- Development of engineered yeast for biosorption of beer haze-active polyphenols. [Journal Article]
- AMAppl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016 Oct 21
- Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, the shelf life of beer is much more limited due to its instability in the bottle. That instability is most likely to appear as turbidity (haze), even sedim...
Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, the shelf life of beer is much more limited due to its instability in the bottle. That instability is most likely to appear as turbidity (haze), even sedimentation, during storage. The haze in beer is mostly caused by colloidal particles formed by interactions between proteins and polyphenols within the beer. Therefore, beers are usually stabilized by removing at least one of these components. We developed and constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a proline-rich QPF peptide attached to the cell wall, using the C-terminal anchoring domain of α-agglutinin. The QPF peptide served to bind polyphenols during fermentation and, thus, to decrease their concentration. Strains displaying QPF were able to bind about twice as much catechin and epicatechin as a control strain displaying only the anchoring domain. All these experiments were done with model solutions. Depending on the concentration of yeast, uptake of polyphenols was 1.7-2.5 times higher. Similarly, the uptake of proanthocyanidins was increased by about 20 %. Since the modification of yeasts with QPF did not affect their fermentation performance under laboratory conditions, the display of QPF appears to be an approach to increase the stability of beer.
- Comprehensive analysis of α 2-3-linked sialic acid specific Maackia amurensis leukagglutinin reveals differentially occupied N-glycans and C-terminal processing. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2016 Oct 5; 94(Pt A):114-121
- Seeds of Maackia amurensis constitutes two sialic acid specific agglutinins known as leukagglutinin and hemagglutinin. Maackia amurensis leukagglutinin (MAL) recognizes α2-3-linked sialic acid presen...
Seeds of Maackia amurensis constitutes two sialic acid specific agglutinins known as leukagglutinin and hemagglutinin. Maackia amurensis leukagglutinin (MAL) recognizes α2-3-linked sialic acid present mainly in N-glycans and composed of two disulfide linked monomers. It exhibits potential N-glycosylation sites (four PNGs) which have been assumed to undergo differential occupancy. In this study we have characterized the site specific macro- and microheterogeneity of monomers in detail by analysing N-glycopeptides and peptides through liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometer in MS(3) mode (LC-MS(n)). We observed the presence of mainly paucimannose N-glycans at Asn61, Asn113 and Asn191 whereas a high mannose type with varying Man5-9 occurs at Asn179. Interestingly Asn179 and Asn191 exhibited differential occupancy which was evident by the presence of non-glycosylated peptides. This has contributed to the difference in molecular mass of monomers upon SDS-PAGE. Further the presence of disulfide linked peptides confirmed the covalent linkage of monomers which also undergoes uniform C-terminal processing.
- Changes of IZUMO1 in bull spermatozoa during the maturation, acrosome reaction, and cryopreservation. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2016; 86(9):2179-2188.e3
- To obtain basic information of bull IZUMO1 (a sperm protein essential for sperm-egg fusion) and disclose possible causes for the impaired fertilizing ability in bull cryopreserved spermatozoa, we inv...
