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albumin human [keywords]
- Perinatal outcomes for transfer of blastocysts vitrified and warmed in defined solutions with recombinant human albumin: 374 babies born after 898 embryo transfers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Assist Reprod Genet 2014 Oct 19.
To assess the efficacy of a novel, defined vitrification procedure using recombinant human albumin (rHA) for cryopreservation of human blastocysts. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Private IVF clinic. Patients: 1,496 patients received vitrified/warmed embryo transfer (ET).Surplus blastocysts, and blastocysts from patients undergoing elective embryo cryopreservation, were vitrified/warmed using Cryotop carriers in homemade solutions containing either human serum albumin (HSA) or rHA. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical and neonatal outcomes regarding the vitrified/warmed ET procedures.The HSA and rHA groups had a total of 1,163 and 898 vitrified/warmed cycles, respectively. Embryo survival rates (98.7 % vs. 98.9 %, respectively) and the number of embryos transferred (1.08 ± 0.01 vs. 1.06 ± 0.01, respectively) were similar in the HSA and rHA groups. Clinical pregnancy rates/ET were higher (P < 0.05) in the rHA group (56.0 %) than in the HSA group (51.5 %). The HSA and rHA groups had similar live delivery rates/pregnancy (72.2 % vs. 72.3 %, respectively) and perinatal outcomes, including birth weight (2,988 ± 28 vs. 3,046 ± 26 g, respectively). Birth defects occurred in 0.9 % and 1.6 % of neonates in the HSA and rHA groups, respectively.rHA effectively replaced HSA for human embryo vitrification procedures, and yielded high rates of pregnancy and live births after vitrified/warmed ET. This new approach will support the development of defined ART systems, which will eliminate the variation and risks associated with the use of blood-derived products.
- Formation of a Protein Corona on Silver Nanoparticles Mediates Cellular Toxicity via Scavenger Receptors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Toxicol Sci 2014 Oct 17.
Addition of a protein corona (PC) or protein adsorption layer on the surface of nanomaterials following their introduction into physiological environments may modify their activity, bio-distribution, cellular uptake, clearance and toxicity. We hypothesize that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will associate with proteins common to human serum and cell culture media forming a PC that will impact cell activation and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the role of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in mediating this toxicity was evaluated. Citrate-suspended 20 nm AgNPs were incubated with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or water (control) to form a PC. AgNPs associated with each protein (HSA, BSA, HDL) forming PCs as assessed by electron microscopy, hyperspectral analysis, ζ-potential, and hydrodynamic size. Addition of the PC decreased uptake of AgNPs by rat lung epithelial (RLE) and rat aortic endothelial (RAEC) cells. Hyperspectral analysis demonstrated a loss of the AgNP PC following internalization. Cells demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity following exposure to AgNPs with or without PCs (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 μg/ml). All PC-coated AgNPs were found to activate cells by inducing IL-6 mRNA expression. A small molecule SR-BI inhibitor was utilized to determine the role of SR-BI in the observed effects. Pretreatment with the SR-BI inhibitor decreased internalization of AgNPs with or without PCs, and reduced both cytotoxicity and IL-6 mRNA expression. This study characterizes the formation of a PC on AgNPs and demonstrates its influence on cytotoxicity and cell activation through a cell surface receptor.
- Human blood glycosaminoglycans: isolation and analysis. [Journal Article]
- Methods Mol Biol 2015.:95-103.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides having disaccharide building blocks consisting of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine, or N-acetylgalactosamine) and a uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. Glycosaminoglycans have sulfated residues at various positions except for hyaluronan, and those sulfated residues regulate the biological functions of a wide variety of proteins, primarily through high-affinity interactions mediated by specific patterns/densities of sulfation and sugar sequences. Alteration of GAG structure is associated with a number of disease conditions and therefore the analyses of GAG structures and their sulfation patterns are important for the development of disease biomarkers and for treatment options. Extensive structural and quantitative analyses of GAGs from human blood are largely unexplored which may be due to the exhaustive isolation process because of the presence of too much interfering proteins and lipids such as serum albumin. Therefore we established a new GAG isolation method using the least amount (~200 μl) of human blood, consisting of a combination of proteolytic digestion and selective ethanol precipitation of GAGs, digestion of GAGs recovered on the filter cup by direct addition of GAG lyase reaction solution, and subsequent high-pressure liquid chromatography of unsaturated disaccharide products that enable to analyze GAG structures and contents. This isolation method offers an 80 % recovery of GAGs and can be applied to analyze a minute GAG content (≥1 nmol) from the least amount of biological fluids. Hence the method could be useful for the development of disease biomarkers.
