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amphotericin b deoxycholate [keywords]
- [Visceral leishmaniasis in patient with HIV infection]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Chilena Infectol 2013 Apr; 30(2):216-20.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sandfly bites. It causes subclinical infection and diverse clinical manifestations with cutaneous, mucosal or visceral involvement. The last one, called visceral leishmaniasis, is usually fatal without treatment and in VIH patients with deep immunosuppression, has been recognized as an opportunistic infection with a high degree of difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis. The clinical presentation was a prolonged febril syndrome with hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. The diferential diagnosis was made with lymphoma and other opportunistic infections, as mycobacteriosis. The bone marrow aspirate reveled parasite amastigotes. The patient received treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate for 14 days and 2 months after he relapsed. Then he was treated with the same drug for 21 days and after that he has been in prophylaxis for 29 months with good outcome, without any other relapse.
- Successful Treatment of Pulmonary Blastomycosis with Continuously Infused Amphotericin B Deoxycholate After Failure with Liposomal Amphotericin B (June). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Pharmacother 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVE:To describe a case of successful treatment of severe pulmonary blastomycosis with amphotericin B deoxycholate after failure of liposomal amphotericin B.
CASE SUMMARY:A 35-year-old male was exposed to damp decomposing wood while cleaning his basement. He subsequently developed a cough, malaise, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He was admitted to the hospital and intubated for worsening pulmonary symptoms. Microscopic examination of his sputum indicated Blastomyces dermatitidis. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for 6 days, but the patient's temperature reached 39.6 °C and his white blood cell (WBC) count reached 52,300/µL. Extensive consolidation of both lungs fields was observed on chest X-ray. Because of progressive clinical deterioration, the treatment was switched to amphotericin B deoxycholate by continuous infusion. That change resulted in clinical improvement, with abrupt reductions (within 48 hours) in temperature and the WBC count. By day 14 of therapy (day 8 of amphotericin B deoxycholate), the chest X-ray showed improve ment in diffuse airspace filling. After 16 days of amphotericin B treatment, intravenous followed by oral voriconazole was administered for 3 months. Eight months later the patient's strength had improved significantly, but he still had occasional episodes of shortness of breath.
DISCUSSION:The management of blastomycosis is challenging because of the lack of clinically supporting data. The gold standard for severe pulmonary blastomycosis had been amphotericin B deoxycholate; however, improved safety data with liposomal amphotericin B for other fungal infections has suggested this as an effective alternative. This report describes a patient with severe pulmonary blastomycosis failing 6 days of liposomal amphotericin B, yet he tolerated and clinically responded to continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Based on this case report and a simulated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis, continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate may be a reasonable option for enhanced efficacy and minimal toxicity in patients with blastomycosis.
CONCLUSIONS:Ours is the first case report to use continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate for the management of pulmonary blastomycosis. These results suggest that liposomal amphotericin B may not be adequate in some patients for the management of B. dermatitidis pulmonary infections.
- First molecular-based detection of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Iran. [Journal Article]
- J Infect Dev Ctries 2013; 7(5):413-6.
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which mostly occurs in the New World, is mainly associated with Leishmania braziliensis and to a lesser degree L. panamensis and L. amazonensis infections. Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is very rare in Iran in spite of high prevalence of cutaneous and visceral leishmanisis. A nine-year-old boy had cutaneous leishmaniaisis for five years involving the left side of his face; he then developed swelling and ulceration of the lip and left side buccal mucosa five months before hospital admission. He had severe swelling of the lower lip and there was ulceration and bleeding of the buccal mucosa. Direct smear revealed leishman bodies and nested PCR confirmed the presence of kinetoplast DNA of L. major in the oral mucosal specimen. The patient received amphotericin B deoxycholate 1 mg/kg/day for one month. The lip and face inflammatory reaction disappeared to nearly normal after one month of therapy. The patient was discharged with ketoconazole (5mg/kg/day) for six weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major in Iran.
- [Isolation of Scedosporium apiospermum (teleomorph: Pseudallescheria apiosperma) from an acute myeloid leukemia patient]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Mikrobiyol Bul 2013 Apr; 47(2):351-5.
Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that may lead to life-threatening infections especially in immunosuppressive individuals. In this report, S.apiospermum infection in a 62 year old male patient with acute myeloid leukemia was presented. During remission-induction chemotherapy, piperacillin-tazobactam therapy was started for febrile neutropenia. Since fever had continued, treatment was switched to imipenem and also amphotericin B deoxycholate was added to the treatment protocol. Because of allergic reaction to amphotericin B, caspofungin was started at the fifth day of neutropenic fever. Following imaging studies with high resolution computerized thorasic tomography, antifungal therapy was changed to voriconazole due to findings suggestive of invasive aspergillosis. Since galactomannan antigen was found negative at the first day of voriconazole therapy, bronchoalveolar lavage material from apical segment of the left lower lobe was cultured onto various microbiologic media. S.apiospermum (Teleomorph: Pseudallescheria apiosperma) was isolated on the fourth day of cultivation. According to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution procedure, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of voriconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B and posaconazole were found as 0.06, 2, 8 and 4 µg/ml, respectively. Since neutropenia was resolved, the patient was discharged with continued voriconazole therapy. It was concluded that antifungal susceptibility tests should be performed for Scedosporium species and the results should be compared to the clinical response. The determination of MIC breakpoints may provide useful information for the recommendation and use of optimal choices for the treatment of Scedosporium infections.
- An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response is linked to development of amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 Apr 3.
OBJECTIVES:The underlying mechanism for amphotericin B-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains poorly understood and may be immunologically mediated. We assessed whether the development of nephrotoxicity is linked to a distinct cytokine profile in patients receiving amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD).
PATIENTS AND METHODS:In 58 patients who received AmBD, circulating serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were measured at baseline, week 1 and week 2 of antifungal treatment and correlated to the development of renal impairment. The Cox proportional hazards model approach was adopted for analysis.
RESULTS:The P value was 0.026 for the overall effect of IL-6 on time to development of AKI. An increasing or non-receding IL-6 trend by week 1 of AmBD treatment (followed by a decreasing or non-receding IL-6 trend from week 1 to week 2) correlated with an increased likelihood of nephrotoxicity [hazard ratio (HR) 6.93, P value 0.005 and HR 3.46, P value 0.035, respectively]. Similarly, persistently increasing IL-8 levels were linked to a 3.84-fold increased likelihood of AKI.
CONCLUSIONS:In patients receiving AmBD, persistence of an elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu is associated with a predisposition to drug-related kidney injury.
- Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. [Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- N Engl J Med 2013 Apr 4; 368(14):1291-302.
Combination antifungal therapy (amphotericin B deoxycholate and flucytosine) is the recommended treatment for cryptococcal meningitis but has not been shown to reduce mortality, as compared with amphotericin B alone. We performed a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether combining flucytosine or high-dose fluconazole with high-dose amphotericin B improved survival at 14 and 70 days.We conducted a randomized, three-group, open-label trial of induction therapy for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. All patients received amphotericin B at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight per day; patients in group 1 were treated for 4 weeks, and those in groups 2 and 3 for 2 weeks. Patients in group 2 concurrently received flucytosine at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram per day for 2 weeks, and those in group 3 concurrently received fluconazole at a dose of 400 mg twice daily for 2 weeks.A total of 299 patients were enrolled. Fewer deaths occurred by days 14 and 70 among patients receiving amphotericin B and flucytosine than among those receiving amphotericin B alone (15 vs. 25 deaths by day 14; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 1.08; unadjusted P=0.08; and 30 vs. 44 deaths by day 70; hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.97; unadjusted P=0.04). Combination therapy with fluconazole had no significant effect on survival, as compared with monotherapy (hazard ratio for death by 14 days, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.41; P=0.42; hazard ratio for death by 70 days, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.11; P=0.13). Amphotericin B plus flucytosine was associated with significantly increased rates of yeast clearance from cerebrospinal fluid (-0.42 log10 colony-forming units [CFU] per milliliter per day vs. -0.31 and -0.32 log10 CFU per milliliter per day in groups 1 and 3, respectively; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of adverse events were similar in all groups, although neutropenia was more frequent in patients receiving a combination therapy.Amphotericin B plus flucytosine, as compared with amphotericin B alone, is associated with improved survival among patients with cryptococcal meningitis. A survival benefit of amphotericin B plus fluconazole was not found. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and the British Infection Society; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN95123928.).
- Colonic involvement in disseminated histoplasmosis of an immunocompetent adult: case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- BMC Infect Dis 2013.:143.
Histoplasmosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that is observed almost exclusively in immunodeficient patients, especially those with AIDS. Immunocompetent individuals that suffer from histoplasmosis are rarely reported, especially those with disseminated lesions, such as disseminated histoplasmosis. The observation of disseminated histoplasmosis with prominent gastrointestinal involvement, no respiratory symptoms (which is presumed to be the portal of infection), gastrointestinal pathological changes, and minor digestive system disorders make this case study exceedingly rare.We report the case of a 33-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with fever and weight loss. Based on investigations, the patient showed pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow involvement and marked colonic involvement. Finally, disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed and confirmed by stained smears of fine needle aspirates and biopsy from lesions in the bone marrow and colon. The patient showed appreciable regression of lesions following prompt treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate, and was treated thereafter with oral itraconazole following discharge from hospital.Disseminated histoplasmosis could be underestimated in immunocompetent patients. A high degree of clinical suspicion is essential in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, regardless of pulmonary symptoms, and whether in endemic or non-endemic areas. Early and accurate diagnosis is extremely important for the appropriate treatment of infection and to improve disease outcome.
- Time to initiation of antifungal therapy for neonatal candidiasis. [Journal Article]
- Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 Jun; 57(6):2550-5.
The effect of delayed antifungal therapy in critically ill infants with invasive candidiasis has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of time to initiation of antifungal therapy (TIA) on mortality, disseminated disease, and postinfection hospital stay. We conducted a cohort study of critically ill infants with cultures positive for Candida from 1990 to 2008. TIA was defined as the number of hours from the collection of the first positive culture until the start of antifungal therapy. Of 96 infants, 57% were male, the median gestational age was 27 weeks (range, 23 to 41 weeks), and the median birth weight was 956 g (range, 415 to 6,191 g). Most subjects received amphotericin B deoxycholate. TIA was ≤24 h for 35% of infants, between 25 and 48 h for 42%, and >48 h for 23%. Eleven subjects died during hospitalization, and 22% had disseminated candidiasis. The median duration of hospital stay postinfection was 53 days (range, 6 to 217 days). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that TIA was not associated with mortality, disseminated disease, or hospital stay postinfection. However, ventilator use for >60 days significantly increased the risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 66.7; P = 0.002). Prolonged candidemia increased the risk of disseminated disease by 10% per day of positive culture (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.2; P = 0.007), and low gestational age was associated with increased neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay after the first positive Candida culture by 0.94 weeks (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.98; P < 0.001). The TIA was not associated with all-cause mortality, disseminated candidiasis, and postinfection length of hospital stay.
- Amphotericin B deoxycholate for candidiasis in intensive care unit patients revisited: medical, ethical, and financial implications. [Letter]
- Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013 Mar 15; 187(6):661-3.
- Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013 Mar; 88(3):407-8.