To obtain basic information of bull IZUMO1 (a sperm protein essential for sperm-egg fusion) and disclose possible causes for the impaired fertilizing ability in bull cryopreserved spermatozoa, we investigated this protein in bull spermatozoa collected from various regions of epididymides, freshly ejaculated spermatozoa, acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, and cryopreserved spermatozoa by Western blotting and the triple staining with the anti-IZUMO1 antibody, fluorescein isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. In the cauda epididymal spermatozoa and freshly ejaculated spermatozoa, bull IZUMO1 was detected mainly as a 45-kDa major form. This major form was derived probably from a 52-kDa precursor form in the epididymis. Bull IZUMO1 was immunolocalized along the border between the principal and equatorial segments of the acrosomal region (pattern P1 of IZUMO1) in the most of epididymal and freshly ejaculated spermatozoa with normal acrosomes. In the samples after the treatments to induce the acrosome reaction, the percentages of spermatozoa without acrosomes and with IZUMO1 in whole equatorial segment (pattern P2 of IZUMO1) significantly increased. These results indicate that bull IZUMO1 undergoes maturation-related changes during sperm transit through the epididymis and that it is translocated to the equatorial segment of acrosomal region during the acrosome reaction. On the other hand, severe damages were observed in the acrosomes of 60% of the cryopreserved spermatozoa. Localization of IZUMO1 in these spermatozoa was pattern P2 (IZUMO1 in whole equatorial segment), P3 (IZUMO1 in whole acrosomal region), or P4 (IZUMO was lost). Moreover, after the incubation to compare the stability of acrosomes and IZUMO1 localization between cryopreserved spermatozoa and freshly ejaculated spermatozoa, much more spermatozoa lost acrosomes and IZUMO1 in the cryopreserved samples compared with freshly ejaculated samples. These findings indicate that impaired fertilizing ability of bull cryopreserved spermatozoa with damaged acrosomes is related partially to the aberrant translocation of IZUMO1 which may be followed by the loss of intact IZUMO1.
- Cell size assays for mass cytometry. [Journal Article]
- CCytometry A 2016 Oct 21
- Mass cytometry offers the advantage of allowing the simultaneous measurement of a greater number parameters than conventional flow cytometry. However, to date, mass cytometry has lacked a reliable al...
Mass cytometry offers the advantage of allowing the simultaneous measurement of a greater number parameters than conventional flow cytometry. However, to date, mass cytometry has lacked a reliable alternative to the light scatter properties that are commonly used as a cell size metric in flow cytometry (forward scatter intensity-FSC). Here, we report the development of two plasma membrane staining assays to evaluate mammalian cell size in mass cytometry experiments. One is based on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining and the other on Osmium tetroxide (OsO4 ) staining, both of which have preferential affinity for cell membranes. We first perform imaging and flow cytometry experiments to establish a relationship between WGA staining intensity and traditional measures of cell size. We then incorporate WGA staining in mass cytometry analysis of human whole blood and show that WGA staining intensity has reproducible patterns within and across immune cell subsets that have distinct cell sizes. Lastly, we stain PBMCs or dissociated lung tissue with both WGA and OsO4 ; mass cytometry analysis demonstrates that the two staining intensities correlate well with one another. We conclude that both WGA and OsO4 may be used to acquire cell size-related parameters in mass cytometry experiments, and expect these stains to be broadly useful in expanding the range of parameters that can be measured in mass cytometry experiments. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
- Cell lipid metabolism modulators 2-bromopalmitate, D609, monensin, U18666A and probucol shift discoidal HDL formation to the smaller-sized particles: implications for the mechanism of HDL assembly. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta 2016 Sep 24; 1861(12 Pt A):1968-1979
- ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates formation of disc-shaped high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from cell lipid and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Discoidal HDL particles are h...
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates formation of disc-shaped high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from cell lipid and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Discoidal HDL particles are heterogeneous in physicochemical characteristics for reasons that are understood incompletely. Discoidal lipoprotein particles similar in characteristics and heterogeneity to cell-formed discoidal HDL can be reconstituted from purified lipids and apo A-I by cell-free, physicochemical methods. The heterogeneity of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) is sensitive to the lipid composition of the starting lipid/apo A-I mixture. To determine whether the heterogeneity of cell-formed HDL is similarly sensitive to changes in cell lipids, we investigated four compounds that have well-established effects on cell lipid metabolism and ABCA1-mediated cell cholesterol efflux. 2-Bromopalmitate, D609, monensin and U18666A decreased formation of the larger-sized, but dramatically increased formation of the smaller-sized HDL. 2-Bromopalmitate did not appear to affect ABCA1 activity, subcellular localization or oligomerization, but induced dissolution of the cholesterol-phospholipid complexes in the plasma membrane. Arachidonic and linoleic acids shifted HDL formation to the smaller-sized species. Tangier disease mutations and inhibitors of ABCA1 activity wheat germ agglutinin and AG 490 reduced formation of both larger-sized and smaller-sized HDL. The effect of probucol was similar to the effect of 2-bromopalmitate. Taking rHDL formation as a paradigm, we propose that ABCA1 mutations and activity inhibitors reduce the amount of cell lipid available for HDL formation, and the compounds in the 2-bromopalmitate group and the polyunsaturated fatty acids change cell lipid composition from one that favors formation of the larger-sized HDL particles to one that favors formation of the smaller-sized species.