- Enzymatic fingerprinting of structurally similar homologous proteins using polyion complex library constructed by tuning PEGylated polyamine functionalities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Analyst 2014 Oct 17.
Human plasma proteins and even structurally similar homologous albumins were fingerprinted and discriminated by a sensor array consisting of a polyion complex library with artificial differentiation constructed by facile tuning of PEGylated polyamine functionalities.
- Fluticasone Induces Epithelial Injury and Alters Barrier Function in Normal Subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Steroids Horm Sci 2014 Jun 11; 5(2)
The airway epithelium has a number of roles pivotal to the pathogenesis of asthma, including provision of a physical and immune barrier to the inhaled environment. Dysregulated injury and repair responses in asthma result in loss of airway epithelial integrity. Inhaled corticosteroids are a corner stone of asthma treatment. While effective in controlling asthma symptoms, they fail to prevent airway remodeling. Direct cytopathic effects on the airway epithelium may contribute to this.This study examined the effects of a 4-week treatment regimen of inhaled fluticasone 500 μg twice daily in healthy human subjects. Induced sputum was collected for cell counts and markers of inflammation. Barrier function was examined by diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) clearance measured by nuclear scintillation scan, and albumin concentration in induced sputum.Steroid exposure resulted in epithelial injury as measured by a significant increase in the number of airway epithelial cells in induced sputum. There was no change in airway inflammation by induced sputum inflammatory cell counts or cytokine levels. Epithelial shedding was associated with an increase in barrier function, as measured by both a decrease in DTPA clearance and decreased albumin in induced sputum. This likely reflects the normal repair response.Inhaled corticosteroids cause injury to normal airway epithelium. These effects warrant further evaluation in asthma, where the dysregulated repair response may contribute to airway remodeling.
- Microscopic Validation of Macroscopic In Vivo Images Enabled by Same-Slide Optical and Nuclear Fusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nucl Med 2014 Oct 16.
It is currently difficult to determine the molecular and cellular basis for radioscintigraphic signals obtained during macroscopic in vivo imaging. The field is in need of technology that helps bridge the macroscopic and microscopic regimes. To solve this problem, we developed a fiducial marker (FM) simultaneously compatible with 2-color near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (700 and 800 nm), autoradiography, and conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) histology.The FM was constructed from an optimized concentration of commercially available human serum albumin, 700- and 800-nm NIR fluorophores, (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and glutaraldehyde. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells coexpressing the sodium iodide symporter and green fluorescent protein were labeled with 700-nm fluorophore and (99m)Tc-pertechnatate and then administered intratracheally into CD-1 mice. After in vivo SPECT imaging and ex vivo SPECT and NIR fluorescence imaging of the lungs, 30-μm frozen sections were prepared and processed for 800-nm NIR fluorophore costaining, autoradiography, and HE staining on the same slide using the FMs to coregister all datasets.Optimized FMs, composed of 100 μM unlabeled human serum albumin, 1 μM NIR fluorescent human serum albumin, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 3% glutaraldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4), were prepared within 15 min, displayed homogeneity and stability, and were visible by all imaging modalities, including HE staining. Using these FMs, tissue displaying high signal by SPECT could be dissected and analyzed on the same slide and at the microscopic level for 700-nm NIR fluorescence, 800-nm NIR fluorescence, autoradiography, and HE histopathologic staining.When multimodal FMs are combined with a new technique for simultaneous same-slide NIR fluorescence imaging, autoradiography, and HE staining, macroscopic in vivo images can now be studied unambiguously at the microscopic level.
- Nickel exposure is associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Epidemiol 2014 Oct 15.
Nickel exposure can induce hyperglycaemia in rodents, but little is known about its association with abnormal glucose metabolism in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of nickel exposure with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults.A total of 2115 non-institutionalized men and women aged 55 to 76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included, and urinary nickel concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was compared across urinary nickel quartiles. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein and glycated haemoglobin A1c, as well as urinary albumin and creatinine were measured.The median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.63 µg/l (interquartile range: 2.29-5.89 µg/l), and the prevalence of diabetes was 35.3% (747 cases/2115 persons). Elevated levels of urinary nickel were associated with higher fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin A1c, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (all P < 0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes across the increasing urinary nickel quartiles were 1.27 (0.97-1.67), 1.78 (1.36-2.32) and 1.68 (1.29-2.20), respectively (referencing to 1.00), after multivariate adjustment including lifestyle factors, body mass index and family history of diabetes (P for trend <0.001). The association remained unchanged after further controlling for urinary creatinine and C-reactive protein (P for trend <0.001).Increased urinary nickel concentration is associated with elevated prevalence of type 2 diabetes in humans.
