albumin human [keywords]
- Novel synthetic cyclic integrin αvβ3 binding peptide ALOS4: Antitumor activity in mouse melanoma models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncotarget 2016 Aug 18.
ALOS4, a unique synthetic cyclic peptide without resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences, was discovered through repeated biopanning with pIII phage expressing a disulfide-constrained nonapeptide library. Binding assays using a FITC-labeled analogue demonstrated selective binding to immobilized αvβ3 and a lack of significant binding to other common proteins, such as bovine serum albumin and collagen. In B16F10 cell cultures, ALOS4 treatment at 72 h inhibited cell migration (30%) and adhesion (up to 67%). Immunofluorescent imaging an ALOS4-FITC analogue with B16F10 cells demonstrated rapid cell surface binding, and uptake and localization in the cytoplasm. Daily injections of ALOS4 (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) to mice inoculated with B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in two different cancer models, metastatic and subcutaneous tumor, resulted in reduction of lung tumor count (metastatic) and tumor mass (subcutaneous) and increased survival of animals monitored to 45 and 60 days, respectively. Examination of cellular activity indicated that ALOS4 produces inhibition of cell migration and adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that ALOS4 is a structurally-unique selective αvβ3 integrin ligand with potential anti-metastatic activity.
- Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer. [Journal Article]
- Int J Nanomedicine 2016.:3451-9.
Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs) were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween). A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%), and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer.
- Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling. [Journal Article]
- Drug Des Devel Ther 2016.:2401-19.
Flurbiprofen-antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (-COOH) was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic -OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001) reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)propanoate (4b) showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001) reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all prodrugs at all times of assessment. The results of ulcerogenic activity showed that all prodrugs produced less GI irritation than flurbiprofen. Molecular docking and simulation studies were carried out with cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) proteins, and it was observed that our prodrugs have more potential to selectively bind to COX-2 than to COX-1. It is concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced GI adverse effects than the parent drug.
- Aggregation Induced Emission Fluorogens Based Nanotheranostics for Targeted and Imaging-Guided Chemo-Photothermal Combination Therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Small 2016 Aug 24.
Nanotheranostics for biomedical imaging-guided cancer therapy have attracted increasing interest due to their capabilities of both precise tumor diagnosis and high therapeutic efficacy. Among the diverse imaging models, fluorescence imaging have been extensively researched for their high sensitivity, simple operation, and low cost. In this work, aggregation induced emission (AIE) fluorogens based targeted nanotheranostics are facilely fabricated via paclitaxel (PTX) induced assembly of proteins for the first time. Thanks to the unique fluorescence property of AIE fluorogens PhENH2 , the prepared theranostic nanoplatforms can emit bright fluorescence even after being incorporated with the photothermal therapy agent polypyrrole (PPy), which will often decrease or quench the emission of common fluorescence dyes. The target moiety of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) endows the nanotheranostics with outstanding targeting ability, which can further facilitate the targeted imaging and cancer treatment. As revealed by the in vitro and in vivo experiments, the prepared nanotheranostics human serum albumin-PhENH2 -PPy-PTX-cRGD shows impressive performance in the targeted fluorescence imaging even after intravenous injection for 48 h, and their combined chemo-photothermal therapy is also very effective. These results indicate that AIE fluorogens based nanotheranostics would find a promising prospect in further improved multimodal imaging and imaging guided cancer treatment.
- Safety and PK/PD correlation of TV-1106, a recombinant fused human albumin-growth hormone, following repeat dose administration to monkeys. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Growth Horm IGF Res 2016 Aug 3.:16-21.
TV-1106 is a recombinant human albumin genetically fused to growth hormone which is intended to reduce the frequency of injections for GH therapy users. We report the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repeated subcutaneous injections of TV-1106 in Cynomolgus monkeys.Cynomolgus monkeys received four weekly subcutaneous injections of 0, 5, 10 or 20mg/kg TV-1106 and were monitored for safety signals throughout the study. Serum levels of TV-1106 and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were assayed.Treated animals showed no adverse effects or histopathological changes. TV-1106 serum concentrations showed sustained exposure to the drug. Exposure increased in a dose-dependent manner with peak concentrations at approximately 24h post-dosing and elimination half-lives in the range of 12 to 24h. IGF-1 serum concentrations were elevated throughout the entire study duration, indicative of the pharmacological response. There was a clear correlation between change in IGF-1 levels and dose or exposure to TV-1106.The safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings support the further development of TV-1106 as a once-weekly administered treatment for patients with GHD.
