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- Fast detection of alpha-fetoprotein-L3 using lens culinaris agglutinin immobilized gold nanoparticles. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014 Jun; 14(6):4078-81.
Colloidal gold is extensively used for molecular sensing because that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands are affected by changes in the dielectric properties in the close vicinity of these structures due to the binding of ligands to the corresponding receptor molecules immobilized onto the nanostructures through chemi- or physisorption. We describe a simple method for the detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein-L3 which is a new generation of tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the aggregation of Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) Immobilized Gold Nanoparticles. The LCA conjugated GNPs obtained were 15-20 nm in diameter. The visible color change of the gold nanoparticles from purple to blue on interaction with 100 ng/mL of AFP-L3 is the principle applied here for the sensing of AFP-L3 level. UV/Vis spectroscopy also allows assay monitoring by quantifying the red shift of the plasmon resonance wavelength. With this method, the protein AFP-L3 can be rapidly detected as demanded for clinical diagnosis.
- Lectin uptake and incorporation into the calcitic spicule of sea urchin embryos. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Zygote 2014 Apr 15.:1-7.
Summary Primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) are skeletogenenic cells that produce a calcareous endoskeleton in developing sea urchin larvae. The PMCs fuse to form a cavity in which spicule matrix proteins and calcium are secreted forming the mineralized spicule. In this study, living sea urchin embryos were stained with fluorescently conjugated wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin that preferentially binds to PMCs, and the redistribution of this fluorescent tag was examined during sea urchin development. Initially, fluorescence was associated primarily with the surface of PMCs. Subsequently, the fluorescent label redistributed to intracellular vesicles in the PMCs. As the larval skeleton developed, intracellular granular staining diminished and fluorescence appeared in the spicules. Spicules that were cleaned to remove membranous material associated with the surface exhibited bright fluorescence, which indicated that fluorescently labelled lectin had been incorporated into the spicule matrix. The results provide evidence for a cellular pathway in which material is taken up at the cell surface, sequestered in intracellular vesicles and then incorporated into the developing spicule.
- Decreased core-fucosylation contributes to malignancy in gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e94536.
The object of the study is to identify N-glycan profiling changes associated with gastric cancer and explore the impact of core-fucosylation on biological behaviors of human gastric cancer cells. A total of 244 subjects including gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and healthy control were recruited. N-glycan profiling from serum and total proteins in gastric tissues was analyzed by DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. The abundance of total core-fucosylated residues and the expression of enzymes involved in core-fucosylation were analyzed with lectin blot, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, Immunohistochemical staining and lectin-histochemical staining. The recombinant plasmids of GDP-fucose transporter and α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) were constructed and transfected into gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. CCK-8 and wound healing assay were used to assess the functional impact of core-fucosylation modulation on cell proliferation and migration. Characteristic serum N-glycan profiles were found in gastric cancer. Compared with the healthy control, a trianntenary structure abundance, peak 9 (NA3Fb), was increased significantly in gastric cancer, while the total abundance of core-fucosylated residues (sumfuc) was decreased. Core-fucosylated structures, peak6(NA2F) and peak7(NA2FB) were deceased in gastric tumor tissues when compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Consistently, lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding proteins were decreased significantly in sera of gastric cancer, and protein level of Fut8 was decreased significantly in gastric tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Upregulation of GDP-Tr and Fut8 could inhibit proliferation, but had no significant influence on migration of BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells. Core-fucosylation is down regulated in gastric cancer. Upregulation of core-fucosylation could inhibit proliferation of the human gastric cancer cells.
- CANOMAD responding to weekly treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). [Journal Article]
- BMJ Case Rep 2014.
A 48-year-old man presented with numbness in fingers and diplopia 1 week after a flu-like illness. He made a full recovery but 8 years later developed progressive and disabling sensory ataxia. He had superimposed acute flare-ups with numbness, double vision and ptosis, all following infections. A blood test showed antidisialosyl antibodies including GD1b, GD3, GT1b and GQ1b in keeping with the diagnosis of chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgM paraprotein, cold agglutinins and antidisialosyl antibodies (CANOMAD). Initial treatment with monthly courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 days every 4 weeks helped temporarily but there were marked disabling fluctuations of symptoms. With IVIg 0.6 g/kg/day weekly his symptoms are stable. He remains mobile and has no eye symptoms without need for any other medication. This case demonstrates that weekly IVIg infusions instead of one 5-day course monthly may be able to avoid fluctuations of symptoms in CANOMAD.
- Pathogen bacteria adhesion to skin mucus of fishes. [REVIEW]
- Vet Microbiol 2014 Mar 20.
Fish are always in intimate contact with their environment; therefore they are permanently exposed to very vary external hazards (e.g. aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, viruses, parasites, pollutants). To fight off pathogenic microorganisms, the epidermis and its secretion, the mucus acts as a barrier between the fish and the environment. Fish are surrounded by a continuous layer of mucus which is the first physical, chemical and biological barrier from infection and the first site of interaction between fish's skin cells and pathogens. The mucus composition is very complex and includes numerous antibacterial factors secreted by fish's skin cells, such as immunoglobulins, agglutinins, lectins, lysins and lysozymes. These factors have a very important role to discriminate between pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and to protect fish from invading pathogens. Furthermore, the skin mucus represents an important portal of entry of pathogens since it induces the development of biofilms, and represents a favorable microenvironment for bacteria, the main disease agents for fish. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the interaction between bacteria and fish skin mucus, the adhesion mechanisms of pathogens and the major factors influencing pathogen adhesion to mucus. The better knowledge of the interaction between fish and their environment could inspire other new perspectives to study as well as to exploit the mucus properties for different purposes.