- Occlusive Nonvasculitic Vasculopathy: A Review. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2016 Oct 18
- We review the most characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings of the cutaneous manifestations of the occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathic disorders. Clinically, most of these conditions ar...
We review the most characteristic clinical and histopathologic findings of the cutaneous manifestations of the occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathic disorders. Clinically, most of these conditions are characterized by retiform purpura. Histopathologic findings consist of occlusion of the vessel lumina with no vasculitis. Different disorders may produce nonvasculitic occlusive vasculopathy in cutaneous blood and lymphatic vessels, including embolization due to cholesterol and oxalate emboli, cutaneous intravascular metastasis from visceral malignancies, atrial myxomas, intravascular angiosarcoma, intralymphatic histiocytosis, intravascular lymphomas, endocarditis, crystal globulin vasculopathy, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and foreign material. Other times, the occlusive disorder is due to platelet pugging, including heparin necrosis, thrombocytosis secondary to myeloproliferative disorders, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Occlusive vasculopathy may also appear in cold-related gelling agglutination, like that occurring in cryofibrinogenemia, cryoglobulinemia, cold agglutinin syndrome, and crystalglobulinemia. Microorganisms may also occlude the vessels lumina and this is especially frequent in ecthyma gangrenosum, opportunistic fungi as aspergillosis or fusariosis, Lucio phenomenon of lepromatous leprosy and disseminated strongyloidiasis. Systemic coagulopathies due to defects of C and S proteins, coumarin/warfarin-induced skin necrosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and antiphospholipid antibody/lupus anticoagulant syndrome may also result in occlusive nonvasculitic vasculopathy. Finally, vascular coagulopathies such as Sneddon syndrome, livedoid vasculopathy, and atrophic papulosis may also cause occlusion of the vessels of the dermis and/or subcutis. Histopathologic study of occlusive vasculopathic lesions is the first step to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and they should be correlated with clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory findings to reach a final diagnosis.
- Tumor-associated Glycans and Tregs in Immunogenicity of an Autologous Cell-based Vaccine. [Journal Article]
- IIImmunol Invest 2016 Oct 19; :1-13
- Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been ha...
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine. We employed affinity columns of several lectins that are reactive with breast cancer cell lines to deplete lectin-reactive TAAs, while enriching for other antigens. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A), Vicia villosa (VVA), and Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I) were used to fraction crude tumor secreted antigens (TSA). Fractions were tested for their ability to stimulate Tregs and their anti-tumor efficacy. We observed that crude TSA activated Tregs and activation of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells led to an inhibitory function on CD4(+)CD25(-) effector cells. Immunization of mice with GS-I- and VVA-depleted fractions significantly delayed tumor establishment and inhibited lung metastases. Depletion of WGA-reactive glycoconjugates led to activation of Tregs, larger tumors and more distant metastases. The data indicate that TAAs can be enriched using their glycan expression pattern to weaken immune suppression and improve anti-tumor response. Therefore, the efficacy of autologous cancer cell vaccination can be improved through enrichment for certain TAAs using carbohydrate specificity.
- Ultrastructure of Diaschisis Lesions after Traumatic Brain Injury. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurotrauma 2016 Oct 15; 33(20):1866-1882
- We used controlled cortical impact in mice to model human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Local injury was accompanied by distal diaschisis lesions that developed within brain regions anatomically conn...