- Bio-inspired Design and Oriented Synthesis of Immunogenic Site-Specifically Penicilloylated Peptides. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bioconjug Chem 2016 Aug 23.
β-Lactam antibiotics allergy is recognized as a public health concern. By covalently binding to serum proteins, penicillins are known to form immunogenic complexes. The latter are recognized and digested by antigen-presenting cells into drug-hapten peptides leading to the immunization of treated persons and IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions encompassing anaphylaxis. If type I allergic reactions to drugs are often unpredictable, they are known to be dependent on CD4+ T-cells. This fundamental study revisits the chemical basis of the benzylpenicillin (BP) allergy with the aim of identifying immunologically relevant biomimetic benzylpenicilloylated peptides through the analysis of BP-conjugated human serum albumin (BP-HSA) profile and the evaluation of the naïve CD4+ T-cell responses to candidate BP-HSA-derived peptides. The chemical structures of BP-HSA bioconjugates synthesized in vitro at both physiological and basic pH were investigated by mass spectrometry. From the ten most representative lysine residues grafted by BP-hapten, HSA-bioinspired 15-mer peptide sequences were designed and the potential T-cell epitope profile of each peptide was predicted using two complementary in silico approaches, i.e. HLA class II binding prediction tools from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and computational alanine scanning mutagenesis. Twelve structurally diversified benzylpenicilloylated peptides (BP-Ps) were selected and synthesized thanks to a flexible synthesis pathway using an original benzylpenicilloylated lysine monomer as common precursor. In order to corroborate their predicted "epitope" profile, the naïve CD4+ T-cell response specific to BP was evaluated through a co-culture approach. To our knowledge, this study showed for the first time the ability of bioinspired peptides structurally stemming from BP-HSA to be recognized by naïve CD4+ T-cells thus identifying a pre-existing T-cell repertoire for penicillin molecules bound to proteins. It also established a promising model approach expandable to other most frequently used penicillin class of antibiotics to reveal biomimetic drug-modified antigenic peptides relevant for qualitative and quantitative drug allergy studies.
- Monolayers of poly(styrene/α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol) microparticles formed by controlled self-assembly with potential application as protein repealing substrates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Langmuir 2016 Aug 23.
The kinetics of the self - assembly of poly(styrene/α-tert-butoxy-ω-vinylbenzyl-polyglycidol) microparticles on poly(allylamine hydrochloride) derivatised silicon/silica substrate was determined by direct AFM imaging and streaming potential (SP) measurements. The kinetic runs acquired under diffusion-controlled transport were quantitatively interpreted in terms of the extended random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. This allowed confirm a core/shell morphology of the microparticles. The polyglycidol rich shell of the thickness equal to 25 nm exhibited a fuzzy structure that enabled partial penetration of particles into each other resulting in high coverage of monolayers inaccessible for ordinary microparticles. The SP measurements interpreted by using the 3D electrokinetic model confirmed this microparticle structure. Additionally, the acid-base characteristics of the microparticle monolayers were determined for a broad pH range. By using the streaming potential measurements human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption on the microparticle monolayers was investigated under in situ conditions. It was confirmed that the protein adsorption was considerably lower than for the reference case of bare silicon/silica substrate under the same physicochemical conditions. This effect was attributed to the presence of the shell diminishing the protein/microparticle physical interactions.
- Liver-specific NG37 overexpression leads to diet-dependent fatty liver disease accompanied by cardiac dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- Genes Nutr 2016.:14.
Environmental factors are well-known causes of diseases. However, aside from a handful of risk indicators, genes' encoding susceptibility to chronic illnesses and their associated environmental triggers are largely unknown. In this era of increasingly rich diets, such genetic predispositions would be immensely helpful from a public health perspective. The novel transgenic mouse model with liver-specific NG37 overexpression characterized in this article identifies the diet-dependent function of NG37 in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease and cardiac arrhythmia.The liver-specific NG37 overexpression transgenic mouse model described here was generated using the Alb-SV40 polyA expression plasmid backbone. NG37 cDNA under control of the albumin promoter for liver-specific expression was fused with a 5' terminal M2 FLAG sequence and a SV40 early region transcription terminator/polyadenylation site attached at the 3'-UTR. These NG37 transgenic mice developed normally and were physiologically normal on a standard diet. However, in comparison to non-transgenic (nTG) litter mates, these mice develop dramatic phenotypes within 12-18 days of starting a high-fat diet: (i) increased body weight (28.5 ± 12.3 g), (ii) increased liver weight (87.4 ± 35.7 mg), (iii) increased heart weight (140 ± 38.4 mg), and (iv) cardiac arrhythmia. The enlarged livers of high-fat diet NG37 transgenic mice was histologically similar to human fatty liver disease and contained Maltese cross birefringent active depositions in hepatocytes that are indicative of fatty liver disease. We also confirmed via X-ray diffraction the steatotic vesicles in the diseased hepatocytes of our high-fat diet NG37 mice was composed of cholesteryl derivatives also found in human fatty liver disease. In addition to cardiac enlargement, NG37 transgenic mice on high-fat diet also exhibited highly irregular bradycardia not present in either high-fat diet nTG littermates or normal-diet transgenic litter mates.The dramatic high-fat diet-dependent symptoms (increased body weight, cardiac enlargement, fatty liver, and cardiac arrhythmias) characterized in our liver-specific NG37 overexpression mouse model identifies NG37 as a gene encoding latent lipid metabolism pathology induced only in the presence of an environmental factor relevant to human health: high-fat diet.
- Conservation in the phylum of the local homology of apolipoproteins with the thyroid hormone plasma carriers. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2016 Aug 23.
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), albumin (HSA), plus other plasmatic proteins, which include apolipoproteins, can bind and transport thyroid hormones (TH). In 1994, a 5-residue motif (Y, L/I/M, X, X, V/L/I) conserved in human TBG, TTR, HSA, and human and animal apolipoproteins was identified. Recently, we noticed that a number of residues upstream and downstream that motif are also conserved.We tested in silico the conservation of this larger motif in the many additional animal sequences of TH plasma carriers discovered after 1994. To this aim, we searched for the occurrence of the "new" motif in human and animal apolipoprotein and non-apolipoprotein TH-binding plasmatic proteins, and in a group of randomly selected proteins (2918 sequences from 56 species) not known as TH binders.Our results confirm the conservation of the "new" motif, associated with TH binding, in a total of 426 sequences analyzed (220 belonging to 169 apolipoproteins from 69 species, 206 belonging to 123 nonapolipoproteins from 54 species). Additionally, we found that within such conserved segments some differences between groups of TH plasma carriers exist. Interestingly, number and type of differences appear related to the affinity of each carrier for thyroid hormones. No occurrence of the motif was found in control proteins (alpha- and beta-tubulin, eosinophil cationic protein, endothelin-1, -2 and -3, IgG receptor, tropomyosin, Wnt inhibitory factor 1, erythropoietin, insulin and haptoglobin).Maintenance of a TH-binding domain in apolipoproteins throughout the phylum should be not less important that maintenance of the lipid binding domain.
- Artificial modification of an enzyme for construction of cross-reactive polyion complexes to fingerprint signatures of proteins and mammalian cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anal Chem 2016 Aug 22.
A novel strategy for construction of cross-reactive enzyme-based sensors have been developed based on chemical modification of lysine ε-NH3+ groups in β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) from Aspergillus oryzae with various acid anhydrides. Modification of lysine side chains markedly altered the kinetic parameters of β-Gal (KM and kcat), whereas catalytic activity remained and the tertiary structure was maintained for all modified β-Gals. The addition of cationic PEGylated polymers to reactive solutions caused the formation of polyion complexes (PICs) with marked inhibition of the modified β-Gal activity. Therefore, the obtained PICs can be used to construct cross-reactive enzyme-based sensors without any purification. With addition of each analyte protein or mammalian cell to the PIC library, the modified β-Gals were partially released from PICs, and therefore the catalytic activities showed characteristic recovery fingerprints. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of fingerprints generated by the combination of only three PICs enabled successful discrimination of 0.5 µg/mL human plasma proteins (albumin, immunoglobulin G, transferrin, fibrinogen, α1-antitrypsin, C-reactive protein), and semi-quantification of inflammatory biomarker proteins in buffer (0.3 - 8.1 µg/mL) and human serum (2 - 100 µg/mL) with comparable sensitivity for diagnosis in human blood samples. Moreover, we identified five mammalian (human, bovine, fetal bovine, horse, and rabbit) sera containing 2.5 µg/mL serum proteins, and three human cancer cell lines [A549 (lung), MG63 (bone), HuH7 (liver)] and a human mesenchymal stem cell line (UE7T-13) (1500 cells/mL) with 100% accuracy.