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- Expression of integrins α3β1 and α5β1 and GlcNAc β1,6 glycan branching influences metastatic melanoma cell migration on fibronectin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Cell Biol 2013 Nov 1.
Acquisition of metastatic potential is accompanied by changes in cell surface N-glycosylation. One of the best-studied changes is increased expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V enzyme (GnT-V) and its products, β1,6-branched N-linked oligosaccharides, observed in the tumorigenesis of many cancers. In this study we demonstrate that during the transition from the vertical growth phase (VGP) (WM793 cell line) to the metastatic stage (WM1205Lu line), β1,6 glycosylation of melanoma cell surface proteins increases as a consequence of elevated expression of the GnT-V-encoding Mgat-5 gene. Treatment with swainsonine led to reduced cell motility on fibronectin in both cell lines; the effect was stronger in metastatic cells, probably due to the higher content of GlcNAc β1,6-branched glycans on the main fibronectin receptors - integrins α5β1 and α3β1. Our results show that GlcNAc β1,6 N-glycosylation of cell surface receptors, which increases with the aggressiveness of melanoma cells, is an important factor influencing melanoma cell migration.
- In Vitro Analysis of Human Periodontal Microvascular Endothelial Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Periodontol 2013 Nov 28.
Background: Endothelial cells (ECs) participate in key aspects of vascular biology, such as maintenance of capillary permeability, initiation of coagulation, and regulation of inflammation. According to previous reports, ECs have revealed highly specific characteristics depending on the organs and tissues. However, few reports have described the characteristics of the capillaries formed by human periodontal ECs. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the functional characteristics of the periodontal microvascular ECs in vitro. Methods: We isolated human periodontal ligament-endothelial cells (HPDL-ECs) and human gingival-endothelial cells (HG-ECs) by immunoprecipitation with magnetic beads conjugated to a monoclonal anti-CD31 antibody. The isolated HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs were characterized to definitively demonstrate that these cell cultures represented pure ECs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were used for comparison. We compared these cells according to the proliferation potential, the formation of capillary-like tubes, the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and the expression of tight junction proteins. Results: HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs with a characteristic cobblestone monolayer morphology were obtained, as determined by light microscopy at confluence. Furthermore, the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs expressed the EC markers platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (also known as CD31), von Willbrand factor (vWF), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1), and the cells stained strongly positive for CD31 and CD309. In addition, the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs were observed to form capillary-like tubes, and they demonstrated uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL). Functional analyses of the HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs showed that, compared to the control cells, tube formation persisted for only a brief period of time, and TEER was substantially reduced at confluence. Furthermore, the cells exhibited delocalization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin at cell-cell contact sites. Conclusion: Our results provide new evidence that HPDL-ECs and HG-ECs have characteristics of fenestrated capillaries. Therefore, capillaries in human periodontal tissues have functional characteristics of fenestrated capillaries, which might be related to the onset and the progression of systemic diseases and inflammation.
- Exercise training initiated in late middle age attenuates cardiac fibrosis and advanced glycation end-product accumulation in senescent rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Gerontol 2013 Nov 23.
While it has long been postulated that exercise training attenuates the age-related decline in heart function normally associated with increased fibrosis and collagen cross-linking, the potential benefits associated with exercise training initiated later in life are currently unclear. To address this question, Fisher 344×Brown Norway F1 rats underwent treadmill-based exercise training starting in late middle age and continued into senescence (35mo) and were compared with age-matched sedentary rats. Hearts were examined for fibrosis and advanced glycation end-products in the subendocardial layer of left ventricular cross-sections. Genes for collagen synthesis and degradation were assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was assessed by EnzChek® Gelatinase/Collagenase Assay Kit. Exercise training of late middle-aged rats attenuated fibrosis and collagen cross-linking, while also reducing age-related mortality between late middle age and senescence. This training was also associated with an attenuated advanced glycation end-product (AGE) accumulation with aging, suggesting a decrease in collagen cross-linking. Conversely, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) gene expression, TIMP and MMP1 protein expression, and MMP activity increased with age but were not significantly impacted by exercise training. While our results demonstrate that exercise training in late middle age attenuates age-related mortality and cardiac fibrosis and is accompanied by attenuated AGE accumulation indicative of less collagen cross-linking, the mechanisms explaining this attenuated replacement fibrosis did not appear to involve altered TIMP1 expression, or MMP protein and activity.
- Molecular forms of the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 in patients with colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 22.
The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and molecules with which they interact are associated with the neoplastic transformation of cells in colorectal cancer. The IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) plays a significant role in mitotic stimulation of the cancer cells and its concentration is significantly elevated in tumor states. Little is known about IGFBP-2 at the molecular level and the purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between IGFBP-2 and some other proteins, the fragmentation pattern and posttranslational modifications that might have occurred due to a disease. Results have shown that the amount of monomer IGFBP-2 was 20-30% greater in patients with cancer and the amount of fragmented IGFBP-2 was doubled compared to healthy people, whereas the portion of IGFBP-2 in complex with α2 macroglobulin (α2M) was 2.5 times lower in cancer patients. According to this distribution, IGFBP-2 was not only increasingly synthetized in patients with cancer, but also the amount involved in complexes with α2M was reduced favoring the existence of binary IGFBP-2/IGF complexes, free to leave the circulation. Both IGFBP-2 and α2M were significantly more oxidized in patients with colon cancer than in healthy individuals and α2M was additionally sialylated. It can be speculated that the formation of IGFBP-2/α2M complexes is part of the control mechanism involved in the regulation of IGFBP-2 and, consequently, IGF availability. It also seems that posttranslational modifications are more important factors in determining the amount of IGFBP-2/α2M complexes than the actual quantity of these two proteins.
- Update on Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Nov 22.
New biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been identified using advanced genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics technologies. These are being developed not only for use in diagnosis of HCC, but also in prediction of patient and treatment outcomes and individualization of therapy. Some HCC biomarkers are currently used in surveillance, to detect early-stage HCCs and hopefully reduce mortality. Further studies are needed to determine whether the recently identified HCC biomarkers can be used in clinical practice-most are only in phase 1 or 2 studies. The diagnostic and predictive abilities of biomarkers are limited by the heterogeneous nature of HCCs-there is no perfect single biomarker of this tumor. To improve performance, combinations of biomarkers (panels), or combinations of biomarkers and clinical parameters or laboratory test results, might be required. We describe recently discovered biomarkers of HCC and discuss challenges to their development and application.
- Synthesis and properties of novel biomimetic and thermo-responsive dextran-based biohybrids. [Journal Article]
- Carbohydr Polym 2014 Jan.:728-35.
A new class of biodegradable, biomimetic and thermo-responsive dextran/synthetic glycopolymer biohybrids (dextran-graft-poly(lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate), dextran-g-(PLAMA-b-PDEGMA)), was synthesized by the direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of unprotected lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) glycomonomer and di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) monomer. The dextran macroinitiator for ATRP was prepared by partial esterification of the hydroxyl groups of the polysaccharide with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid (BrMPA). The biohybrids containing PDEGMA segments exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior, which changed from unimers to aggregates in solutions. Moreover, it was demonstrated that these biohybrids had specific biomolecular recognition with ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA120) in comparison with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Furthermore, these biohybrids showed good biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity assays. This hopefully provides a platform for targeted drug delivery and studying the biomolecular recognition between sugar and lectin.
- Effects of an extracted lectin from Citrullus colocynthis L. (Cucurbitaceae) on survival, digestion and energy reserves of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Front Physiol 2013.:328.
Lectins are the heterogeneous proteins in plants that serve as storage proteins via defensive mechanisms against herbivores. In the current study, a lectin was extracted and purified from seeds of Citrullus colocynthis by Sepharose 4B-Galactose and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies. Different concentrations of the lectin were added to artificial diet of Ectomyelois ceratoniae larvae finding out its effect on some biological parameters, digestive physiology and amount of storage macromolecules. It was found that CCA (C. colocynthis Agglutinin) increased life span from 23.44 days in control to 28.59 days in the treated individuals. Survival of larvae on control and CCA diets were 93.3 and 66.6%, respectively. Different concentrations of CCA significantly affected α-amylase and general proteolytic activities except for TAG-lipase activity. Activities of all specific proteases decreased when larvae were fed on different concentrations of CCA except for aminopeptidase. Meanwhile, amount of storage macromolecules in the larvae fed on different concentrations of CCA statistically decreased vs. control. These results demonstrated that CCA could intervene in physiology of E. ceratoniae and survival of larvae. Therefore, it can be taken into consideration in IPM of the pest through plant breeding programs.
- Distribution of extracellular matrix macromolecules in the vestibular nuclei and cerebellum of the frog, Rana esculenta. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroscience 2013 Nov 20.
The axons of transected and re-apposed vestibulocochlear nerve of the frog, in contrast to mammalian species, regenerate and establish functional contacts within their original termination areas of the vestibular nuclear complex and cerebellum. The lack of regenerative capability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is partially attributed to various extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and tenascin-R (TN-R), which exert inhibition on axon regeneration. In contrast to these molecules, hyaluronan (HA) was reported to be permissive for CNS regeneration. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, we investigated the distribution pattern of these molecules in the medial (MVN), lateral (LVN), superior and descending vestibular nuclei and cerebellum of the frog and detected regional differences in the organization of the ECM. In the vestibular nuclear complex, pericellular condensation of the ECM, the perineuronal nets (PNNs) were recognizable in the LVN and MVN and were positive only for HA. The neuropil of the vestibular nuclei showed either a diffuse appearance with varying intensity of reactions, or dots and ring-like structures, which may represent the perinodal ECM of the vestibular fibers. In the cerebellum, indistinct PNNs that were only labeled for HA were present in the granular layer. Our findings suggest that the HA-rich, but CSPG and TN-R-free PNNs may be associated with the high degree of plasticity and regenerative potential of the amphibian vestibular system.
- Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Nov 22.
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with (15)N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive sensory neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervating the larynx of the rat. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Chem Neuroanat 2013 Nov 20.
We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the larynx. Many CGRP-ir neurons were located mostly in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex that was fused the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the jugular ganglion in the cranial cavity. When Fluorogold was applied to the cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), many Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex and the nodose ganglion. Double-labeling for CGRP and Fluorogold showed that about 80% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of application to the SLN, and about 50% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of the RLN. Only a few double-labeled neurons were found in the nodose ganglion. The number of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons and double-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex in the case of the SLN was larger than that in the case of the RLN. These results indicate that sensory information from the larynx might be conveyed by many CGRP-ir neurons located in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex by way of the SLN and the RLN.