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- Cold agglutinin activity in 2 dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Clin Pathol 2014 Jul 23.
A 5-year-old neutered male Mastiff and an 8-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever were presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. The Mastiff was presented for evaluation of lameness and pyoderma one month prior in Missouri, where he tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by serum ELISA test, treated with doxycycline. PCR for Ehrlichia sp, Anaplasma sp, Babesia sp, and Bartonella sp, and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement were negative, serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) revealed polyclonal gammopathy, and mildly reactive lymphoid cells were seen cytologically. The Labrador presented with a proliferative rostral mandibular gingival mass and lipomas for further presurgical evaluation of cold agglutinin activity documented by a commercial laboratory 2 years earlier prior to removal of a grade II mast cell tumor. This dog had a negative SNAP4Dx, normal SPE, and persistently increased serum ALP activity and polyuria/polydipsia suggestive for hyperadrenocorticism. Both dogs had markedly agglutinated RBC in the EDTA samples that dispersed with warming, and normal plasma color. Cold agglutinin activity was demonstrated by direct saline agglutination testing using whole blood and washed erythrocytes demonstrating agglutination at 30°C, 25°C, 15°C, and 4°C, but not at 37°C. CBC results (ADVIA 2120i) from the Mastiff revealed no significant differences in the RBC results obtained at room temperature (RT) and at 37°C; however, the RT run demonstrated negative bias in neutrophil and platelet concentrations attributed to rapid RBC settling. This uncommon hematologic condition may cause artifacts on the automated leukogram and platelet count, and may be subclinical for long periods.
- Establishment and Evaluation of an in vitro M Cell Model using C2BBe1 Cells and Raji Cells. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Microflora 2011; 30(2):37-44.
In vitro M cell models, consisting of co-cultures of Caco-2 cells and lymphoid cells, were developed and examined to observe bacterial transport. However, under our experimental conditions, the differentiation of Caco-2 cells into M cell-like cells could not be induced efficiently. To obtain a functionally stable M cell model based on human cells, C2BBe1 cells were screened and co-cultured with human Raji cells. In our co-cultures, increased sialyl Lewis A antigen expression and decreased Ulex europeaus agglutinin 1 binding were observed. Regarding the functional properties of the model, microsphere and lactic acid bacteria transport across the C2BBe1 co-cultures were increased compared with the levels seen in monocultures. The C2BBe1 monolayers that were co-cultured with Raji cells exhibited some M cell features; therefore, we consider our M cell model to be useful for investigating the interactions of bacteria with M cells.
- Elevated serum levels of WFA(+) -M2BP predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hepatology 2014 Jul 12.
The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein (WFA(+) -M2BP) was recently shown to be a liver fibrosis glycobiomarker with a unique fibrosis-related glyco-alteration. We evaluated the ability of WFA(+) -M2BP to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 707 patients who had been admitted to our hospital with chronic HCV infection without other potential risk factors were evaluated to determine the ability of WFA(+) -M2BP to predict the development of HCC; factors evaluated included age, sex, viral load, genotypes, fibrosis stage, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), WFA(+) -M2BP and the response to interferon therapy. Serum WFA(+) -M2BP levels were significantly increased according to the progression of liver fibrosis stage (p < 0.001). In each distinctive stage of fibrosis (F0/1, F2, F3, and F4), the risk of development of HCC was increased according to the elevation of WFA(+) -M2BP. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥ 57 years, F4, AFP ≥ 20 ng/mL, WFA(+) -M2BP ≥ 4, and WFA(+) -M2BP 1 - 4 as well as the response to interferon (no therapy vs. SVR) as independent risk factors for the development of HCC. The time-dependent areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the WFA(+) -M2BP assay predicted the development of HCC with higher diagnostic accuracy than AFP. Conclusion: WFA(+) -M2BP can be applied as a useful surrogate marker for the risk of HCC development, in addition to liver biopsy. (Hepatology 2014;).
- Wheat Germ Agglutinin as a Counterstain for Immunofluorescence Studies of Equine Hoof Lamellae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Dermatol 2014 Jul 16.
Equine laminitis is a common, painful, debilitating condition of the hoof that is a leading cause of disability in horses, often necessitating euthanasia. The equine hoof represents an extreme evolutionary adaptation of an epidermal structure homologous to the human or murine nail units. Immunohistochemistry is frequently utilized in the study of the pathophysiology of laminitis. The complex, multi-layered, extensively interdigitated epidermal-dermal lamellar interface renders precise interpretation of immunofluorescence localization difficult, especially when effective technique and reagents render non-reactive tissues completely dark. Fluorescent-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) selectively labels dermal extracellular matrix fibers and epidermal cell membranes in tissue sections of horse hoof lamellae, is compatible with indirect immunofluorescence, and augments interpretation of indirect immunofluorescence antigen localization. The current report details the use of WGA as a rapid, simple, economical counterstain for immunofluorescence studies of the equine hoof and may have application to other complex epidermal tissue structures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Specificity of two monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic glycopeptide, an analogue to the hypo-galactosylated IgA1 hinge region. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nephrol 2014 Jul 19.