- Immunologic evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor. [Journal Article]
- Yonsei Med J 2014 Nov 1; 55(6):1473-83.
Cefaclor is widely prescribed for various infectious diseases. As its consumption increases, the number of hypersensitivity reactions to cefaclor has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the immunologic findings of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor.We enrolled 47 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor from Ajou University Hospital and Asan Medical Center. Serum specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The most common phenotype was anaphylaxis (Group I, 78.7%), followed by urticaria (Group II, 21.3%). The detection of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 to cefaclor-HSA conjugate by ELISA tended to be higher in Group I (40.5%, 41.7%, 21.6%) than in Group II (20.0%, 20.0%, 0%) with no statistical significance. Significant associations were found between specific IgE and IgG1 or IgG4 (p<0.001, p=0.019). ELISA inhibition tests showed significant inhibitions by both free cefaclor and cefaclor-HSA conjugate. For basophil activation tests in patients having no specific IgE antibody, the CD63 expression level on basophils increased with incubations of free cefaclor.The most common manifestation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor was anaphylaxis, most of which was mediated by IgE; however, a non-IgE mediated direct basophil activation mechanism was suggested in a subset of anaphylaxis patients.
- α1-Acid glycoprotein disrupts capillary-like tube formation of human lung microvascular endothelia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Lung Res 2014 Oct 16.
ABSTRACT Purpose: The acute phase protein, α1-acid glycoprotein, is expressed in the lung, and influences endothelial cell function. We asked whether it might regulate angiogenesis in human lung microvascular endothelia. Materials and Methods: α1-acid glycoprotein was isolated from human serum by HPLC ion exchange chromatography. Its effects on endothelial cell functions including capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel, migration in a wounding assay, chemotaxis in a modified Boyden chamber, adhesion, and transendothelial flux of the permeability tracer, (14)C-albumin, were tested. Results: α1-acid glycoprotein dose-dependently inhibited capillary-like tube formation without loss of cell viability. At ≥0.50 mg/mL, it inhibited tube formation >70%, and at 0.75 mg/mL, >97%. α1-acid glycoprotein dose- and time-dependently restrained EC migration into a wound as early as 2 hours, and in washout studies, did so reversibly. It was inhibitory against vascular endothelial growth factor-A and fibroblast growth factor-2-driven migration but failed to inhibit chemotactic responsiveness. When α1-acid glycoprotein was added to preformed tubes, it provoked their almost immediate disassembly. As early as 15 minutes, it induced tube network collapse without endothelial cell-cell disruption. It exerted a biphasic effect on cell adhesion to the Matrigel substrate. At lower concentrations (0.05-0.25 mg/mL), it increased cell adhesion, whereas at higher concentrations (≥0.75 mg/mL) decreased adhesion. In contrast, it had no effect on transendothelial (14)C-albumin flux. Conclusion: α1-acid glycoprotein, at concentrations found under physiological conditions, rapidly inhibits endothelial cell capillary-like tube formation that may be explained through diminished cell adhesion to the underlying matrix and/or reversibly decreased cell migration.
- Effects of High-Protein Diet and/or Resveratrol Supplementation on the Immune Response of Irradiated Rats. [Journal Article]
- Prev Nutr Food Sci 2014 Sep; 19(3):156-63.
We investigated the effects of a high-protein diet and resveratrol supplementation on immune cells changes induced by abdominal irradiation in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) control diet, 2) control diet with irradiation 3) 30% high-protein diet with irradiation, 4) normal diet with resveratrol supplementation and irradiation, and 5) 30% high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation and irradiation. We measured blood protein and albumin concentrations, lipid profiles, white blood cell (WBC) counts, proinflammatory cytokine production, and splenocyte proliferation in rats that had been treated with a 17.5 Gy dose of radiation 30 days prior. A high-protein diet affected plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, which were increased by the radiation treatment. In addition, the lymphocyte percentage and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration were increased, and the neutrophil percentage was decreased in rats fed a high-protein diet. Resveratrol supplementation decreased the triglyceride (TG) level, but increased the IgM concentration and splenocyte proliferation. Proinflammatory cytokine production was lower in rats fed a high-protein diet supplemented with resveratrol than in rats fed a control diet. The results of the present study indicate that high-protein diets, with or without resveratrol supplementation, might assist with recovery from radiation-induced inflammation by modulating immune cell percentages and cytokine production.