We used controlled cortical impact in mice to model human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Local injury was accompanied by distal diaschisis lesions that developed within brain regions anatomically connected to the injured cortex. At 7 days after injury, histochemistry documented broadly distributed lesions, particularly in the contralateral cortex and ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. Reactive astrocytosis and microgliosis were noted in multiple neural pathways that also showed silver-stained cell processes and bodies. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) staining, a marker of perineuronal nets, was substantially diminished in the ipsilateral, but less so in the contralateral cortex. Contralateral cortical silver positive diaschisis lesions showed loss of both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated neurofilament staining, but overall preservation of microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-2 staining. Thalamic lesions showed substantial loss of MAP-2 and unphosphorylated neurofilaments in addition to moderate loss of phosphorylated neurofilament. One animal demonstrated contralateral cerebellar degeneration at 7 days post-injury. After 21 days, the gliosis had quelled, however persistent silver staining was noted. Using a novel serial section technique, we were able to perform electron microscopy on regions fully characterized at the light microscopy level. Cell bodies and processes that were silver positive at the light microscopy level showed hydropic disintegration consisting of: loss of nuclear heterochromatin; dilated somal and neuritic processes with a paucity of filaments, tubules, and mitochondria; and increased numbers of electron-dense membranous structures. Importantly the cell membrane itself was still intact 3 weeks after injury. Although the full biochemical nature of these lesions remains to be deciphered, the morphological preservation of damaged neurons and processes raises the question of whether this is a reversible process.
- Irregular vascular pattern by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and high serum Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein level predict poor outcome after successful radiofrequency ablation in patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Med 2016 Oct 17
- Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasion...
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is considered the most effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients unsuitable for resection. However, poor outcome after RFA has occasionally been reported worldwide. To predict such an outcome, we investigated imaging findings using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid and serum tumor markers before RFA. This study included 176 early-stage HCC patients who had initially achieved successful RFA. Patients were examined using CEUS; their levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin before RFA were measured. Sonazoid provided parenchyma-specific contrast imaging and facilitated tumor vascular architecture imaging through maximum intensity projection (MIP). Kaplan-Meier analysis examined cumulative rates of local tumor progression, intrasubsegmental recurrence, and survival; factors associated with these were determined with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Local tumor progression (n = 15), intrasubsegmental recurrence (n = 46), and death (n = 18) were observed. Irregular pattern in MIP classification and serum AFP-L3 level (>10%) before RFA were identified as independent risk factors for local tumor progression and intrasubsegmental recurrence. These two factors were independently associated with poor survival after RFA (irregular pattern in MIP: hazard ratio, (HR) = 8.26; 95% confidence interval, (CI) = 2.24-30.3; P = 0.002 and AFP-L3 > 10%: HR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.09-7.94; P = 0.033). Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC.
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- Immunolocalization of cuticular proteins in Johnston's organ and the corneal lens of Anopheles gambiae. [Journal Article]
- ASArthropod Struct Dev 2016 Oct 12
- Previous work with EM immunolocalization examined the intracuticular placement of several antibodies directed against cuticular proteins (CPs) in various structures of Anopheles gambiae. Those struct...
Previous work with EM immunolocalization examined the intracuticular placement of several antibodies directed against cuticular proteins (CPs) in various structures of Anopheles gambiae. Those structures had long stretches of fairly uniform cuticle. We have now used 19 antibodies directed against members of five CP families on two adult structures with considerable complexity, Johnston's organ and the corneal lens of the compound eye. We also localized chitin with colloidal-gold labeled wheat germ agglutinin. Twelve of these antibodies recognized structures in Johnston's organ. Only 6 were detected in the outer pedicel wall, but the internal structures were more complex with distinct distributions of members of the five CP families in six different structures. The corneal lens had four distinct regions of laminar cuticle. Thirteen of the 15 members of the CPR family were detected, none from the other CP families. Specific antibodies were localized to different regions and in different laminae within a region. The specificity of deployment of cuticular proteins revealed in this study is helping to explain why An. gambiae allocates about 2% of its protein coding genes to structural CPs.