Increased levels of hypo-galactosylated immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 (HG-IgA1) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have been detected using a Helix aspersa agglutinin lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we developed monoclonal antibodies to evaluate the HG-IgA1 in IgA nephropathy, aiming to gain a more consistent and reproducible assay. As an analogue to the HG-IgA1 hinge region, a 19 mer synthetic peptide with five GalNAc (sHGP) residues at positions 4, 7, 9, 11 and 15 [VPST(GalNAc)PPT(GalNAc)PS(GalNAc)PS(GalNAc)TPPT (GalNAc)PSPS-NH2] was synthesized. Two monoclonal antibodies against sHGP (35A12 and 44H8) that reacted with human IgA were developed. Also, their reactivities to serum IgA from IgAN patients (n = 49), patients with other forms of kidney diseases (OKD, n = 48), and healthy controls (HC, n = 41) were evaluated using ELISA assays. The binding levels of the two monoclonal antibodies against serum IgA were significantly higher (all comparisons, p < 0.0001, Steel-Dwass non-parametric test) in IgAN patients compared to HC and OKD patients. In each individual, there was a close correlation of IgA binding levels between 35A12 and 44H8 (R (2) = 0.737). These results indicate that the monoclonal antibodies recognize similar epitopes in HG IgA1, which is found predominantly in IgAN patients. The developed antibodies are proposed as a clinically useful tool for IgAN screening.
- [Relationship between dental caries and salivary proteome by electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry in children aged 6 to 8 years]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jun; 32(3):297-302.
To explore the relationship between salivary proteome and dental caries and to promote the biomarker studies of dental caries susceptibility by comparing the salivary proteome of caries-active children and caries-free children with electrospray ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).Ten caries-active children and ten caries-free children were sampled. The salivary proteome of the two groups was studied, and the differential protein between the two groups was analyzed by ESI-MS/MS after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, filter-aided sample preparation, and liquid chromatography.The concentration of salivary protein was higher in the caries-active group than in the caries-free group. The polypeptide counts of thecaries-active and caries-free groups were 602 and 481, which belonged to 286 and 227 proteins, respectively. The differential polypeptide count of the two groups was 361, and the differential protein count was 118. The detected proteins included matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), mucin-7 (MUC7), lactotransferrin (LTF), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6), azurocidin (AZU), and cold agglutinin.The total salivary protein was higher in the caries-active group than in the caries-free group. The preliminary detection of differential proteins (MMP9, MUC7, LTF, CA6, AZU, and cold agglutinin) may lay some foundation for biomarker research of dental caries susceptibility.
- Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients. [Journal Article]
- Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2014 Apr; 4(2):108-13.
Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion.To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques).Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial.Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5(th) day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol.Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed.Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies.
- Fertility and uterine hemodynamic in cows after artificial insemination with semen assessed by fluorescent probes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Theriogenology 2014 Jun 17.
Fluorescent probes (propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin, and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide) were used to simultaneously evaluate the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes as well as mitochondrial membrane function in cryopreserved bovine semen and to verify its influence on fertility and postinsemination uterine vascularization. One hundred eighty-two Nellore cows were distributed for artificial insemination (AI) using semen batches separated according to the cell percentage presenting intact plasma membrane, intact acrosome, and high mitochondrial function (IPIAH): group G (44.5% IPIAH, n = 68), group M (23.0% IPIAH, n = 56), and group R (8.5% IPIAH, n = 58). The uterine hemodynamic was evaluated by Doppler sonogram in three periods: 30 hours before AI, 4 and 24 hours after AI were considered the resistance index and the uterine vascularization score. The pregnancy rate of group G (64.7%) was greater (P > 0.05) compared with group R (36.2%), but both did not differ from group M (50.0%). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of semen quality on uterine vascularization. Greater vascularization was noticed 4 hours after AI than 30 hours before and 24 hours after AI. Semen evaluation using fluorescent probes contributes to predicting fertilizing potential of semen. The use of semen with less percentage of IPIAH sperm does not alter uterine hemodynamic in cows.
- Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin-based lectin blot analysis distinguishes between glycosylation patterns in various cancer cell lines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2014 Aug; 8(2):837-840.
The analysis of altered glycosylation patterns may provide biomarkers for various types of cancer. The present study developed a Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA)-based lectin blot analysis technique, which was used to analyze the glycosylation patterns in various types of cancer cells. Results showed that a typical band located between 47 and 85 kDa was obtained in the HL60 leukemia cells, whereas three typical bands located between 20 and 47 kDa were observed in the Kasumi-1 leukemia cells. For the PLC, BEL-7404, Huh7 and H1299 solid tumor cell lines, different band patterns were detected, with bands typically located between 55 and 100 kDa. The findings of the present study show that PPA-based lectin blot analysis is capable of distinguishing between glycosylation patterns in leukemia and solid tumor cell lines. The glycofiles detected using PPA-based lectin blot analysis may provide a 'glycosylation fingerprint' for a variety of cancer cells, which may be valuable for cancer prognosis and diagnosis.
- The development of new molecular tools containing a chemically synthesized carbohydrate ligand for the elucidation of carbohydrate roles via photoaffinity labeling: Carbohydrate-protein interactions are affected by the structures of the glycosidic bonds and the reducing-end sugar. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bioorg Med Chem 2014 Jun 28.
Photoaffinity labeling technology is a highly efficient method for cloning carbohydrate-binding proteins. When the carbohydrate probes are synthesized according to conventional methods, however, the reducing terminus of the sugar is opened to provide an acyclic structure. Our continued efforts to solve this problem led to the development of new molecular tools with an oligosaccharide structure that contains a phenyldiazirine group for the elucidation of carbohydrate-protein interactions. We investigated whether carbohydrate-lectin interactions are affected by differences in the glycosidic formation and synthesized three types of molecular tools containing Galp-GlcpNAc disaccharide ligands and a photoreactive group (1, 2, 3). Photoaffinity labeling validated the recognition of the new ligand by different glycosidic bonds. Photoaffinity labeling also demonstrated that both the reducing end sugar and non-reducing end sugar recognized the Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin.