULTS:Twenty-seven studies were included in the analysis. Intravenous (IV) infliximab 3 mg/kg was the most cost-effective biologic agent with respect to both the cost per patient achieving PASI-75 and the cost per patient achieving a DLQI MID. The next most cost-effective agents in terms of cost per patient achieving PASI-75 were subcutaneous (SQ) adalimumab 40 mg administered every other week (eow) after an 80-mg loading dose, SQ adalimumab 40 mg eow, and IV infliximab 5 mg/kg. In terms of cost per patient achieving DLQI MID, IV infliximab 5 mg/kg, SQ etanercept 25 mg once weekly, SQ etanercept 50 mg once weekly, and SQ adalimumab 50 mg eow after an 80-mg loading dose were the next most cost-effective agents behind IV infliximab 3 mg/kg. For both costs per patient achieving DLQI MID and PASI-75, alefacept was the least cost-effective agent up to a 10 % level of variation at all doses except 0.025 mg/kg once weekly.
LIMITATIONS:This study was limited by the use of efficacy data from 12-week clinical trials that did not compare treatments head to head to determine relative efficacy and may not be generalizable to longer treatment periods. Additionally, the estimated cost of treatment did not take into account indirect costs or variations in costs due to insurance company price contracting.
CONCLUSIONS:Biologic treatments that were most cost effective were so in respect to both the cost per patient achieving DLQI MID and per patient achieving PASI-75. This suggests that the same agents that are effectively clearing the disease are also effective in improving the patients' subjective assessment of dermatology-related quality of life.
- Emodin Prevents Ethanol-Induced Developmental Anomalies in Cultured Mouse Fetus through Multiple Activities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2013 May 21.
BACKGROUND:Maternal alcohol ingestion on pregnant period causes fetal alcohol syndrome including psychological and behavioral problems, and developmental abnormality. In this study, we investigated the effect of emodin, an active anthraquinone component found in the roots and bark of the genus Rhamnus (Buckthorn), on ethanol-induced teratogenesis during embryonic organogenesis.
METHODS:We cultured mouse embryos on embryonic day 8.5 for 2 days with ethanol (5 μl/3 ml) and/or emodin (1×10(-5) and 1×10(-4) μg/ml) using a whole embryo culture system and then investigated the developmental evaluation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and expression patterns of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1), mitochondrial SOD (SOD2), cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 3, and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α).
RESULTS:Morphological parameters, including growth in yolk sac and fetal head, body length, and development of the central nervous system, circulation system, sensory organs, skeletal system, and limbs in embryos exposed to ethanol were significantly decreased compared to those of the normal control group, but co-treatment with emodin (1 × 10(-5) and 1 × 10(-4) μg/ml) significantly improved these parameters. Furthermore, the reduced levels of SOD activity, and SOD1, SOD2, cGPx, and HIF-1α and the increased gene levels of TNF-α and caspase-3 due to ethanol exposure were significantly restored by cotreatment with emodin.
CONCLUSIONS:This study revealed that cotreatment with emodin significantly prevented teratogenesis induced by ethanol, not only by modulating hypoxia and antioxidant enzymes, but also by attenuating the enhanced levels of TNF-α and caspase 3 in cultured embryos. Therefore, emodin may be an effective preventive agent for ethanol-induced teratogenesis.
- <?tf="HLBI">In vivo tomographic imaging of lung colonization of tumour in mouse with simultaneous fluorescence and X-ray CT. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biophotonics 2013 May 21.
Non-invasive in vivo imaging of diffuse and wide-spread colonization within the lungs, rather than distinct solid primary tumors, is still a challenging work. In this work, a lung colonization mouse model bearing A549 human lung tumor was simultaneously scanned by a dual-modality fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) system in vivo. A two steps method which incorporates CT structural information into the FMT reconstruction procedure is employed to provide concurrent anatomical and functional information. By using the target-specific fluorescence agent, the fluorescence tomographic results show elevated fluorescence intensity deep within the lungs which is colonized with diffuse and wide-spread tumors. The results were confirmed with ex vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging and histological examination of the lung tissues. With FMT reconstruction combined with the CT information, the dual-modality FMT/micro-CT system is expected to offer sensitive and noninvasive imaging of diffuse tumor colonization within the lungs in vivo. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
- Biomarkers of sensitivity to potent and selective antitumor 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F203) in ovarian cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cell Biochem 2013 May 20.
2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F203, NSC 703786) lysylamide belongs to a novel mechanistic class of antitumor agents. It elicits activity against ovarian, breast, kidney and colorectal cancer models. In sensitive breast cancer cells, 5F203 activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling. Herein, we evaluate the role of AhR in 5F203 activity in two ovarian cancer cell lines: IGROV-1 (sensitive to 5F203), SKOV-3 (resistant to this agent). In addition, cancer cells have been isolated from ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients; sensitivity to 5F203 and concurrent AhR signal transduction has been examined in ascites-isolated ovarian cancer patients' cells. 5F203 induced enhanced CYP1A1 expression, AhR translocation and ROS formation in IGROV-1 cells and ascites-isolated ovarian cancer cells that were sensitive to 5F203. In IGROV-1 cells 5F203-induced ROS formation was accompanied by JNK, ERK and P38MAPK phosphorylation, DNA damage and cell cycle arrest prior to apoptosis. In contrast, 5F203 failed to induce CYP1A1 expression, AhR translocation or oxidative stress in 5F203-resistant SKOV-3 cells, or in ovarian cancer ascites cells inherently resistant to this agent. We propose that AhR may represent a new molecular target in the treatment of ovarian tumors and 5F203 may exemplify a potential novel treatment. Furthermore, putative biomarkers of sensitivity to this agent have been identified. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Age-related differences in the response of the brain to dietary melatonin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Age (Dordr) 2013 May 22.
The aged brain is prone to excessive levels of immune activity, not initiated by an acute response to an extrinsic agent. While dietary melatonin is reported to attenuate the extent of expression of proinflammatory genes, little is known about the extent to which these changes can be translated into altered levels of corresponding proteins. The baseline levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 alpha, were greater in older (~29 months old) compared to younger (~7 months old) mouse brains. Acute (3 h) exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), but not inflammatory cytokines in the brain. The serum level of TNF-α was increased after LPS injection, indicating a systemic immune response to the bacterial cell wall component. Dietary melatonin (40 ppm for 9.3 weeks) did not prevent LPS-induced changes in younger animals but caused an increased systemic TNF-α response in older mice. Melatonin did reduce markers of carbonyl formation in brain proteins of young animals and nitrosylative damage to peptide-bound amino acid residues, in the brains of older animals. Acute LPS challenge did not significantly affect these oxidative markers. Thus, despite lack of clear evidence of attenuation of the NF-κB-cytokine inflammatory trajectory within the CNS by melatonin, this agent did show a protective effect against free radical-initiated injury to amino acid residues within proteins. The results illustrate that previously reported changes in gene expression following melatonin treatment need not be closely paralleled by corresponding changes in protein content.
- Increased Expression of 5-HT3 and NK 1 Receptors in 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Mucositis in Mouse Jejunum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Dis Sci 2013 May 22.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Although 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used as chemotherapy agent, severe mucositis develops in approximately 80 % of patients. 5-FU-induced small intestinal mucositis can cause nausea and vomiting. The current study was designed to investigate peripheral alterations due to the 5-FU-induced mucositis of neuronal and non-neuronal 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor expression by immunohistochemical analysis.
METHODS:5-FU was administered by i.p. injection to C57BL/6 mice. After 4 days, segments of the jejunum were removed. The specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and enzyme immunoassay.
RESULTS:The numbers of 5-HT3 receptor immunopositive cells and nerve fibers in mucosa were increased by 5-FU treatment. The 5-HT3 receptor immunopositive cell bodies were found only in jejunal submucosa and myenteric plexus in the 5-FU-treated mice. The numbers of NK1 receptor cells in mucosa and immunopositive expression of NK1 receptors in deep muscular plexus were dramatically increased in 5-FU-treated mice. Real-time PCR demonstrated that 5-FU treatment significantly increased mRNA levels of 5-HT3A, 5-HT3B, and NK1 receptors. The amounts of 5-HT and substance P increased after 5-FU treatment. The 5-HT3 or NK1 receptor immunopositive cells colocalized with both 5-HT and substance P. Furthermore, 5-HT3 and NK1 receptors colocalized with CD11b.
CONCLUSIONS:The 5-HT3 and NK1 immunopositive macrophages and mucosal mast cells in lamina propria release 5-HT and substance P, which in turn activate their corresponding receptors on mucosal cells in autocrine and paracrine manners. It is assumed to result in the release of 5-HT and substance P in mucosa.
- The Polyphosphate Kinase Gene ppk2 Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inorganic Polyphosphate Regulation and Virulence. [Journal Article]
- MBio 2013; 4(3)
ABSTRACTThe Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv3232c/MT3329 (ppk2) encodes a class II polyphosphate kinase, which hydrolyzes inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) to synthesize GTP. We assessed the role of ppk2 in M. tuberculosis poly P regulation, antibiotic tolerance, and virulence. A ppk2-deficient mutant (ppk2::Tn) and its isogenic wild-type (WT) and complemented (Comp) strains were studied. For each strain, the intrabacillary poly P content, MIC of isoniazid, and growth kinetics during infection of J774 macrophages were determined. Multiplex immunobead assays were used to evaluate cytokines elaborated during macrophage infection. The requirement of ppk2 for M. tuberculosis virulence was assessed in the murine model. The ppk2::Tn mutant was found to have significantly increased poly P content and a 4-fold increase in the MIC of isoniazid relative to the WT and Comp strains. The ppk2::Tn mutant showed reduced survival at day 7 in activated and naive J774 macrophages relative to the WT. Naive ppk2::Tn mutant-infected macrophages showed increased expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) relative to WT-infected macrophages. The ppk2::Tn mutant exhibited significantly lower lung CFU during acute murine infection compared to the control groups. ppk2 is required for control of intrabacillary poly P levels and optimal M. tuberculosis growth and survival in macrophages and mouse lungs. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a highly successful human pathogen because it has developed mechanisms to multiply and survive in the lungs by circumventing the immune system. Identification of virulence factors responsible for M. tuberculosis growth and persistence in host tissues may assist in the development of novel strategies to treat TB. In this study, we found that the mycobacterial enzyme polyphosphate kinase 2 (PPK2) is required for controlling intracellular levels of important regulatory molecules and for maintaining susceptibility to the first-line anti-TB drug isoniazid. In addition, PPK2 was found to be required for M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice, at least in part by suppressing the expression of certain key cytokines and chemokines by inactivated lung macrophages.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis is extraordinarily sensitive to killing by a vitamin C-induced Fenton reaction. [Journal Article]
- Nat Commun 2013.:1881.
Drugs that kill tuberculosis more quickly could shorten chemotherapy significantly. In Escherichia coli, a common mechanism of cell death by bactericidal antibiotics involves the generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction. Here we show that vitamin C, a compound known to drive the Fenton reaction, sterilizes cultures of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. While M. tuberculosis is highly susceptible to killing by vitamin C, other Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens are not. The bactericidal activity of vitamin C against M. tuberculosis is dependent on high ferrous ion levels and reactive oxygen species production, and causes a pleiotropic effect affecting several biological processes. This study enlightens the possible benefits of adding vitamin C to an anti-tuberculosis regimen and suggests that the development of drugs that generate high oxidative burst could be of great use in tuberculosis treatment.
- Propofol for Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Qualitative Systematic Review (June). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Pharmacother 2013 May 21.