- Central Pupillary Light Reflex Circuits in the Cat: I. The Olivary Pretectal Nucleus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Neurol 2014 Apr 5.
The central pathways subserving the feline pupillary light reflex were examined by defining retinal input to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPt), the midbrain projections of this nucleus, and the premotor neurons within it. Unilateral intravitreal wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injections revealed differences in the pattern of retinal OPt termination on the two sides. Injections of WGA-HRP into OPt labeled terminals bilaterally in the anteromedian nucleus, and to a lesser extent in the supraoculomotor area, centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus and nucleus of the posterior commissure. Labeled terminals, as well as retrogradely labeled multipolar cells, were present in the contralateral OPt, indicating a commissural pathway. Injections of WGA-HRP into the anteromedian nucleus labeled fusiform premotor neurons within the OPt, as well as multipolar cells in the nucleus of the posterior commissure. Connections between retinal terminals and the pretectal premotor neurons were characterized by combining vitreous chamber and anteromedian nucleus injections of WGA-HRP in the same animal. Fusiform shaped, retrogradely labeled cells fell within the anterogradely labeled retinal terminal field in OPt. Ultrastructural analysis revealed labeled retinal terminals containing clear spherical vesicles. They contacted labeled pretectal premotor neurons via asymmetric synaptic densities. These results provide an anatomical substrate for the pupillary light reflex in the cat. Pretectal premotor neurons receive direct retinal input via synapses suggestive of an excitatory drive, and project directly to nuclei containing preganglionic motoneurons. These projections are concentrated in the anteromedian nucleus, indicating its involvement in the pupillary light reflex. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Identification and IVC of spermatogonial stem cells in prepubertal buffaloes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theriogenology 2014 Mar 12.
Development of suitable selective marker for buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), optimization of long-term IVC conditions, and their pluripotent retention capacity in buffaloes can be of prime importance in selective genetic modifications of this species. In the present study, we identified CDH1 as a specific marker for buffalo SSCs and revealed that it existed in two protein isoforms (large [135 kDa] and small [90 kDa] subunits) in the buffalo testis; furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CDH1 expression was present in spermatogonia but absent in the somatic cells of 4-month-old buffalo testis. After 7 days of enrichment, expression of CDH1 was also detectable in IVC colonies (∼53% enrichment efficiency by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). For long-term culture of SSCs, proliferation studies with different factors showed that combination of 20 ng/mL GDNF, 10 ng/mL FGF2, and 1000 U/mL LIF could significantly promote number of colonies (∼two folds) and proliferation of buffalo SSCs (∼three folds) compared with those of control or single-treatment groups; furthermore, addition of these combination growth factors significantly upregulated the messenger RNA level of spermatogonial-specific and pluripotency-related markers (BCL6B, GFRA1, and POU5F1), whereas downregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT). For confirmation of their stem cell potential, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin-stained cells were identified in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. These findings indicate the identification of a new buffalo SSCs marker; furthermore, it may help in establishing long-term culture that would assist in genetic modification of these buffaloes.
- Use of chloromethylstyrene as a supporter for convenient preparation of carbohydrate monomer and glycopolymers. [Journal Article]
- Carbohydr Polym 2014 Jul 17.:209-13.
A convenient access for glycopolymers was accomplished by using a styrene-modified glycomonomer, which was prepared from chloromethylstyrene as a key starting material and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) as a model carbohydrate. One-step conversion of the styrene derivative gave an azidostyrene, which was treated with a propargyl GlcNAc to afford a carbohydrate monomer after deprotection in good yield. The water-soluble GlcNAc monomer was polymerized with or without acrylamide to give the corresponding white powdery glycopolymers, which were evaluated for their interaction against wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) on the basis of fluorescence change of tryptophan in WGA.
- Cold agglutinin disease with erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils occurring during recovery phase of chickenpox. [Journal Article]
- J Lab Physicians 2013 Jul; 5(2):146-7.
- Combining glycocluster synthesis with protein engineering: an approach to probe into the significance of linker length in a tandem-repeat-type lectin (galectin-4). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Carbohydr Res 2014 Jan 11.
Complementarity in lectin-glycan interactions in situ is assumed to involve spatial features in both the lectin and the glycan, giving a functional meaning to structural aspects of the lectin beyond its carbohydrate-binding site. In combining protein engineering with glycocluster synthesis, it is shown that the natural linker length of a tandem-repeat-type human lectin (galectin-4) determines binding properties in two binding assays (using surface-presented glycoprotein and cell surface assays). The types of glycocluster tested included bivalent lactosides based on tertiary amides of terephthalic, isophthalic, 2,6-naphthalic and oxalic acids as well as bivalent H(type 2) trisaccharides grafted on secondary/tertiary terephthalamides and two triazole-linker-containing cores. The presented data reveal a marked change in susceptibility to the test compounds when turning the tandem-repeat-type to a proto-type-like display. The testing of glycoclusters is suggested as a general strategy to help to delineate the significance of distinct structural features of lectins beyond their contact sites to the glycan.